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V vO87ZELO 19 



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in 2008 with funding from 
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation 

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fT. BE. PAGE, ¢.H., Lirrip. 
TE. CAPPS, PuH.p., LL.D. + W. Η. Ὁ. ROUSE, rirt.p. 
L. A. POST, t.u.p. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., F.R.HIST.SOC. 


saleais aot ate | eae . 






is First printed 1928 
/ | Reprinted 1944, 1954, 1961 



Printed in Great Britain 


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1.1 Exedy) ἡ Εὔβοια παρὰ πᾶσαν τὴν παραλίαν 
ταύτην παραβέβληται τὴν ἀπὸ Σουνίου μέχρι 
Θετταλίας, πλὴν τῶν ἄκρων ἑκατέρωθεν, οἰκεῖον 
ἂν εἴη συνάψαι τοῖς εἰρημένοις τὰ περὶ τὴν νῆσον, 
εἶθ᾽ οὕτω μεταβῆναι πρός τε τὰ Αἰτωλικὰ καὶ 
τὰ ᾿Ακαρνανικά, ἅπερ λοιπά ἐστι τῶν τῆς Εὐρώπης 

2. ]ἸΠαραμήκης μὲν τοίνυν ἐστὶν ἡ νῆσος ἐπὶ 
χιλίους σχεδόν τι καὶ διακοσίους σταδίους ἀπὸ 
Κηναίου πρὸς Γεραιστόν, τὸ δὲ πλάτος ἀνώμαλος 
κατὰ δὲ τὸ πλέον ὅσον πεντήκοντα καὶ ἑκατὸν 
σταδίων. τὸ μὲν οὖν Κήναιόν ἐστι κατὰ Θερμο- 
πύλας καὶ τὰ ἔξω Θερμοπυλῶν ἐπ᾽ ὀλίγον, 
Γεραιστὸς δὲ καὶ ἸΠεταλία πρὸς Σουνίῳ. γίνεται 
οὖν ἀντίπορθμος τῇ τε ᾿Αττικῇ καὶ Βοιωτίᾳ καὶ 
Λοκρίδι καὶ τοῖς Μαλιεῦσι. διὰ δὲ τὴν στενό- 
τητα καὶ τὸ λεχθὲν μῆκος ὑπὸ τῶν παλαιῶν 

C 445 Μάκρις ὠνομάσθη. συνάπτει δὲ τῇ ἠπείρῳ κατὰ 
Χαλκίδα μαλιστα, κυρτὴ προπίπτουσα πρὸς τοὺς 
κατὰ τὴν Αὐλίδα τόπους τῆς Βοιωτίας καὶ 

1 The Paris MS. No. 1397 (A) ends with Book ix (see 
Vol. I., p. xxxii). 




1. Since Euboea lies parallel to the whole of the 
coast from Sunium to Thessaly, with the exception 
of the ends on either side,! it would be appropriate 
to connect my description of the island with that of 
the parts already described before passing on to 
Aetolia and Acarnania, which are the remaining 
parts of Europe to be described. 

2. In its length, then, the island extends parallel 
to the coast for a distance of about one thousand two 
hundred stadia from Cenaeum to Geraestus, but its 
breadth is irregular and generally only about one 
hundred and fifty stadia. Now Cenaeum lies op- 
posite to Thermopylae and, to a slight extent, to the 
region outside Thermopylae, whereas Geraestus and 
Petalia lie towards Sunium. Accordingly, the island 
lies across the strait and opposite Attica, Boeotia, 
Locris,and the Malians. Because of its narrowness and 
of the above-mentioned length, it was named Macris 3 
by the ancients. It approaches closest to the main- 
land at Chalcis, where it juts out in a convex curve 
towards the region of Aulis in Boeotia and forms the 

1 7.e, the promontories of Thermopylae and Sunium, which 
lie beyond the corresponding extremities of Huboea— 
Cenaeum and Geraestus. 

* 2,6. ‘“‘ Long” Island (see Map VIII, end of Vol. IV). 


ποιοῦσα τὸν Εὔριπον, περὶ οὗ διὰ πλειόνων 
εἰρήκαμεν, σχεδὸν δέ τι καὶ περὶ τῶν ἀντιπόρθμων 
ἀλλήλοις τόπων κατά τε τὴν ἤπειρον καὶ κατὰ 
τὴν νῆσον ἐφ᾽ ἑκάτερα τοῦ Evpimov, τά τε ἐντὸς 
καὶ τὰ ἐκτός. εἰ δέ τι ἐλλέλειπται, νῦν προσ- 
διασαφήσομεν. καὶ πρῶτον, ὅτι τῆς Εὐβοίας τὰ 
Κοῖλα λέγουσι τὰ μεταξὺ Αὐλίδος 1 καὶ τῶν TELL 
Γεραιστὸν τόπων' κολποῦται 3 γὰρ ἡ παραλία, 
πλησιάζουσα δὲ τῇ Χαλκίδι κυρτοῦται πάλιν πρὸς 
τὴν ἤπειρον. 

3. Ov μόνον δὲ Maxpis ἐκλήθη ἡ ἡ νῆσος, ἀλλὰ 
καὶ ᾿Αβαντίς. Εὔβοιαν γοῦν εἰπὼν ὁ ποιητὴς 
τοὺς ἀπ᾿ αὐτῆς Εὐβοέας οὐδέποτε εἴρηκεν, ἀλλ᾽ 
"ABavtas ἀεί: 

of δ᾽ Εὔβοιαν ἔχον μένεα πνείοντες ΓΑβαντες. 
τῷ δ᾽ ἅμ᾽ ΓΑβαντες ἕποντο. 

φησὶ & πτετὰοσοι ἐξ Αβας τῆς Φωκικῆς 
Θρᾷκας ὁρμηθέντας ἐποικῆσαι τὴν νῆσον καὶ 
ἐπονομάσαι ΓΑβαντας τοὺς ἔχοντας αὐτήν" οἱ δ᾽ 
ἀπὸ ἥρωός φασι, καθάπερ καὶ Εὔβοιαν ἀπὸ 
ἡρωίνης. τάχα δ᾽ ὥσπερ Βοὸς αὐλὴ λέγεταί τι 
ἄντρον ἐν τῇ πρὸς Αἰγαῖον τετραμμένῃ παραλίᾳ, 
ὅπου τὴν ᾿Ιώ φασι τεκεῖν "ἕπαφον, καὶ ἡ νῆσος 

1 Αὐλίδος, Du Theil, Corais, and Groskurd would emend to 

2 For κολποῦται, Jones conjectures κοιλοῦται, to correspond 
with Κοῖλα. 

Lael ΘΕ Τα 

2 ** Inside ” means the lower or south-eastern region, ‘‘out- 
side” the upper or north-western. 

3 Elephenor, 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 1. 2-3 

Euripus. Concerning the Euripus I have already 
spoken rather at length,! as also to a certain extent 
concerning the places which lie opposite one another 
across the strait, both on the mainland and on the 
island, on either side of the Euripus, that is, the 
regions both inside and outside? the Euripus. But 
if anything has been left out, I shall now explain 
more fully. And first, let me explain that the parts 
between Aulis and the region of Geraestus are called 
the Hollows of Euboea; for the coast bends inwards, 
but when it approaches Chalcis it forms a convex 
curve again towards the mainland. 

3. The island was called, not only Macris, but also 
Abantis ; at any rate, the poet, although he names 
Euboea, never names its inhabitants ‘“ Euboeans,”’ 
but always “Abantes’’: “ And those who held 
Euboea, the courage-breathing Abantes . . .. And 
with him? followed the Abantes.’’+ Aristotle ® says 
that Thracians, setting out from the Phocian Aba, 
recolonised the island and renamed those who held 
it “ Abantes.”’ Others derive the name from a hero,® 
just as they derive “ Euboea”’ from a heroine? But 
it may be, just as a certain cave on the coast which 
fronts the Aegaean, where Io is said to have given 
birth to Epaphus, is called Boos Aulé,’ that the 

* Tliad 2. 536, 542. 

5 Aristotle of Chalcis wrote a work on Euboea, but it is no 
longer extant. He seems to have flourished in the fourth 
century B.C. 

6 Abas, founder of Aba, who later conquered Euboea and 
reigned over it (Stephanus Byzantinus, s.vv. “ABai and 

7 On the heroine ‘‘ Euboea,” see Pauly-Wissowa, 8.0. 
« Kuboea” (4), 

8. Cow’s Stall. 


απὸ τῆς αὐτῆς αἰτίας ἔσχε τοῦτο τοὔνομα. καὶ 
Ὄχη δὲ ἐκαλεῖτο ἡ νῆσος καὶ ἔστιν ὁμώνυμον 
αὐτῇ τὸ μέγιστον τῶν ἐνταῦθα ὀρῶν. καὶ ᾽Ἐλ- 
a . > / , \ » fal »Μ 
λοπία δ᾽ ὠνομάσθη ἀπὸ ᾿Ελλοπος τοῦ '[ωνος" 
- ͵ ΄ a \ 
οἱ δὲ ᾿Αἴκλου 1 καὶ Κόθου ἀδελφόν φασιν, ὃς καὶ 
Ἁ ᾿ /, [4 / / > fol 
τὴν ᾿λλοπίαν κτίσαι λέγεται, χωρίον ἐν TH 
fol c ΄ \ -“ 
᾿Ωρίᾳ καλουμένῃ τῆς “Ἱστιαιώτιδος πρὸς τῷ 
Τελεθρίῳ ὄρει, καὶ τὴν ᾿ἱστίαιαν προσκτήσασθαι 
καὶ τὴν ἹΠεριάδα 5 καὶ Κήρινθον καὶ Αἰδηψὸν ὃ 
\ > ’ > e “-“ io > , 
καὶ "OpoBias, ἐν ᾧ μαντεῖον ἦν ἀψευδέστατον" 
= \ A Nagaasies , ? , 
ἦν δὲ μαντεῖον καὶ τοῦ Σελινουντίου ᾿Απόλλωνος" 
/ > > 4 \ « Δ 6 cal 5 
μετῴκησαν © εἰς 3 τὴν ‘Iotiacay οἱ ᾿Ελλοπιεῖς, 
\ Ξ » \ , , ra ͵7 
καὶ ηὔξησαν τὴν πόλιν Φιλιστίδου τοῦ τυράννου 
/ \ / > 
βιασαμένου μετὰ τὰ Λευκτρικά. Δημοσθένης δ᾽ 
΄ ῳ an 
ὑπὸ Φιλίππου κατασταθῆναι τύραννόν φησι καὶ 
a cal \ 
τῶν ᾿Ωρειτῶν tov Φιλιστίδην: οὕτω yap ὠνο- 
a \ 
μάσθησαν ὕστερον οἱ ὑἹἹστιαιεῖς, καὶ ἡ πόλις ἀντὶ 
€ / > / ΝΜ δ᾽ e ves / > 
Ἱστιαίας ᾿Ωρεός" ἔνιοι δ᾽ ὑπ᾽ ᾿Αθηναίων ἀποικισ- 
θῆναί φασι τὴν Ἱστίαιαν ἀπὸ τοῦ δήμου τοῦ 
« -“ 
Ἱστιαιέων, ὡς καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ ᾿Βρετριέων τὴν 
> / , / / 
Ἐρέτριαν. Θεόπομπος δέ φησι, Περικλέους 
« “ > 4 
χειρουμένου Εὔβοιαν, τοὺς ᾿Ἱστιαιεῖς καθ᾽ ὁμο- 
i “- ’, 
λογίας εἰς Μακεδονίαν μεταστῆναι, δισχιλίους 
» 3 ᾽ / > / \ > \ > lol 
δ᾽ ἐξ ᾿Αθηναίων ἐλθόντας τὸν ᾿Ωρεὸν οἰκῆσαι, 
fol » lal «ς / 
δῆμον ὄντα πρότερον τῶν latiaréwv. 
4. Κεῖται & ὑπὸ τῷ Τελεθρίῳ ὄρει ἐν τῷ 
Ὁ 4 θ lal , Ν Ν / \ 
46 Δρυμῷ καλουμένῳ παρὰ tov Κάλλαντα ποταμὸν 

1 ᾿Αἴκλου BDEghlnopu, ᾿Αέκλου ψ, ᾿Αβίκλου k. 

2 Meineke emends Περιάδα (otherwise unknown) to πεδίαδα. 
3. Αἰδηψόν, Xylander, for Ἐδηψόν ; so the later editors. 

4 δ᾽ eis, Corais, for δέ ; so the later editors. 

5 ’EAAomeis, T'zschucke, for ’EAAomeis ; so the later editors. 

GEOGRAPHY, το. 1. 3-4 

island got the name Euboea! from the same cause. 
The island was also called Oché ; and the largest of 
its mountains bears the same name. And it was also 
named Ellopia, after Ellops the son of Ion. Some 
say that he was the brother of Aiclus and Cothus; 
and he is also said to have founded Ellopia, a place 
in Oria, as it is called, in Histiaeotis? near the 
mountain Telethrius, and to have added to his 
dominions Histiaea, Perias, Cerinthus, Aedepsus, and 
Orobia; in this last place was an oracle most averse 
to falsehood (it was an oracle of Apollo Selinuntius). 
The Ellopians migrated to Histiaea and enlarged 
the city, being forced to do so by Philistides the 
tyrant, after the battle of Leuctra. Demosthenes 
says that Philistides was set up by Philip as tyrant 
of the Oreitae too;? for thus in later times the 
Histiaeans were named, and the city was named 
Oreus instead of Histiaea. But according to some 
writers, Histiaea was colonised by Athenians from 
the deme of the Histiaeans, as Eretria was colonised 
from that of the Eretrians. Theopompus says that 
when Pericles overpowered Euboea the Histiaeans 
by agreement migrated to Macedonia, and that two 
thousand Athenians who formerly composed the 
deme of the Histiaeans came and took up their 
abode in Oreus. 

4. Oreus is situated at the foot of the mountain 
Telethrius in the Drymus,’ as it is called, on the 
River Callas, upon a high rock; and hence, perhaps, 

1 je. from the Greek words ‘‘eu” (well) and ‘‘bous” 

2 Or Hestiaeotis (see 9. 5. 3 and foot-note 2). 

3 Third Philippic 32 (119 Reiske). 

* ** Woodland.” 


> A / ΄ r A ͵ \ \ \ A 
ἐπὶ πέτρας ὑψηλῆς, ὥστε τάχα Kal διὰ TO τοὺς 
᾿Ελλοπιεῖς ὀρείους. εἶναι τοὺς προοικήσαντας 
ἐτέθη τοὔνομα τοῦτο τῇ πόλει: δοκεῖ δὲ καὶ ὁ 
, ΠῚ > Lo) \ ef > fol 
Ὡρίων ἐνταῦθα τραφεὶς οὕτως ὠνομασθῆναι:" 
ἔνιοι δὲ τοὺς ᾿Ωρείτας, πόλιν ἔχοντας ἰδίαν, φασὶ 
πολεμουμένους ὑπὸ τῶν ᾿Ελλοπιέων μεταβῆναι 
καὶ συνοικῆσαι τοῖς ᾿Ιστιαιεῦσι, μίαν δὲ γενηθεῖ- 
σαν πόλιν ἀμφοτέροις χρήσασθαι τοῖς ὀνόμασι, 
καθάπερ Λακεδαίμων τε καὶ Σπάρτη ἡ αὐτή. 
εἴρηται δ᾽ ὅτι καὶ ἐν Θετταλίᾳ ᾿Ἱστιαιῶτις ἀπὸ 
τῶν ἀνασπασθέντων ἐνθένδε ὑπὸ Περραιβῶν 
A ’ fol 
5. ᾿Επεὶ δ᾽ ἡ ᾿Ελλοπία τὴν ἀρχὴν ἀπὸ τῆς 
Ἱστιαίας καὶ τοῦ ᾿Ωρεοῦ προσηγάγετο ἡμᾶς 
ποιήσασθαι, τὰ συνεχῆ λέγωμεν 1 τοῖς τόποις 
τούτοις. ἔστι δ' ἐν τῷ ᾿Ωρεῷ τούτῳ TO τε 
/ 2 / 3 \‘ > > ’ lol \ r A 
Κήναιον 5 πλησίον, καὶ ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ τὸ Δῖον καὶ 
᾿Αθῆναι αἱ Διάδες, κτίσμα ᾿Αθηναίων, ὑπερκεί- 
n , \ Ko 4 θ πὸ, > δὲ a5 Δί 
μενον τοῦ ἐπὶ Κῦνον ὁ πορθμοῦ" ἐκ δὲ τοῦ Δίου 
/ fol > (ὃ >’ ,ὔ 6 Lal / or 
Κάναι τῆς Αἰολίδος ἀπῳκίσθησαν" δ ταῦτά τε δὴ 
Ta χωρία περὶ τὴν ἹἹστίαιάν ἐστι καὶ ἔτι 
- \ 
Κήρινθος πολείδιον ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάττῃ" ἐγγὺς δὲ 
Βούδορος ποταμὸς ὁμώνυμος τῷ κατὰ τὴν Σαλαμῖνα 
ὄρει τῷ πρὸς τῇ ᾿Αττικῇ. 
’ / 3 e A fal Μ aw 
6. Κάρυστος δέ ἐστιν ὑπὸ τῷ ὄρει TH Oxn. 
πλησίον δὲ τὰ Στύρα καὶ τὸ Μαρμάριον, ἐν ᾧ 
\ nr ΄ \ 
τὸ λατύμιον τῶν Καρυστίων κιόνων, ἱερὸν ἔχον 


1 λέγωμεν, Corais, for λέγομεν ; so the later editors. 

2 Κήναιον, Hopper, for KAewatoy and Κλιναῖον ; so the later 

3 πλησίον, E omits; so Kramer and Miiller-Dibner. 

4 Κῦνον, Tzschucke, for Καῦνον ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 1. 4-6 

it was because the Ellopians who formerly inhabited 
it were mountaineers that the name Oreus! was 
assigned to the city. It is also thought that Orion 
was so named because he was reared there. Some 
writers say that the Oreitae had a city of their own, 
but because the Ellopians were making war on them 
they migrated and took up their abode with the 
Histiaeans; and that, although they became one 
city, they used both names, just as the same city is 
called both Lacedaemon and Sparta. As I have 
already said,? Histiaeotisin Thessaly was also named 
after the Histiaeans who were carried off from here 
into the mainland by the Perrhaebians. 

5. Since Ellopia induced me to begin my de- 
scription with Histiaea and Oreus, let me speak of 
the parts which border on these places.» In’ the 
territory of this Oreus lies, not only Cenaeum, near 
Oreus, but also, near Cenaeum, Dium ὃ and Athenae 
Diades, the latter founded by the Athenians and 
lying above that part of the strait where passage is 
taken across to Cynus; and Canae in Aeolis was 
colonised from Dium. Now these places are in the 
neighbourhood of Histiaea; and so is Cerinthus, a 
small city by the sea; and near it is the Budorus 
River, which bears the same name as the mountain 
in Salamis which is close to Attica. 

6. Carystus is at the foot of the mountain Oché ; 
and near it are Styra and Marmarium, in which latter 
are the quarry of the Carystian columns# and a 

1 2.6. from ‘‘ oreius” (mountaineer). aA OS Si. 
3 Mentioned in /liad 2. 538. 4 See 9, 5. 16. 

5 τῆς B(rov in sec. man. above tHs)CDghiuv. 
8 ἀπῳκίσθησαν D, ἐπῳκίσθησαν other MSS, 7. ὄχθῃ Cglnoy. 



᾿Απόλλωνος Μαρμαρίνονυ, ὅθεν διάπλους εἰς ᾿Αλὰς 
τὰς ᾿Αραφηνίδας"" ἐν δὲ τῇ Καρύστῳ καὶ ἡ 
λίθος ποι ἡ ξαινομένη 3 καὶ ὑφαινομένη, ὥστε 
τὰ ὕφη ὃ χειρόμακτρα γίνεσθαι, ῥυπωθέντα δ᾽ εἰς 
φλόγα βάλλεσθαι καὶ ἀποκαθαίρεσθαι τῇ πλύσει 
τῶν λίνων * παραπλησίως" ὠκίσθαι δὲ τὰ χωρία 
ταῦτά φασιν ὑπὸ τῶν ἐκ Τετραπόλεως τῆς περὶ 
Μαραθῶνα καὶ Στειριέων" ὃ κατεστράφη δὲ τὰ 
Στύρα ἐν τῷ Μαλιακῴῷῴ πολέμῳ ὑπὸ Φαίδρου, 
τοῦ ᾿Αθηναίων στρατηγοῦ" τὴν δὲ χώραν ἔχουσιι 
᾿Ερετριεῖς. Κάρυστος δέ ἐστι καὶ ἐν τῇ Λακω- 
νικῇ τόπος τῆς Αἴγυος πρὸς ᾿Αρκαδίαν, ἀφ᾽ οὗ 
Καρύστιον οἶνον ᾿Αλκμὰν εἴρηκε. 

% ΓΡεραιστὸς δ᾽ ἐν μὲν τῷ Καταλόγῳ τῶν 
νεῶν οὐκ εἴρηται, μέμνηται δ᾽ ὁ ποιητὴς ὅμως 

ἐς δὲ Γεραιστόν 
ἐννύχιοι κατάγοντο" 

καὶ δηλοῖ, διότι τοῖς διαίρουσιν ἐκ τῆς ᾿Ασίας 
εἰς τὴν ᾿Αττικὴν ἐπικαιρίως κεῖται τῷ Σουνίῳ 
πλησίαξον τὸ χωρίον" ἔχει δ᾽ ἱερὸν Ποσειδῶνος 
ἐπισημότατον τῶν ταύτῃ καὶ κατοικίαν ἀξιόλογον. 

8. Μετὰ δὲ τὸν Γεραιστὸν ᾿Ερέτρια, πόλις 
μεγίστη τῆς Εὐβοίας μετὰ Χαλκίδα, ἔπειθ᾽ ἡ 
Χαλκὶς μητρόπολις τῆς νήσου τρόπον τινά, ἐπ᾽ 
αὐτῷ τῷ Εὐρίπῳ ἱδουμένη: ἀμφότεραι δὲ πρὸ 

τ "Apagpnvidas, Xylander, following D pr. man., for ’Apa- 
gnvias ; so the later editors. 
2 On an interpolation after ξαινομένη in the Ald. Ed., see 
Miller's Ind. Var. Lect, p. 1007, 
3 ὑφάσματα kno Ald, 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 1. 6-8 

temple of Apollo Marmarinus ; and from here there 
is a passage across the strait to Halae Araphenides. 
In Carystus is produced also the stone which is 
combed and woven,! so that the woven material is 
made into towels, and, when these are soiled, they 
are thrown into fire and cleansed, just as linens are 
cleansed by washing. These places are said to have 
been settled by colonists from the Marathonian 
Tetrapolis? and by Steirians. Styra was destroyed in 
the Malian war by Phaedrus, the general of the 
Athenians; but the country is held by the Eretrians. 
There is also a Carystus in the Laconian country, a 
place belonging to Aegys, towards Arcadia; whence 
the Carystian wine of which Aleman speaks. 

1. Geraestus is not named in the Catalogue of 
Ships, but still the poet mentions it elsewhere: “and 
at night they landed at Geraestus,”’3 And he plainly 
indicates that the place is conveniently situated for 
those who are sailing across from Asia to Attica, 
since it comes near to Sunium. It has a temple of 
Poseidon, the most notable of those in that part of 
the world, and also a noteworthy settlement. 

8. After Geraestus one comes to Eretria, the 
greatest city in Euboea except Chalcis; and then to 
Chalecis, which in a way is the metropolis of the 
island, being situated on the Euripus itself. Both 

1 i.e. asbestos. 2 See 8. 7. 1. 
ΘΕΌ τῶν 17: 

4 τῶν λίνων Epit., for τὸν πίνον (filth) ; and so the editors 
in general. 

® Στειριέων, Palmer, for Στυρίεων Dhi, Στυριαίων BCklnox ; 
so the later editors. 

5 Μαλιακῷ, Meineke, following conj. of Casaubon, emends 
to Λαμιακῷ. Perhaps rightly, but evidence is lacking. 



(447 τῶν Τρωικῶν ὑπ᾽ ᾿Αθηναίων ἐκτίσθαι λέγονται, 
καὶ μετὰ τὰ Τρωικὰ ᾿Αἴκλος καὶ Κόθος, ἐξ 
᾿Αθηνῶν ὁρμηθέντες, ὁ μὲν τὴν ᾿Βρέτριαν ὦκισε, 
Κόθος δὲ τὴν Χαλκίδα" καὶ τῶν Αἰολέων δέ 
τίνες ἀπὸ τῆς Πενθίλου στρατιᾶς κατέμειναν ἐν 
τῇ νήσῳ, τὸ δὲ παλαιὸν καὶ Ἄραβες οἱ Κάδμῳ 
συνδιαβάντες. αἱ δ᾽ οὖν πόλεις αὗται διαφε- 
ρόντως αὐξηθεῖσαι καὶ ἀποικίας ἔστειλαν ἀξιο- 
λόγους εἰς Μακεδονίαν" ᾿Ερέτρια μὲν γὰρ συνῴκισε 
τὰς περὶ Παλλήνην καὶ τὸν “Ado πόλεις, ἡ δὲ 
Χαλκὶς τὰς ὑπὸ ᾿Ολύνθῳ, ἃς Φίλιππος διελυμή- 
νατο. καὶ τῆς ᾿Ιταλίας δὲ καὶ Σικελίας πολλὰ 
χωρία > Χαλκιδέων ἐστίν" ἐστάλησαν δὲ αἱ ἀποικίαι 
αὗται, καθάπερ εἴρηκεν ᾿Αριστοτέλης, ἡνίκα ἡ 
τῶν ᾿Ἱπποβοτῶν καλουμένη ἐπεκράτει πολιτεία" 
προέστησαν γὰρ αὐτῆς ἀπὸ τιμημάτων ἄνδρες 
ἀριστοκρατικῶς ἄρχοντες. κατὰ δὲ τὴν ᾿Αλεξάν- 
dpov διάβασιν καὶ τὸν περίβολον τῆς πόλεως 
ηὔξησαν, ἐντὸς τείχους λαβόντες TOV τε Κάνηθον 
Kal τὸν Εὔριπον, ἐπιστήσαντες τῇ γεφύρᾳ πύργους 
καὶ πύλας καὶ τεῖχος. 

9. Ὑπέρκειται δὲ τῆς τῶν Χαλκιδέων πόλεως 
τὸ Λήλαντον καλούμενον πεδίον. ἐν δὲ τούτῳ 
θερμῶν τε ὑδάτων εἰσὶν ἐκβολαὶ πρὸς θεραπείαν 
νόσων εὐφυεῖς, οἷς ἐχρήσατο καὶ Σύλλας Κορνή- 
λίος, ὁ τῶν Ῥωμαίων ἡγεμών, καὶ μέταλλον δ᾽ 
ὑπῆρχε θαυμαστὸν χαλκοῦ καὶ σιδήρου κοινόν, 
ὅπερ οὐχ ἱστοροῦσιν ἀλλαχοῦ συμβαῖνον" νυνὶ 
μέντοι ἀμφότερα ἐκλέλοιπεν, ὥσπερ καὶ ᾿Αθήνησι 

1 Son of Orestes (13. 1. 3). 
See note on Aristotle, 10. 1. 3, 3 «* Knights,” 


GEOGRAPHY, to. 1. 8-9 

are said to have been founded by the Athenians be- 
fore the Trojan War. And after the Trojan War, 
Aiclus and Cothus, setting out from Athens, settled 
inhabitants in them, the former in Eretria and the 
latter in Chalcis. There were also some Aeolians 
from the army of Penthilus! who remained in the 
island, and, in ancient times, some Arabians who 
had crossed over with Cadmus. Be this as it may, 
these cities grew exceptionally strong and even 
sent forth noteworthy colonies into Macedonia; 
for Eretria colonised the cities situated round Pal- 
lené and Athos, and Chalcis colonised the cities 
that were subject to Olynthus, which later were 
treated outrageously by Philip. And many places 
in Italy and Sicily are also Chalcidian. These 
colonies were sent out, as Aristotle 2 states, when the 
government of the Hippobotae, as it is called, was 
in power; for at the head of it were men chosen 
according to the value of their property, who ruled 
in an aristocratic manner. At the time of Alex- 
ander’s passage across,* the Chalcidians enlarged the 
circuit of the walls of their city, taking inside them 
both Canethus and the Euripus, and fortifying the 
bridge with towers and gates and a wall.® 

9. Above the city of the Chalcidians lies the so- 
called Lelantine Plain. In this plain are fountains of 
hot water suited to the cure of diseases, which were 
used by Cornelius Sulla, the Roman commander. 
And in this plain was also a remarkable mine which 
contained copper and iron together, a thing which is 
not reported as occurring elsewhere ; now, however, 
both metals have given out, as in the case of the 

4 Across the Hellespont to Asia, 334 B.0. 
5 Cf. 9. 2. 8 and foot-notes. 


C 448 


> “ 1 v δὲ \ . A ec Ep 
τἀργυρεῖα.} ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἅπασα μὲν ἡ Εὔβοια 

εὔσειστος, μάλιστα δ᾽ ἡ περὶ τὸν πορθμόν, καὶ 
δεχομένη πνευμάτων ὑποφοράς, καθώπερ καὶ ἡ 
Βοιωτία καὶ ἄλλοι τόποι, περὶ ὧν ἐμνήσθημεν 
/ rt 

διὰ πλειόνων πρότερον. ὑπὸ τοιοῦδε πάθους Kal 
ἡ ὁμώνυμος τῇ νήσῳ πόλις καταποθῆναι λέγεται, 
ie , \ > ΄ 5 “ ΄, ΄ 

ἧς μέμνηται καὶ Αἰσχύλος ἐν τῷ Llovtiw Τλαύκῳ: 

Εὐβοΐδα καμπτὴν 2 ἀμφὶ Κηναίου Διὸς 
ἀκτήν, κατ᾿ αὐτὸν τύμβον ἀθλίου Λίχα. 

Χαλκὶς δ᾽ ὁμωνύμως λέγεται καὶ ἐν Αἰτωλίᾳ" 
Χαλκίδα τ᾽ ἀγχίαλον, Καλυδῶνά τε πετρήεσσαν' 
καὶ ἐν τῇ νῦν ‘Hela: 
βὰν δὲ παρὰ Κρουνοὺς καὶ Χαλκίδα πετρήεσσαν 

οἱ περὶ Τηλέμαχον ἀπιόντες παρὰ Νέστορος εἰς 
τὴν οἰκείαν. 

10. ᾿Βρέτριαν 3 δ᾽ οἱ μὲν ἀπὸ Μακίστου τῆς 
Τριφυλίας ἀποικισθῆναί φασιν ὑπ᾽ ᾿Κρετριέως, 
οἱ δ᾽ ἀπὸ τῆς ᾿Αθήνησιν ᾿ρετρίας, ἣ νῦν ἐστὶν 
ἀγορά: ἔστι δὲ καὶ περὶ Φάρσαλον ᾿Ερέτρια. ἐν 
δὲ τῇ “Epetpixn πόλις ἦν Ταμύναι, ἱερὰ τοῦ 
᾿Απόλλωνος" ᾿Αδμήτου & ἵδρυμα λέγεται τὸ ἱε- 
ρόν, παρ᾽ ᾧ θητεῦσαι λέγουσι τὸν θεὸν ἐνιαυτόν," 
πλησίον τοῦ πορθμοῦ: “Μελανηὶς δ᾽ ἐκαλεῖτο 
πρότερον ἡ ᾿Ερέτρια καὶ ᾿Αρότρια' ταύτης δ᾽ 
ἐστὶ κώμη ἡ ᾿Αμάρυνθος ἀφ᾽ ἑπτὰ σταδίων τοῦ 

1 ὥσπερ. .. τἀργυρεῖα, preserved only in the Zpit., and 

inserted by Groskurd and Meineke. 
2 καμπτήν Bkl Ald., instead of καμπήν ; so Meineke. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 1. 9-10 

silver mines at Athens. The whole of Euboea is 
much subject to earthquakes, but particularly the 
part near the strait, which is also subject to blasts 
through subterranean passages, as are Boeotia and 
other places which I have already described rather 
at length.1 And it is said that the city which bore 
the same name as the island was swallowed up by 
reason of a disturbance of this kind. This city is 
also mentioned by Aeschylus in his Glaucus Pontius : 3 
** Kubois, about the bending shore of Zeus Cenaeus, 
near the very tomb of wretched Lichas.’”’ In Aetolia, 
also, there is a place called by the same name Chalcis : 
‘and Chalcis near the sea, and rocky Calydon,” ὅ 
and in the present Eleian country: “and they went 
past Cruni and rocky Chalcis,” * that is, Telemachus 
and his companions, when they were on their way 
back from Nestor’s to their homeland. 

10. As for Eretria, some say that it was colonised 
from Triphylian Macistus by Eretrieus, but others 
say from the Eretria at Athens, which now is a 
market-place. There is also an Eretria near Phar- 
salus. In the Eretrian territory there was a city 
Tamynae, sacred to Apollo; and the temple, which 
is near the strait, is said to have been founded by 
Admetus, at whose house the god served as an 
hireling for a year. In earlier times Eretria was 
called Melaneis and Arotria. The village Amaryn- 
thus, which is seven stadia distant from the walls, 

TOUS S35 16. 2 Frag. 30 (Nauck). 
8 Iliad 2. 640. “ Od. 15. 255. 

3 "Ἐρετρίας BCDhikino; ᾿Ερετριέας x (?) and the editors 
before Kramer. 

4 ἐνιαυτόν, Miller-Diibner, from conj. of Meineke, for 




, S \ Φ > , / / 
τείχους. τὴν μὲν οὖν ἀρχαίαν πόλιν κατέσκαψαν 
«ς ΄, ’ 
Πέρσαι, caynvevoavtes, ὥς φησιν Ἡρόδοτος, τοὺς 
ἀνθρώπους τῷ πλήθει, περιχυθέντων τῶν βαρ- 
βάρων τῷ τείχει (καὶ δεικνύουσιν ἔτι τοὺς θεμε- 
λίους, καλοῦσι δὲ παλαιὰν ᾿Βρέτριαν), ἡ δὲ νῦν 
ΣΕ \ A ΄ \ ? ΄ a 
ἐπέκτισται. τὴν δὲ δύναμιν τὴν ᾿Ερετριέων, ἣν 
ἔσχον ποτέ, μαρτυρεῖ ἡ στήλη, ἣν ἀνέθεσάν ποτε 
“ lal A ᾽ ’ / / ‘ 
ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ τῆς ᾿Αμαρυνθίας ᾿Αρτέμιδος: γέγραπται 
fal / ΄ , , 
δ᾽ ἐν αὐτῇ, τρισχιλίοις μὲν ὁπλίταις, ἑξακοσίοις 
᾽ ἴω ᾽ “ 
δ᾽ ἱππεῦσιν, ἑξήκοντα δ᾽ ἅρμασι ποιεῖν τὴν 
/ > fol \ \ ? A \ , 
πομπήν" ἐπῆρχον δὲ καὶ ᾿Ανδρίων καὶ Τηνίων 
\ 4 A ” / > , > τὰν 
καὶ Κείων καὶ ἄλλων νήσων. ἐποίκους δ᾽ ἔσχον 
> , "HX ὃ ) ? e ‘ fal ΄ nr tn 
ἀπ ἰδος, ἀφ᾽ οὗ καὶ τῷ γράμματι TO PO 
-“ ΄ Ν ΄, / r 
πολλῷ χρησάμενοι, οὐκ ἐπὶ τέλει μόνον τῶν 
ῥημάτων ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν μέσῳ, κεκωμῴδηνται. ἔστι 
’ [2 ral fol / 
δὲ καὶ Οἰχαλία κώμη τῆς ᾿Ερετρικῆς, λείψανον 
fol > ’ , e X\c¢ , e ft 
τῆς ἀναιρεθείσης πόλεως ὑπὸ Ἡρακλέους, ὁμώνυ- 
lol A [4 / rn 
μος τῇ Τραχινίᾳ καὶ τῇ 1 περὶ Τρίκκην καὶ τῇ 
᾿Αρκαδικῇ, ἣν ᾿Ανδανίαν οἱ ὕστερον ἐκάλεσαν, 
καὶ τῇ ἐν Αἰτωλίᾳ περὶ τοὺς Evputavas. 
11. Nuvi μὲν οὖν ὁμολογουμένως ἡ Χαλκὶς 
φέρεται τὰ πρωτεῖα καὶ μητρόπολις αὕτη λέγεται 
lal ᾽ 
τῶν Εὐβοέων, δευτερεύει δ᾽ ἡ ᾿Ερέτρια. ἀλλὰ 
4 / “ \ 
Kal πρότερον αὗται μέγα εἶχον ἀξίωμα Kal πρὸς 

1 ἡ BCDhkinoz ; of Ald. 

1 «« Whenever they took one of the islands, the barbarians, 
as though capturing each severally, would net the people. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 1. 10-11 

belongs to this city. Now the old city was rased to 
the ground by the Persians, who “netted” the 
people, as Herodotus? says, by means of their great 
numbers, the barbarians being spread about the walls 
(the foundations are still to be seen, and the place 
is called Old Eretria); but the Eretria of to-day 
was founded on it.2 As for the power the Ere- 
trians once had, this is evidenced by the pillar 
which they once set up in the temple of Artemis 
Amarynthia. It was inscribed thereon that they 
made their festal procession with three thousand 
heavy-armed soldiers, six hundred horsemen, and 
sixty chariots. And they ruled over the peoples 
of Andros, Teos, Ceos, and other islands. They 
received new settlers from Elis; hence, since they 
frequently used the letter 7,3 not only at the end of 
words, but also in the middle, they have been 
ridiculed by comic writers. There is also a village 
Oechalia in the Eretrian territory, the remains of 
the city which was destroyed by Heracles; it bears 
the same name as the Trachinian Oechalia and that 
near Triccé, and the Arcadian Oechalia, which the 
people of later times called Andania, and that in 
Aetolia in the neighbourhood of the Eurytanians. 
11. Now at the present time Chalcis by common 
consent holds the leading position and is called the 
metropolis of the Euboeans; and Eretria is second. 
Yet even in earlier times these cities were held in 

They net them in this way: the men link hands and form a 
line extending from the northern sea to the southern, and 
then advance through the whole island hunting out the 
people” (6. 31). 

2 i.e. on a part of the old site. 

3 i.e. like the Eleians, who regularly rhotacised final s (see 
Buck, Greek Dialects, § 60). 



πόλεμον Kal πρὸς εἰρήνην, ὥστε Kal φιλοσόφοις 
ἀνδράσι παρασχεῖν διαγωγὴν ἡδεῖαν καὶ ἀθόρυβον. 
μαρτυρεῖ δ᾽ ἥ τε τῶν ᾿Βρετρικῶν φιλοσόφων 
σχολὴ τῶν περὶ Μενέδημον. ἐν τῇ ᾿Ερετρίᾳ γενο- 
μένη, καὶ ἔτι πρότερον ἡ ᾿Αριστοτέλους ἐν τῇ 
Χαλκίδι διατριβή, ὅς γε κἀκεῖ 1 κατέλυσε τὸν 

12. Τὸ μὲν οὖν πλέον ὡμολόγουν ἀλλήλαις αἱ 
πόλεις αὗται, περὶ δὲ Ληλάντου διενεχθεῖσαι 
οὐδ᾽ οὕτω τελέως ἐπαύσαντο, ὥστε τῷ πολέμῳ 
κατὰ αὐθάδειαν δρᾷν ἕκαστα, ἀλλὰ συνέθεντο, 
ἐφ᾽ οἷς συστήσονται τὸν ἀγῶνα. δηλοῖ δὲ καὶ 
τοῦτο ἐν τῷ ᾿Αμαρυνθίῳ στήλη τις, φράζουσα 

\ “" / \ \ Ἁ \ a” 
μὴ χρῆσθαι τηλεβόλοις. Ξ καὶ γὰρ δὴ καὶ τῶν 
πολεμικῶν ἐθῶν καὶ τῶν ὁπλισμῶν οὐχ ἕν 8 οὔτ᾽ 
ἐστὶν οὔτ᾽ ἣν * ἔθος: ἀλλ᾽ οἱ μὲν τηλεβόλοις 
χρῶνται, καθάπερ οἱ τοξόται καὶ οἱ σφενδονῆται 
καὶ οἱ ἀκοντισταί, οἱ δ᾽ ἀγχεμάχοις, καθάπερ οἱ 
ξίφει καὶ δόρατι τῷ ὀρεκτῷ χρώμενοι" διττὴ 1p 
ἡ τῶν δοράτων χρῆσις, ἡ μὲν ἐκ χειρός, ἡ δ᾽ 
παλτοῖς, καθάπερ καὶ ὁ κοντὸς ἀμφοτέρας τὰς 
χρείας ἀποδίδωσι: καὶ γὰρ συστάδην καὶ κον- 
τοβολούντων, ὅπερ καὶ ἡ σάρισσα δύναται καὶ ὁ 

13. O1 & Εὐβοεῖς ἀγαθοὶ πρὸς μάχην ὑπῆρξαν 
τὴν σταδίαν, ἣ καὶ συστάδην λέγεται καὶ ἐκ 

1 ὅς γε κἀκεῖ Meineke, for ὥς γε καί CDghi; ὥστε καί s; 
οὗ γε καί ka; ὅς γε Βὶ (Ὁ); ὅς γε καὶ ἐκεῖ Casaubon. 
* καὶ yap . . . ὃ baads Meineke, following conj. of Kramer, 
Rejects as an interpolation. 
3 οὐχ ἕν, Meineke, for οὐθέν CDEkz, Ald., οὔθ᾽ ἕν Ines, 

‘ ἦν is omitted by all MSS. except Εἰ 

GEOGRAPHY, το. 1. 11-13 

great esteem, not only in war, but also in peace; 
indeed, they afforded philosophers a pleasant and 
undisturbed place of abode. This is evidenced by 
the school of the Eretrian philosophers, Menedemus 
and his disciples, which was established in Eretria, 
and also, still earlier, by the sojourn of Aristotle in 
Chalcis, where he also ended his days.+ 

12. Nowin general these cities were in accord with 
one another, and when differences arose concerning 
the Lelantine Plain they did not so completely break 
off relations as to wage their wars in all respects 
according to the will of each, but they came to an 
agreement as to the conditions under which they 
were to conduct the fight. This fact, among others, 
is disclosed by a certain pillar in the Amarynthium, 
which forbids the use of long-distance missiles. ? In 
fact among all the customs of warfare and of the use 
of arms there neither is, nor has been, any single 
custom ; for some use long-distance missiles, as, for 
example, bowmen and slingers and javelin-throwers, 
whereas others use close-fighting arms, as, for 
example, those who use sword, or outstretched 
spear; for the spear is used in two ways, one in 
hand-to-hand combat and the other for hurling like 
a javelin; just as the pike serves both purposes, for 
it can be used both in close combat and as a missile 
for hurling, which is also true of the sarissa? and the 

13. The Euboeans excelled in “standing ” combat, 
which is also called “close” and “ hand-to-hand ”’ 

1 322 B.C. 

2 The rest of the paragraph is probably an interpolation ; 
see critical note. 

3 Used by the Macedonian phalanx. 

4 The Roman ‘‘ pilum.” 



χειρός. δόρασι δ᾽ ἐχρῶντο τοῖς ὀρεκτοῖς, ὥς 
φησιν ὁ ποιητής, 

σ 449 αἰχμηταὶ μεμαῶτες ὀρεκτῇσι μελίῃσι 
θώρηκας ῥήσσειν. 

> a a “ > \ 5 
ἀλλοίων ἴσως ὄντων τῶν παλτῶν, οἵαν εἰκὸς εἶναι 

\ , , “ iA ΄ , 
τὴν Πηλιάδα μελίην, ἥν, ὥς φησιν ὁ ποιητής, 

οἷος ἐπίστατο ' πῆλαι ᾿Αχιλλεύς 

Wats > i 
Kal ὁ εἰπών" 

δουρὶ δ᾽ ἀκοντίζω, ὅσον οὐκ ἄλλος τις ὀϊστῷ, 

An lel / ΄ 
τῷ παλτῷ λέγει “δόρατι. καὶ οἱ ᾿“μονομαχοῦντες 
τοῖς παλτοῖς χρώμενοι δόρασιν εἰσάγονται πρό- 
τερον, εἶτα ἐπὶ τὰ ξίφη βαδίζοντες" ἀγχέμαχοι 
δ᾽ εἰσὶν οὐχ οἱ ξίφει χρώμενοι μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ 
δόρατι ἐκ χειρός, ὥς φησιν" 

οὔτησε ξυστῷ χαλκήρει, λῦσε δὲ γυῖα. 
τοὺς μὲν οὖν Εὐβοέας τούτῳ τῷ τρόπῳ χρωμένους 
εἰσάγει, περὶ δὲ Λοκρῶν τἀναντία λέγει, ὡς 

οὔ σφιν σταδίης ὑσμίνης ἔργα μέμηλεν, 

> ’ A , \ 5». Ψ. >a. 247: 

ἀλλ᾽ ἄρα τόξοισιν καὶ evaTpodw οἰὸς ἀώτῳ 
ti ee. 

Ἴλιον εἰς ἅμ᾽ ἕποντο. 
περιφέρεται 3 δὲ καὶ χρησμὸς ἐκδοθεὶς Αἰγιεῦσιν, 

ἵππον Θεσσαλικόν,3 Λακεδαιμονίαν δὲ γυναῖκα, 

” > BY , “ ΄ ye ie ΄ 

ἄνδρας θ᾽, οἱ πίνουσιν ὕδωρ ἱερῆς ᾿Αρεθούσης, 

\ ΄ , , e > , >’ “ \ - 
τοὺς Χαλκιδέας λέγων ὡς ἀρίστους" ἐκεῖ γὰρ ἡ 

“ ¢ ea A ‘ 

14. Εἰσὶ δὲ viv Εὐβοῖται ποταμοὶ Knpevs καὶ 
Νηλεύς, ὧν ad’ οὗ μὲν πίνοντα τὰ πρόβατα 


GEOGRAPHY, to. 1. 13-14 

combat; and they used their spears outstretched, as 
the poet says: “spearmen eager with outstretched 
ashen spears to shatter corselets.’’1 Perhaps the 
javelins were of a different kind, such as probably was 
the “ Pelian ashen spear,’ which, as the poet says, 
«* Achilles alone knew how to hurl” ;? and he? who 
said, “ And the spear I hurl farther than any other 
man can shoot an arrow,’ * means the javelin- 
spear. And those who fight in single combat are 
first introduced as using javelin-spears, and then as 
resorting toswords. And close-fighters are not those 
who use the sword alone, but also the spear hand- 
to-hand, as the poet says: “he pierced him with 
bronze-tipped polished spear, and loosed his limbs.” ὃ 
Now he introduces the Euboeans as using this mode 
of fighting, but he says the contrary of the Locrians, 
that “they cared not for the toils of close combat, 
. . . but relying on bows and well-twisted slings of 
sheep's wool they followed with him to Ilium.” ὁ 
There is current, also, an oracle which was given 
out to the people of Aegium, “ Thessalian horse, 
Lacedemonian woman, and men who drink the 
water of sacred Arethusa,” meaning that the 
Chalcidians are best of all, for Arethusa is in their 

14. There are now two rivers in Euboea, the 
Cereus and the Neleus; and the sheep which drink 

1 Thiad 2. 543. 2 Iliad 19. 389. 
3 Odysseus. 4 “Od. 8. 229. 
5 Iliad 4. 469. § Thad 13. 713, 716. 

1 ἐπίστατο no; other MSS. ἐπίσταται. 
2 περ φέρεται, Corais and later editors, for παραφέρεται. 
3 Θεσσαλικήν k by correction. 


C 450 


λευκὰ γίνεται, ad’ οὗ δὲ μέλανα' Kal περὶ τὸν 
Κρᾶθιν δὲ εἴρηται τοιοῦτόν τι συμβαῖνον. 

15. Τῶν δ᾽ ἐκ Τροίας ἐπανιόντων Εὐβοέων 
τινὲς εἰς ᾿Γλλυριοὺς ἐκπεσόντες, ἄραντες ' οἴκαδε 
διὰ τῆς Μακεδονίας περὶ "Ἑδεσσαν ἔμειναν, συμπο- 
λεμήσαντες τοῖς ὑποδεξαμένοις, καὶ ἔκτισαν πόλιν 
Εὔβοιαν" ἣν δὲ καὶ ἐν Σικελίᾳ Εὔβοια, Χαλκιδέων 
τῶν ἐκεῖ κτίσμα, ἣν Γέλων ἐξανέστησε, καὶ ἐγέ- 
veTo φρούριον Συρακουσίων" καὶ ἐν Κερκύρᾳ δὲ 
καὶ ἐν Λήμνῳ τόπος ἣν Εὔβοια καὶ ἐν τῇ ᾿Αργείᾳ 
λόφος τις. 

16. ᾿Επεὶ δὲ τοῖς Θετταλοῖς καὶ Οἰταίοις τὰ 
πρὸς ἑσπέραν Αἰτωλοὶ καὶ ᾿Ακαρνᾶνές εἰσι καὶ 
᾿Αθαμᾶνες, εἰ χρὴ καὶ τούτους “EXAnvas εἰπεῖν, 
λοιπὸν ἐξηγήσασθαι περὶ τούτων, iv ἔχωμεν τὴν 
περίοδον ἅπασαν τὴν τῆς Ἑλλάδος’ προσθεῖναι 
δὲ καὶ τὰς νήσους τὰς προσχώρους μάλιστα τῇ 
Ἑλλάδι καὶ οἰκουμένας ὑπὸ τῶν ᾿Ελλήνων, ὅσας 
μὴ περιωδεύκαμεν. 


1. Αἰτωλοὶ μὲν τοίνυν Kat’ Axapvaves ὁμοροῦσιν 
ἀλλήλοις, μέσον ἔχοντες τὸν ᾿Αχελῷον ποταμόν, 
ῥέοντα ἀπὸ τῶν ἄρκτων καὶ τῆς Πίνδου πρὸς 
νότον διά τε ᾿Αγραίων, Αἰτωλικοῦ ἔθνους, καὶ 
᾿Αμφιλόχων: ᾿Ακαρνᾶνες μὲν τὸ πρὸς ἑσπέραν 

1 ἄραντες, T. G. Tucker, for ἼΑβαντες ; ἀναϑάντες, Xylander ; 
μεταβαίνοντες, Corais; ἀποβάντες, Kramer; ἀποβαίνοντες, 


GEOGRAPHY, tro: 1. 14-2. 1 

from one of them turn white, and from the other 
black. A similar thing takes place in connection 
with the Crathis River, as I have said before. 

15. When the Euboeans were returning from Troy, 
some of them, after being driven out of their course 
to Illyria, set out for home through Macedonia, but 
remained in the neighbourhood of Edessa, after aiding 
in war those who had received them hospitably ; and 
they foundeda city Euboea. There wasalsoa Euboea 
in Sicily, which was founded by the Chalcidians of 
Sicily, but they were driven out of it by Gelon; and 
it became a stronghold of the Syracusans. In Coreyra, 
also, and in Lemnos, there were places called Euboea; 
and in the Argive country a hill of that name. 

16. Since the Aetolians, Acarnanians, and Atha- 
manians (if these too are to be called Greeks) live 
to the west of the Thessalians and the Oetaeans, it 
remains for me to describe these three, in order that 
I may complete the circuit of Greece; I must also 
add the islands which lie nearest to Greece and are 
inhabited by the Greeks, so far as I have not already 
included them in my description. 


1. Now the Aetolians and the Acarnanians border 
on one another, having between them the Acheloiis 
River, which flows from the north and from Pindus on 
the south through the country of the Agraeans, an 
Aetolian tribe, and through that of the Amphilochians, 
the Acarnanians holding the western side of the river 

EtG ἧς 8. 


μέρος ἔχοντες τοῦ ποταμοῦ μέχρι τοῦ ᾿Αμβρακικοῦ 
κόλπου τοῦ κατὰ ᾿Αμφιλόχους καὶ τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ 
᾿Ακτίου ᾿Απόλλωνος, Αἰτωλοὶ δὲ τὸ πρὸς ἕω 
μέχρι, τῶν ᾿Οζολῶν. Δοκρῶν καὶ τοῦ Παρνασσοῦ 
καὶ τῶν Οἰταίων. ὑπέρκεινται, δ᾽ ἐν τῇ μεσογαίᾳ 
καὶ τοῖς προσβορείοις μέρεσι τῶν μὲν ᾿Ακαρνάνων 
᾿Αμφίλοχοι, τούτων δὲ Δόλοπες καὶ ἡ Πίνδος, 
τῶν δ᾽ Αἰτωλῶν Περραιβοί τε καὶ ᾿Αθαμᾶνες καὶ 
Αἰνιάνων τι μέρος τῶν τὴν Οἴτην ἐ ἐχόντων" τὸ δὲ 
νότιον πλευρόν, τό τε ᾿Ακαρνανικὸν ὁ ὁμοίως καὶ τὸ 
Αἰτωλικόν, κλύζεται τῇ ποιούσῃ θαλάττῃ τὸν 
Κορινθιακὸν κόλπον, εἰς ὃν καὶ ὁ ᾿Αχελῷος ποτα- 
μὸς ἐξίησιν, ὁρίζων τὴν τῶν Αἰτωλῶν παραλίαν 
καὶ τὴν ᾿Ακαρνανικήν' ἐκαλεῖτο δὲ Θόας ὁ Ἄνχε- 
λῷος πρότερον. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ὁ παρὰ Δύμην 
ὁμώνυμος τούτῳ, καθάπερ εἴρηται, καὶ ὁ περὶ 
Λαμίαν. εἴρηται δὲ καί, ὅτι ἀρχὴν τοῦ Κοριν- 
θιακοῦ κόλπου τὸ στόμα τοῦδε τοῦ ποταμοῦ φασί. 

2. Πόλεις δ᾽ εἰσὶν ἐν μὲν τοῖς ᾿Ακαρνᾶσιν 
‘Avaxroptov τε ἐπὶ χερρονήσου ἱδρυμένον ᾿Ακτίου 
πλησίον, ἐμπόριον τῆς νῦν ἐκτισμένης ἐφ᾽ ἡμῶν 
Νικοπόλεως, καὶ Στράτος, ἀνάπλουν ἔχουσα τῷ 
᾿Αχελώῳ πλειόνων ἢ διακοσίων σταδίων, καὶ 
Οἰνειάδαι, 1 καὶ αὐτὴ ἐπὶ τῷ ποταμῷ, ἡ μὲν 
παλαιὰ οὐ κατοικουμένη, ἴσον ἀπέχουσα τῆς τε 
θαλάττης καὶ τοῦ 2 Στράτου, ἡ δὲ νῦν ὅσον 
ἑβδομήκοντα σταδίους ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐκβολῆς διέχουσα. 
καὶ ἄλλαι δ᾽ εἰσί, Παλαιρός τε καὶ ᾿Αλυζία καὶ 

1 Οἰνειάδαι, Meineke from conj. of Kramer, for Ἡναία δέ 
Bk, Αἰνεία δέ 1 (ἢ), Ald 
2 But τῆς is the reading of noxy (cp. Stephanus: Στράτος 
θηλυκῶς καὶ ἀ»σενικῶϑ). 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 1-3 

as far as that part of the Ambracian Gulf which is 
near Amphilochi and the temple of the Actian Apollo, 
but the Aetolians the eastern side as far as the 
Ozalian Locrians and Parnassus and the Oetaeans. 
Above the Acarnanians, in the interior and the parts 
towards the north, are situated the Amphilochians, 
and above these the Dolopians and Pindus, and above 
the Aetolians are the Perrhaebians and Athamanians 
and a part of the Aenianians who hold Oeta. The 
southern side, of Acarnania and Aetolia alike, is 
washed by the sea which forms the Corinthian Gulf, 
into which empties the Acheloiis River, which forms 
the boundary between the coast of the Aetolians and 
that of Acarnania. In earlier times the Acheloiis 
was called Thoas. The river which flows past Dymé 
bears the same name as this, as I have already said, 
and also the river near Lamia.2 I have already 
stated, also, that the Corinthian Gulf is said to begin 
at the mouth of this river.® 

2. As for cities, those of the Acarnanians are 
Anactorium, which is situated on a peninsula near 
Actium and is a trading-centre of the Nicopolis of 
to-day, which was founded in our times ; Stratus, 
where one may sail up the Acheloiis River more 
than two hundred stadia; and Oeneiadae, which is 
also on the river—the old city, which is equidistant 
from the sea and from Stratus, being uninhabited, 
whereas that of to-day lies at a distance of about 
seventy stadia above the outlet of the river. There 
are also other cities, Palaerus, Alyzia, Leucas,® Argos 

τ 2. lle 5.0. 5: 10! 38 27 9: 

4 This Nicopolis (‘‘ Victory City ”) was founded by Augustus 
Caesar in commemoration of his victory over Antony and 
Cleopatra at Actium in 31 B.0. See 7. 7. 5. 

5 Amaxiki, now in ruins. 


C 451 


Λευκὰς καὶ Ἄργος τὸ ᾿Αμφιλοχικὸν καὶ Ἄμβρα- 
κία, ὧν αἱ πλεῖσται περιοικίδες γεγόνασιν ἢ καὶ 
πᾶσαι τῆς Νικοπόλεως" κεῖται δ᾽ ὁ 1 Στράτος 
κατὰ μέσην τὴν ἐξ ᾿Αλυξίας ὁδὸν εἰς ᾿Ανακτύριον. 

oe Αἰτωλῶν δ᾽ εἰσὶ Καλυδών τε καὶ Πλευρών, 
νῦν μὲν τεταπεινωμέναι, τὸ δὲ παλαιὸν πρόσχημα 
τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἣν ταῦτα τὰ κτίσματα. καὶ δὴ καὶ 
διῃρῆσθαι συνέβαινε δίχα τὴν Αἰτωλίαν, καὶ τὴν 
μὲν ἀρχαίαν λέγεσθαι, τὴν δ᾽ ἐπίκτητον" ἀρχαίαν 
ἐὲν τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ ᾿Αχελώου μέχρι Καλυδῶνος 
παραλίαν, ἐπὶ πολὺ καὶ τῆς μεσογαίας ἀνήκουσαν, 
εὐκάρπου τε καὶ πεδιάδος, ἣ ἐστὶ καὶ Στράτος καὶ 
τὸ Τριχώνιον,; ἀρίστην ἔχον γῆν" ἐπίκτητον δὲ 
τὴν τοῖς Λοκροῖς συνάπτουσαν, ὡς ἐπὶ Ναύπακτόν 
τε καὶ Εὐπάλιον, τραχυτέραν τε οὖσαν καὶ 
λυπροτέραν, μέχρι τῆς Οἰταίας καὶ τῆς ᾿Αθα- 
μάνων καὶ τῶν ἐφεξῆς ἐπὶ τὴν ἄρκτον ἤδη περιισ- 
ταμένων ὀρῶν τε καὶ ἐθνῶν. 

4, Ἔχει δὲ καὶ ἡ Αἰτωλία ὄρος μέγιστον μὲν 
τὸν Κόρακα, συνάπτοντα τῇ Οἴτῃ, τῶν δ᾽ ἄλλων 
ἐν μέσῳ μὲν μᾶλλον 3 τὸν ᾿Αράκυνθον, περὶ ὃν 
τὴν νεωτέραν Πλευρῶνα συνῴκισαν ἀφέντες τὴν 
παλαιάν, ἐγγὺς κειμένην Καλυδῶνος, οἱ οἰκήτορες, 
εὔκαρπον οὖσαν καὶ πεδιάδα, πορθοῦντος τὴν 
χώραν Δημητρίου τοῦ ἐπικληθέντος Αἰτωλικοῦ: 
ὑπὲρ δὲ τῆς ΜολυκρείαςΞ Ταφιασσὸν καὶ Χαλκίδα, 

1 ἡ nox, instead of 6, other MSS. 

2 Τριχώνιον, Palmer, for Τραχήνιον os, Τραχίνιον, other MSS. 
So the later editors. 

3 μᾶλλον, Casaubon, for μαλαόν BCghilnosry, μάλα ὄντων 
marg. h, μάλα ὄν Dk, omitted in E; so the later editors. 

4 Μολυκρείας, Tzschucke, for ModAvapias; so the later 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 2-4 

Amphilochicum, and Ambracia, most of which, or 
rather all, have become dependencies of Nicopolis. 
Stratus is situated about midway of the road between 
Alyzia and Anactorium.? 

3. The cities of the Aetolians are Calydon and 
Pleuron, which are now indeed reduced, though in 
early times these settlements were an ornament to 
Greece. Further, Aetolia has come to be divided 
into two parts, one part being called Old Aetolia 
and the other Aetolia Epictetus.2_ The Old Aetolia 
was the seacoast extending from the Acheloiis to 
Calydon, reaching for a considerable distance into 
the interior, which is fertile and level; here in the 
interior lie Stratus and Trichonium, the latter having 
excellent soil. Aetolia Epictetus is the part which 
borders on the country of the Locrians in the direc- 
tion of Naupactus and Eupalium, being a rather 
rugged and sterile country, and extends to the 
Oetaean country and to that of the Athamanians 
and to the mountains and tribes which are situated 
next beyond these towards the north. 

4. Aetolia also has a very large mountain, Corax, 
which borders on Oeta; and it has among the rest 
of its mountains, and more in the middle of the 
country than Corax, Aracynthus, near which New 
Pleuron was founded by the inhabitants of the Old, 
who abandoned their city, which had been situated 
near Calydon in a district both fertile and level, at 
the time when Demetrius, surnamed Aetolicus,® laid 
waste the country; above Molycreia are Taphiassus 

1 An error either of Strabo or of the MSS. ‘‘ Stratus” and 
““ Alyzia” should exchange places in the sentence. 

2 2,6. the Acquired. 

3 Son of Antigonus Gonatas ; reigned over Macedonia 
239-229 B.c. 

VOL, V. B 


ὄρη ἱκανῶς ὑψηλά, ἐφ᾽ ols πολίχνια ‘puto! 
Μακυνία τε καὶ Χαλκίς, ὁμώνυμος τῷ ὄρει, ἣν 
καὶ ὙὝποχαλκίδα καλοῦσι" Κούριον δὲ πλησίον 
τῆς παλαιᾶς Πλευρῶνος, ἀφ᾽ οὗ τοὺς ἸΠλευρωνίους 
Κουρῆτας ὀνομασθῆναί τινες ὑπέλαβον. 

ὅ. Ὃ δ᾽ Εὔηνος ? ποταμὸς ἄρχεται μὲν ἐκ 

Βωμιέων ὃ 

s 4 e > -" \ ᾽ “-“ 4 
(καθάπερ καὶ ot Evputaves καὶ ᾿Αγραῖοι καὶ 
Κουρῆτες καὶ ἄλλοι), ῥεῖ δ᾽ οὐ διὰ τῆς Κουρητικῆς 
3 > / ev 2 \ e ’ \ lol / > A 
KAT ἀρχάς, NTLS ἐστὶν ἡ AUTH TH Πλευρωνίᾳ, αλλα 
διὰ τῆς προσεῴας μᾶλλον παρὰ τὴν Χαλκίδα καὶ 
Καλυδῶνα" εἶτ᾽ ἀνακάμψας ἐπὶ τὰ τῆς Πλευρῶνος 
πεδία τῆς παλαιᾶς καὶ παραλλάξας εἰς δύσιν 
ἐπιστρέφει πρὸς τὰς ἐκβολὰς καὶ τὴν μεσημβρίαν" 
ἐκαλεῖτο δὲ Λυκόρμας 3 πρότερον, καὶ ὁ Νέσσος 
>’ “ / \ > , δ ’ 
ἐνταῦθα λέγεται πορθμεὺς ἀποδεδειγμένος ὑφ 
«ς / > “-“ 5 \ iA A 
Ηρακλέους ἀποθανεῖν, ἐπειδὴ πορθμεύων τὴν 
Δηιάνειραν ἐπεχείρει βιάσασθαι. 

6. Καὶ "Ὥλενον δὲ καὶ Πυλήνην ὀνομάζει 
πόλεις ὁ ποιητὴς Αἰτωλικάς, ὧν τὴν μὲν ᾿Ὥλενον 
ὁμωνύμως τῇ Δχαϊκῇ λεγομένην Αἰολεῖς κατέ- 
σκαψαν, πλησίον οὗσαν τῆς νεωτέρας Πλευρῶνος, 

~ 4 , ΕῚ , > r \ A 
τῆς δὲ χώρας ἠμφισβήτουν ᾿Ακαρνᾶνες" τὴν δὲ 
Πυλήνην μετενέγκαντες εἰς τοὺς ἀνώτερον τόπους 
Μ > lol \ Mv , Ss 
ἤλλαξαν αὐτῆς καὶ τοὔνομα, ἸΙρόσχιον καλέσαν- 

« 4 > > Ἀ \ \ / ΄ 
tes. Ἑλλάνικος δ᾽ οὐδὲ τὴν περὶ ταύτας ἱστο- 

τῶν ἐν ᾿Οφιεῦσιν, Αἰτωλικῷ ἔθνει 

1 ἵδρυται Bkno. 
2 Ἐὔηνος no, ὁ δὲ Τῆνος BCDhilsz. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 4-6 

and Chalcis, rather high mountains, on which were 
situated the small cities Macynia and Chalcis, the 
latter bearing the same name as the mountain, 
though it is also called Hypochalcis, Near Old 
Pleuron is the mountain Curium, after which, as 
some have supposed, the Pleuronian Curetes were 

5. The Evenus River begins in the territory of 
those Bomians who live in the country of the 
Ophians, the Ophians being an Aetolian tribe (like 
the Eurytanians and Agraeans and Curetes and 
others), and flows at first, not through the Curetan 
country, which is the same as the Pleuronian, but 
through the more easterly country, past Chalcis and 
Calydon; and then, bending back towards the plains 
of Old Pleuron and changing its course to the west, 
it turns towards its outlets and the south. In earlier 
times it was called Lycormas. And there Nessus, 
it is said, who had been appointed ferryman, was 
killed by Heracles because he tried to violate 
Deianeira when he was ferrying her across the river. 

6. The poet also names Olenus and Pylené as 
Aetolian cities... Of these, the former, which bears 
the same name as the Achaean city, was rased 
to the ground by the Aeolians; it was near New 
Pleuron, but the Acarnanians claimed possession of 
the territory. The other, Pylené, the Aeolians 
moved to higher ground, and also changed its name, 
calling it Proschium. Hellanicus does not know the 

1 Iliad 2. 639. 

3 βωμιαίων DCghinox, Βωιαίων Bk] ; emended by Tzschucke 
and so by the later editors, 

4 Λυκόρμας KE, Λυκέρνας CDghilxy and by corr. in Bk, and 
Λυκάρνας no but corr. to Λυκόρμος. 



ρίαν οἶδεν, ἀλλ᾽ ὡς ἔτι καὶ αὐτῶν οὐσῶν ἐν τῇ 
ἀρχαία καταστάσει μέμνηται, τὰς δ᾽ ὕστερον καὶ 
τῆς τῶν Ἡρακλειδῶν καθόδου κτισθείσας, Μα- 
κυνίαν cat Μολύκρειαν," ἐν ταῖς ἀρχαίαις κατα- 
λέγει, πλείστην εὐχέρειαν ἐπιδεικνύμενος ἐν πάσῃ 
σχεδόν τι τῇ γραφῇ. 

1. Καθόλου μὲν οὖν ταῦτα περὶ τῆς χώρας ἐστὶ 
τῆς τῶν ᾿Ακαρνάνων καὶ τῶν Αἰτωλῶν, περὶ δὲ 
τῆς παραλίας καὶ τῶν προκειμένων νήσων ἔτι 
καὶ ταῦτα προσληπτέον" ἀπὸ γὰρ τοῦ στόματος 
ἀρξαμένοις 3 Tov ᾿Αμβρακικοῦ κόλπου πρῶτόν 
ἐστιν ᾿Ακαρνάνων χωρίον τὸ "Ακτιον. ὁμωνύμως 
δὲ λέγεται τό τε ἱερὸν τοῦ ᾿Ακτίου ᾿Απόλλωνος 
καὶ ἡ ἄκρα ἡ ποιοῦσα τὸ στόμα τοῦ κόλπου, 
ἔχουσα καὶ λιμένα ἐκτός. τοῦ δ᾽ ἱεροῦ τετταρά- 
κοντα μὲν σταδίους ἀπέχει τὸ ᾿Ανακτόριον ἐν τῷ 
κόλπῳ ἱδρυμένον, διακοσίους δὲ καὶ τετταράκοντα 
ἡ Λευκάς. 

8. Αὕτη δ᾽ ἦν τὸ παλαιὸν μὲν χερρόνησος τῆς 
᾿Ακαρνάνων γῆς, καλεῖ δ᾽ ὁ ποιητὴς αὐτὴν ἀκτὴν 
ἠπείροιο, τὴν περαίαν τῆς ᾿Ιθώκης καὶ τῆς Κεφαλ- 
ληνίας ἤπειρον καλῶν" αὕτη δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἡ ᾿Ακαρ- 
νανία: ὥστε, ὅταν φῇ ἀκτὴν ἠπείροιο, τῆς 
᾿Ακαρνανίας ἀκτὴν δέχεσθαι δεῖ. τῆς δὲ Λευ- 
κάώδος ἥ τε Νήρικος, nv φησιν ἑλεῖν ὁ Λαέρτης, 
7) μὲν ὃ Νήρικον ὃ εἷλον ἐὐκτίμενον πτολίεθρον, 
ἀκτὴν ἠπείροιο, Κεφαλλήνεσσιν ἀνάσσων" 
Μακυνίαν, the editors, for Μακίνιον. 

Μολύκρειαν, the editors, for Μολύκριαν. 
The MSS., except &, have καί after ἀρξαμένοις. 
Νήρικος, Jones restores, following BED (though in D the 

Νήρικος is written above Νήριτος in first hand), instead of 
Νήριτος (Kramer and later editors). 



GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 6-8 

history of these cities either, but mentions them as 
though they too were still in their early status ; and 
among the early cities he names Macynia and 
Molycreia, which were founded even later than the 
return of the Heracleidae, almost everywhere in his 
writings displaying a most convenient carelessness. 

7. Upon the whole, then, this is what I have to 
say concerning the country of the Acarnanians and 
the Aetolians, but the following is also to be added 
concerning the seacoast and the islands which lie off 
it: Beginning at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf, 
the first place which belongs to the Acarnanians 
is Actium. The temple of the Actian Apollo bears 
the same name, as also the cape which forms the 
mouth of the Gulf and has a harbour on the outer 
side. Anactorium, which is situated on the gulf, is 
forty stadia distant from the temple, whereas Leucas 
is two hundred and forty. 

8. In early times Leucas was ἃ peninsula of 
Acarnania, but the poet calls it “shore of the main- 
land,’ } using the term “ mainland” for the country 
which is situated across from Ithaca and Cephallenia ; 
and this country is Acarnania. And therefore, when 
he says, “shore of the mainland,” one should take 
it to mean “shore of Acarnania.” And to Leucas 
also belonged, not only Nericus, which Laertes says 
he took (“verily I took Nericus, well-built citadel, 
shore of the mainland, when 1 was lord over the 

1 Homer specifically mentions Leucas only once, as the 

*‘rock Leucas” (Od. 24. 11). On the Ithaca-Leucas problem, 
see Appendix in this volume. 

5 Instead of 7 μέν, Homer (Od. 24. 376) has οἷος ; B reads 
both, ἦ μὲν οἷος. 

δ. Νήρικον, Jones restores, following MSS., except B, which 
reads Νήριτον. 



καὶ as ev Καταλόγῳ φησί: 
» ᾽ - 
καὶ Kpoxvre " ἐνέμοντο καὶ Δἰγίλιπα τρηχεῖαν. 

Κορίνθιοι δὲ πεμφθέντες ὑπὸ Κυψέλου καὶ 
Γόργου 3 ταύτην τε κατέσχον τὴν ἀκτήν, καὶ 
μέχρι τοῦ ᾿Αμβρακικοῦ κόλπου προῆλθον, καὶ ἥ 
τε ᾿Αμβρακία συνῳκίσθη καὶ ᾿Ανακτόριον,᾽ καὶ 
τῆς χερρονήσου διορύξαντες τὸν ἰσθμὸν ἐ ἐποίησαν 
νῆσον τὴν Λευκάδα, καὶ ,μετενέγκαντες τὴν Νήρι- 
κον 8 ἐπὶ τὸν τόπον, ὃς ἦν ποτὲ μὲν ἰσθμός, νῦν δὲ 
πορθμὸς γεφύρᾳ ξευκτός, μετωνόμασαν Δευκάδα 
ἐπώνυμον, οκῶ μοι, τοῦ Λευκάτα' πέτρα γάρ 
ἐστι λευκὴ τὴν χρόαν, προκειμένη τῆς Λευκάδος 
εἰς τὸ πέλαγος καὶ τὴν Κεφαλληνίαν, ὡς ἐντεῦθεν 
τοὔνομα λαβεῖν. 

9. Ἔχει δὲ τὸ τοῦ Λευκάτα ᾿Απόλλωνος ἱερὸν 
καὶ τὸ ἅλμα, τὸ τοὺς ἔρωτας παύειν πεπιστευμένον" 

οὗ δὴ λέγεται πρώτη Σαπφώ, 
(ὥς φησιν ὁ Μένανδρος) 

\ e / - ΄ > 
Tov ὑπέρκομπον θηρῶσα Φάων᾽, 
οἰστρῶντι πόθῳ ῥῖψαι πέτρας 

2 \ a “ 4 ᾿ > \ 
ἀπὸ τηλεφανοῦς ἅλμα“ κατ᾽ εὐχὴν 
σήν, δέσποτ᾽ ἄναξ. 

ὁ μὲν οὖν Μένανδρος πρώτην ἁλέσθαι λέγει τὴν 
Σαπφώ, οἱ δ᾽ ἔτι ἀρχαιολογικώτεροι Κέφαλόν 
φασιν ἐρασθέντα IItepéra,® τὸν ὁ Δηιονέως. ἦν 

1 Κροκύλει᾽ E, Κροκύλην other MSS. 

2 Γόργου, Runke, for Γαργάσουσος CDhil, Γαργάσου other 
MSS. ; so Meineke. 

3 Νήρικον, the reading of the MSS. (except B where 
Νήριτον is corrected), Jones restores. 


GEOGRAPHY, to. 2. 8-9 

Cephallenians’’),! but also the cities which Homer 
names in the Catalogue (“and dwelt in Crocyleia and 
rugged Aegilips’’).2 But the Corinthians sent by 
Cypselus? and Gorgus took possession of this shore 
and also advanced as far as the Ambracian Gulf; 
and both Ambracia and Anactorium were colonised 
at this time; and the Corinthians dug a canal 
through the isthmus of the peninsula and made 
Leucas an island; and they transferred Nericus to 
the place which, though once an isthmus, is now a 
strait spanned by a bridge, and they changed its 
name to Leucas, which was named, as I think, after 
Leucatas; for Leucatas is a rock of white 4 colour 
jutting out from Leucas into the sea and towards 
Cephallenia, and therefore it took its name from its 

9. It contains the temple of Apollo Leucatas, and 
also the “ Leap,” which was believed to put an end 
to the longings of love. ‘‘ Where Sappho is said to 
have been the first,’ as Menander says, “when 
through frantic longing she was chasing the haughty 
Phaon, to fling herself with a leap from the far-seen 
rock, calling upon thee in prayer, O lord and 
master.” Now although Menander says that Sappho 
was the first to take the leap, yet those who are 
better versed than he in antiquities say that it was 
Cephalus, who was in love with Pterelas the son of 

1 Od, 24. 377. 2 Iliad 2. 633. 
3 See Dictionary in Vol. LV.  ἘΡΊΘΙΟΒ. ἡ 

4 ἅλμα, Wordsworth (note on Theocritus 8. 25), for ἀλλά ; 
so Meineke. 

5 Πτερέλα, Tzschucke, for Περόλα Dh, but Πτερόλα in margin 
of h and Ci, Πταρόλα Bylmino, Mrapoxa x, Παρόλα k ; so the 
later editors. 

ὃ τόν, Kramer, for τοῦ, from corr. in B. 


C 453 


δὲ Kal πάτριον τοῖς Λευκαδίοις κατ᾽ ἐνιαυτὸν ἐν 
τῇ θυσίᾳ τοῦ ᾿Απόλλωνος ἀπὸ τῆς σκοπῆς 
ῥιπτεῖσθαί τινα τῶν ἐν αἰτίαις ὄντων ἀποτροπῆς 
χάριν, ἐξαπτομένων ἐξ αὐτοῦ παντοδαπῶν πτερῶν 
καὶ ὀρνέων ἀνακουφίζειν δυναμένων τῇ πτήσει τὸ 
ἅλμα, ὑποδέχεσθαι δὲ κάτω μικραῖς ἁλιάσι κύκλῳ 
περιεστῶτας πολλοὺς καὶ περισώζειν εἰς δύναμιν 
τῶν ὅρων ἔξω τὸν ἀναληφθέντα. ὁ δὲ τὴν ᾿Αλκ- 
μαιωνίδα γράψας" ᾿Ικαρίου, τοῦ “Πηνελόπης 
πατρός, υἱεῖς γενέσθαι δύο, ᾿Αλυξέα καὶ Λευκάδιον, 
δυναστεῦσαι δ᾽ ἐν τῇ ᾿Ακαρνανίᾳ τούτους μετὰ 
τοῦ πατρός" τούτων οὖν ἐπωνύμους τὰς πόλεις 
"Edopos λέγεσθαι δοκεῖ. 

10. Κεφαλλῆνας δὲ νῦν μὲν τοὺς ἐκ τῆς νήσου 
τῆς Κεφαλληνίας λέγουσιν, “Ὅμηρος δὲ πάντας 
τοὺς ὑπὸ τῷ ᾿Οδυσσεῖ, ὧν εἰσὶ καὶ οἱ ᾿Ακαρνᾶνες" 
εἰπὼν γάρ" 

αὐτὰρ Οδυσσεὺς ἦγε Κεφαλλῆνας, 

οἵ ῥ᾽ ᾿Ιθάκην εἶχον καὶ Νήριτον εἰνοσίφυλλον, 
(τὸ ἐν ταύτῃ ὄρος ἐπιφανές: ὡς καί 

ot δ᾽ ἐκ Δουλιχίοιο ᾿Εχινάων θ᾽ ἱεράων, 
καὶ αὐτοῦ τοῦ Δουλιχίου τῶν ᾽χε άδων ὄντος" 
δ δ᾽ ἄρα Βουπράσιόν τε καὶ "λεδα, 

καὶ τοῦ Βουπρασίου ἐν "λεδι ὄντος" 
i δ᾽ Βὔβοιαν ἔχον καὶ Χαλκίδα τ᾽ Εἰρέτριάν τε, 
ws! τούτων ἐν Εὐβοίᾳ οὐσῶν' καί 

1 ὡς, all MSS., except E and the editors (καί), Jones 


GEOGRAPHY, to. 2. g-10 

Deioneus. It was an ancestral custom among the 
Leucadians, every year at the sacrifice performed in 
honour of Apollo, for some criminal to be flung from 
this rocky look-out for the sake of averting evil, 
wings and birds of all kinds being fastened to him, 
since by their fluttering they could lighten the leap, 
and also for a number of men, stationed all round 
below the rock in small fishing-boats, to take the 
victim in, and, when he had been taken on board,} 
to do all in their power to get him safely outside 
their borders. The author of the Alcmaeonis? says 
that Icarius, the father of Penelope, had two sons, 
Alyzeus and Leucadius, and that these two reigned 
over Acarnania with their father; accordingly, 
Ephorus thinks that the cities were named after 

10. But though at the present time only the 
people of the island Cephallenia are called Cephal- 
lenians, Homer so calls all who were subject to 
Odysseus, among whom are also the Acarnanians. 
For after saying, “but Odysseus led the Cephal- 
lenians, who held Ithaca and Neritum with quivering 
foliage’? ὅ (Neritum being the famous mountain on 
this island, as also when he says, ‘and those from 
Dulichium and the sacred Echinades,’ 4 Dulichium 
itself being one of the Echinades; and “those 
who dwelt in Buprasium and Elis,’® Buprasium 
being in Elis; and “those who held Euboea and 
Chalcis and Eiretria,’® meaning that these cities 

1 Or perhaps ‘‘ resuscitated.” 

2 The author of this epic poem on the deeds of Alemaeon 
is unknown, : 

3 Jliad 2. 631. 4 Iliad 2. 625. 

δ Iliad 2, 615. ὁ Tliad 2. 536. 



Τρῶες καὶ Λύκιοι καὶ Δάρδανοι, 
ὡς καὶ ἐκείνων Τρώων ὄντων) πλὴν μετά γε 
Νήριτόν φησι" 
καὶ Κροκύλει᾽ ᾿ ἐνέμοντο καὶ Αἰγίλιπα τρη- 
οἵ τε Ζάκυνθον ἔ ἔχον ἠδ᾽ of Σάμον “ἀμφενέμοντο, 
οἵ τ᾽ ee exe ἠδ᾽ ἀντιπέραι ἐ ἐνέμοντο. 

ἤπειρον μὲν οὖν" τὰ ἀντιπέρα τῶν νήσων βούλε- 
/ ee A / \ ‘ » » 
ται λέγειν, ἅμα τῇ Λευκάδι καὶ τὴν ἄλλην ᾿Ακαρ- 
r ΄ 
νανίαν συμπεριλαβεῖν βουλόμενος, περὶ ἧς καὶ 
οὕτω λέγει: 

, ree ’ / > f- / / / 3 
δώδεκ΄ ἐν ἠπείρῳ ἀγέλαι, τόσα πώεα μήλων' 
τάχα τῆς ᾿Ηπειρώτιδος τὸ παλαιὸν μέχρι δεῦρο 
διατεινούσης καὶ ὀνόματι κοινῷ ἠπείρου λεγο- 
μένης: Σάμον δὲ τὴν νῦν Κεφαλληνίαν, ὡς καὶ 

ὅταν φῇ" 

ἐν πορθμῷ ᾿Ιθάκης τε Σάμοιό τε παιπαλοέσσης. 
τῷ γὰρ ἐπιθέτῳ τὴν ὁμωνυμίαν διέσταλται, ὡς 

, > \ r , > > > \ »“» / A 
οὐκ ἐπὶ τῆς πόλεως, arr ἐπὶ τῆς νήσου τιθεὶς 
τοὔνομα. τετραπόλεως γὰρ οὔσης τῆς νήσου, μία 
τῶν τεττάρων ἐστὶν ἡ καὶ Σάμος καὶ Σάμη καλου- 
μένη καθ᾽ ἑκάτερον τοὔνομα, ὁμωνυμοῦσα τῇ 
νήσῳ. ὅταν & εἴπῃ" 

ὅσσοι γὰρ νήσοισιν ἐπικρατέουσιν ἄριστοι, 

Δουλιχίῳ τε Σάμῃ τε καὶ ὑλήεντι Ζακύνθῳ 

χίς μῃ ή , 

a ΄ > 6 Ν a_4 δῆ , bd >> ΄ 
τῶν νήσων ἀριθμὸν ποιῶν 4 δῆλός ἐστι, καὶ Σάμην 
καλῶν τὴν νῆσον, ἣν πρότερον Σάμον ἐκάλεσεν. 

1 Κροκύλην nox. 

2 καί, after οὖν, marked out in B and omitted by kno. 

3. οἰῶν, not μήλων, is Homer’s word (Od. 14. 100) 
4 ποιῶν hi and D man. pr., instead of ποιεῖσθαι; so Meineke. 


GEOGRAPHY, to. 2. 10 

were in Euboea; and “ Trojans and Lycians and 
Dardanians,’} meaning that the Lycians and 
Dardanians were Trojans)—however, after mention- 
ing ‘‘ Neritum,” * he says, “‘and dwelt in Crocyleia and 
rugged Aegilips, and those who held Zacynthos and 
those who dwelt about Samos, and those who held 
the mainland and dwelt in the parts over against 
the islands.” By “‘ mainland,” 3 therefore, he means 
the parts over against the islands, wishing to 
include, along with Leucas, the rest of Acarnania 
as well,? concerning which he also speaks in this 
way, “‘twelve herd on the mainland, and as many 
flocks of sheep,’® perhaps because Epeirotis ex- 
tended thus far in early times and was called by 
the general name “mainland.” But by “Samos” 
he means the Cephallenia of to-day, as, when he 
says, “in the strait between Ithaca and rugged 
Samos”;® for by the epithet he differentiates 
between the objects bearing the same name, thus 
making the name apply, not to the city, but to the 
island. For the island was a Tetrapolis,? and one 
of its four cities was the city called indifferently either 
Samos or Samé, bearing the same nameas the island. 
And when the poet says, “for all the nobles who 
hold sway over the islands, Dulichium and Samé 
and woody Zacynthos,” ® he is evidently making an 
enumeration of the islands and calling “ Samé ” that 
island which he had formerly ® called Samos, But 

1 [liad 8. 173. 2 Iliad 2. 632. 

3 “‘epeirus””-(ep. ‘* Epeirus ”’). 

4 On Homer’s use of this ‘‘ poetic figure,” in which he 
specities the part with the whole, cp. 8. 3. 8 and 1, 2. 23. 

5 Od. 14. 100. ὁ Od. 4, 671. 
7? ἡ, 6. politically it was composed of four cities. 
5. Od. 1. 245. 9 Tliad 2. 634. 


C 454 


᾿Απολλόδωρος δέ, τοτὲ μὲν; τῷ ἐπιθέτῳ λέγων 
διεστάλθαι τὴν ἀμφιβολίαν, εἰπόντα 
Σάμοιό τε παιπαλοέσσης, 
ὡς τὴν νῆσον λέγοντα: τοτὲ δὲ ἀντιγράφεσθαι * 
Δουλιχίῳ τε Σάμῳ τε, 
ἀλλὰ μή 
Σάμῃ τε, 

δῆλός ἐστι τὴν μὲν πόλιν Σάμην καὶ Σάμον 
συνωνύμως ὑπολαμβάνων ἐκφέρεσθαι, τὴν δὲ 
νῆσον Σάμον μόνον" ὅτε γὰρ Σάμη λέγεται ἡ 
πόλις, δῆλον εἶναι ἔκ τε τοῦ διαριθμούμενον τοὺς 
ἐξ ἑκάστης πόλεως μνηστῆρας φάναι, 

ἐκ δὲ Σάμης πίσυρές τε καὶ εἴκοσι φῶτες ἔασι, 
καὶ ἐκ τοῦ περὶ τῆς Κτιμένης λόγου" 

τὴν μὲν ἔπειτα Σάμηνδ᾽ ἔδοσαν. 

ἔχει δὲ ταῦτα λόγον, οὐ γὰρ εὐκρινῶς ἀποδίδωσιν 
ὁ ποιητὴς οὔτε περὶ τῆς Κεφαλληνίας, οὔτε περὶ 
τῆς ἸΙθάκης καὶ τῶν ἄλλων πλησίον 8 τόπων, 
ὥστε καὶ οἱ ἐξηγούμενοι διαφέρονται καὶ οἱ 

11. Αὐτίκα γὰρ ἐπὶ τῆς ᾿Ιθάκης, ὅταν φῇ: 

οἵ ῥ᾽ ᾿Ιθάκην εἶχον καὶ Νήριτον εἰνοσίφυλλον, 
ὅτι μὲν τὸ Νήριτον ὄρος λέγει, τῷ ἐπιθέτῳ δηλοῖ. 
ἐν ἄλλοις δὲ καὶ ῥητῶς ὄρος" 

ναιετάω δ᾽ ᾿Ιθάκην εὐδείελον" ἐν δ᾽ ὄρος αὐτῆ, 

Νήριτον εἰνοσίφυλλον ἀριπρεπές. 

GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 10-11 

Apollodorus,! when he says in one passage that 
ambiguity is removed by the epithet when the poet 
says “and rugged Samos,’? showing that he meant 
the island, and then, in another passage, says that 
one should copy the reading, ‘ Dulichium and 
Samos,” ? instead of ‘“Samé,” plainly takes the 
position that the city was called ‘‘Samé”’ or 
“Samos” indiscriminately, but the island ‘‘ Samos” 
only; for that the city was called Samé is clear, 
according to Apollodorus, from the fact that, in 
enumerating the wooers from the several cities, the 
poet? said, “from Samé came four and twenty 
men,’°® and also from the statement concerning 
Ktimené, “they then sent her to Samé to wed.’ δ 
But this is open to argument, for the poet does 
not express himself distinctly concerning either 
Cephallenia or Ithaca and the other places near by ; 
and consequently both the commentators and the 
historians are at variance with one another. 

11. For instance, when Homer says in regard to 
Ithaca, ‘those who held Ithaca and Neritum with 
quivering foliage,’7 he clearly. indicates by the 
epithet that he means the mountain Neritum; and 
in other passages he expressly calls it a mountain ; 
“but I dwell in sunny Ithaca, wherein is a moun- 
tain, Neritum, with quivering leaves and conspicuous 
from afar.” ®& But whether by Ithaca he means the 

1 See Dictionary in Vol. I. 2 Od. 4. 671. 3 Od. 1. 246. 
4 In the words of Telemachus. 5 Od. 16. 249. 
6 OtN53 367 7 Tliad 2. 632. 8 Od. 9. 21. 

1 ἐν, after μέν, Corais omits. 

2 ἀντιγράφεσθαι, Tzschucke and Corais, following ox, for 
γρίφεσθαι K, av γράφεσθαι BCDhAikin. 

3 πλησίον, h and the editors, instead of πλησίων. 



θακὴν δ᾽ εἴτε τὴν πόλιν, εἴτε τὴν νῆσον λέγει, 
οὐ δῆλον ἐν τούτῳ γε τῷ ἔπει" 

οἵ ῥ᾽ ᾿ ᾿Ιθάκην aia καὶ Νήριτον. 
κυρίως μὲν γὰρ ἀκούων τις τὴν πόλιν δέξαιτ᾽ ἄν, 
ὡς καὶ ᾿Αθήνας καὶ Λυκαβηττὸν εἴ τις λέγοι, καὶ 
‘Podov καὶ ᾿Ατάβυριν, καὶ ἔτι Λακεδαίμονα καὶ 
Ταὔγετον" ποιητικῶς δὲ τοὐναντίον. ἐν μέντοι τῷ 

vatetaw δ᾽ ᾿Ιθάκην εὐδείελον" ἐν δ᾽ ὄρος αὐτῇ 

δῆλον" 2 ἐν γὰρ τῇ νήσῳ, οὐκ ἐν τῇ πόλει τὸ ὄρος. 
ὅταν δὲ 5 οὕτω φῆ; 

ἡμεῖς ἐξ Ἰθάκης ὑπὸ Νηίου εἰλήλουθμεν, 
ἄδηλον, ( εἴτε τὸ αὐτὸ τῷ Νηρίτῳ λέγει τὸ Νήιον, 
εἴτε ἕτερον, ἢ ὄρος ἢ χωρίον. ὅ ὁ μέντοι ἀντὶ 
Nn ηρίτου γράφων Νή ἥρικον, ἢ ἀνάπαλιν, παρα- 
παίει τελέως" τὸ μὲν γὰρ εἰνοσίφυλλον καλεῖ ὁ 
ποιητής, τὸ δ᾽ ἐὐκτίμενον πτολίεθρον, καὶ τὸ μὲν 
ἐν Ἰθάκῃ, τὸ δ᾽ ἀκτὴν ἠπείροιο. 

12. Καὶ τοῦτο. δὲ δοκεῖ ὑπεναντιότητά τινα 

αὐτὴ δὲ anal πανυπερτάτη εἰν ἁλὶ κεῖται" 
χθαμαλὴ μὲν γὰρ ἡ ταπεινὴ καὶ χαμηλή, πανυ- 
περτάτη δὲ ἡ ὑψηλή, οἵαν διὰ πλειόνων σημαίνει, 
κραναὴν καλῶν" καὶ τὴν ὁδὸν τὴν ἐκ τοῦ λιμένος 

1 οἵ ῥ᾽, πο85 and the editors, instead of οἵ 7’. 

2 δῆλον, after Νήριτον, Corais inserts ; so the later editors. 

3 δέ, after ὅταν, o and the editors, instead of τε. 

4 ἄδηλον, Xylander and later editors, instead of οὐ ἄδηλον 
B by. corr. and 2, δῆλον other MSS. 

5. 6 μέντοι. .. ἠπείροιο, Kramer suspects and Meineke 


GEOGRAPHY, to. 2. 11-12 

city or the island, is not clear, at least in the follow- 
ing verse, ‘those who held Ithaca and Neritum”’ ; ὦ 
for if one takes the word in its proper sense, one 
would interpret it as meaning the city, just as 
though one should say “ Athens and Lycabettus,” 
or “Rhodes and Atabyris,” or “ Lacedaemon and 
Taygetus”; but if he takes it in a poetical sense 
the opposite is true. However, in the words, ‘ but 
Ι dwell in sunny Ithaca, wherein is a mountain 
Neritum,” 2 his meaning is clear, for the mountain 
is in the island, not in the city. But when he says 
as follows, “να have come from Ithaca _ below 
Neium,”’? it is not clear whether he means that 
Neium is the same as Neritum or different, or 
whether it is a mountain or place. However, the 
critic who writes Nericum 4 instead of Neritum, or 
the reverse, is utterly mistaken ; for the poet refers 
to the latter as “ quivering with foliage,’ 5. but to 
the former as “ well-built citadel,’ ® and to the 
latter as “in Ithaca,’ ? but to the former as ‘shore 
of the mainland.” § 

12. The following verse also is thought to disclose 
a sort of contradiction: ‘‘ Now Ithaca itself lies 
chthamalé, panypertaté on the sea” ;® for chthamalé 
means “low,” or “on the ground,” whereas pany- 
pertalé means “high up,” as Homer indicates in 
several places when he calls Ithaca “rugged.” 10 
And so when he refers to the road that leads from 

1 Tliad 2. 632. 2 Od. 9. 21. 3 Od. 3. 81. 
4 Accusative of ‘‘ Nericus.” 5 Iliad 2. 632. 
6 Od. 24. 377. 7 Od. 9. 21. 8 Od. 24. 378. 

9 Od. 9. 25 (see 1. 2. 20 and foot-note). 
10 Iliad 3. 201; Od. 1. 247; 9. 27; 10. 417, 463; 15. 510; 
10. 124; 21. 346 



τρηχεῖαν aTapT ov 
χῶρον av ὑλήεντα" 
οὐ γάρ τις νήσων εὐδείελος,; οὐδ᾽ εὐλείμων, 
A , ᾿ \ / > ΄ , A Ἁ 
αἵ θ᾽ ἁλὶ κεκλίαται: ᾿Ιθάκη δέ τε καὶ περὶ 
ἔχει μὲν οὖν ἀπεμφάσεις τοιαύτας ἡ φράσις, ἐξη- 
γοῦνται δὲ οὐ κακῶς" οὔτε γὰρ χθαμαλὴν δέχον- 
ται ταπεινὴν ἐνταῦθα, ἀλλὰ πρόσχωρον τῇ ἠπείρῳ, 
ἐγγυτάτω οὖσαν αὐτῆς" οὔτε πανυπερτάτην ὑψη- 
λοτάτην, ἀλλὰ πανυπερτάτην πρὸς ζόφον, οἷον 
ὑπὲρ πάσας ἐσχάτην 3 τετραμμένην πρὸς ἄρκτον" 
τοῦτο “γὰρ βούλεται λέγειν τὸ πρὸς ζόφον, τὸ δ᾽ 
ἐναντίον πρὸς νότον" 
C 455 ai δέ τ᾽ ἄνευθε πρὸς ἠῶ τ᾽ ἠέλιόν TE’ 
τὸ γὰρ ἄνευθε πόρρω καὶ χωρίς ἐστιν, ὡς τῶν μὲν 
ἄχλων πρὸς νότον κεκλιμένων καὶ «ἀπωτέρω τῆς 
ἠπείρου, τῆς δ᾽ ᾿Ιθάκης ἐγγύθεν καὶ 3 πρὸς ἄρκτον. 
ὅτι δ᾽ οὕτω λέγει τὸ νότιον μέρος, καὶ ἐν τοῖσδε 
fe ie eh 42 ΝΜ \ » ΣΡ: 
εἴτ᾽ ἐπὶ δεξί᾽ ἴωσι, πρὸς ἠῶ T ἠέλιόν τε, 
εἴτ᾽ ἐπ᾿ ἀριστερὰ τοίγε, ποτὶ ζόφον ἠερόεντα" 
τ τὰ A > κε 
καὶ ἔτι μᾶλλον ἐν τοῖσδε" 
ὦ φίλοι, οὐ γάρ τ᾽ ἴδμεν, ὅπη ζόφος, οὐδ᾽ ὅπη 
ΣΌΣ κ᾽ ν ΄ ese. ἢ - 
οὐδ᾽ ὅπη ἠέλιος φαεσίμβροτος εἶσ᾽ ὑπὸ γαῖαν, 
os + 
οὐδ᾽ ὅπη ἀννεῖται" 
1 Instead of ἐυδείελος the margin of B has ἱππήλατος, the 
Homeric reading. 
2 ἐσχάτην E, πρὸς ἐσχάτην BCklno, ὡς ἐσχάτην ©; ἐσχάτην 
omitted by Dhz. 
3 καί, after ἐγγύθεν, omitted by MSS. except E. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 12 

the harbour as “ rugged path up through the wooded 
place,’! and when he says “for not one of the 
islands which lean upon the sea is eudeielos® or rich 
in meadows, and Ithaca surpasses them all.” 8 Now 
although Homer’s phraseology presents incongruities 
of this kind, yet they are not poorly explained ; for, 
in the first place, writers do not interpret chthamalé 
as meaning “low-lying” here, but ‘lying near the 
mainland,” since it is very close to it, and, secondly, 
they do not interpret panypertaté as meaning 
highest,’ but “highest towards the darkness,” 
that is, farthest removed towards the north beyond 
all the others ; for this is what he means by “ἴο- 
wards the darkness,” but the opposite by ‘“‘ towards 
the south,” as in ‘ but the other islands lie aneuthe 
towards the dawn and the sun,” 4 for the word aneuthe 
is “at a distance,” or ‘apart,’ implying that the 
other islands lie towards the south and farther away 
from the mainland, whereas Ithaca lies near the 
mainland and towards the north. That Homer 
refers in this way to the southerly region is clear 
also from these words, ‘whether they go to the 
right, towards the dawn and the sun, or yet to the 
left towards the misty darkness,” ὅ and still more 
clear from these words, “my friends, lo, now we 
know not where is the place of darkness, nor of 
dawn, nor where the sun, that gives light to men, 
goes beneath the earth, nor where he rises.” ® For 

1 Od. 14, 1. 

2 On eudeielos, see 9.2. 41 and foot-note. 

8 Od. 4, 607; but in this particular passage the Homeric 
text has hippélatos (‘‘fit for driving horses’’) instead of 
eudeielos, although in Od. 9. 21, and elsewhere, Homer does 
apply the latter epithet to Ithaca. 

4 Od. 9. 26. δ Tliad 12. 239. ὁ Od. 10. 1909 



ἔστι μὲν γὰρ δέξασθαι τὰ τέτταρα κλίματα, τὴν 
ἠῶ δεχομένους τὸ νότιον μέρος, ἔχει ré? τινα 
τοῦτ᾽ ἔμφασιν, ἀχλὰ βέλτιον τὸ κατὰ τὴν πάρο- 
doy τοῦ ἡλίου νοεῖν ἀντιτιθέμενον τῷ ἀρκτικῷ 
μέρει: ἐξάλλαξιν γάρ τινα τῶν ᾿ οὐρανίων πολλὴν 
βούλεται σημαίνειν ὁ λόγος, οὐχὶ ψιλὴν ἐπίκρυψιν 
τῶν κλιμάτων, δεῖ γὰρ κατὰ πάντα συννεφῆ “ 
καιρόν, ἄν θ᾽ ἡμέρας, ἄν τε νύκτωρ συμβῇ, 
παρακολουθεῖν: τὰ δ᾽ οὐράνια ἐξαλλάττει ἐπὶ 
πλέον τῷ πρὸς μεσημβρίαν μᾶλλον ἢ ἧττον 
προχωρεῖν ὃ ἡμᾶς ἢ εἰς τοὐναντίον. τοῦτο δὲ οὐ 
δύσεως καὶ ἀνατολῆς ἐγκαλύψεις ποιεῖ, ἀλλὰ 
μεσημβρίας καὶ ἄρκτου, καὶ γὰρ αἰθρίας οὔσης 
συμβαίνει." μάλιστα γὰρ ἀρκτικός ἐστιν ὁ 
πόλος" τούτου δὲ κινουμένου καὶ ποτὲ μὲν κατὰ 
κορυφὴν ἡμῖν γινομένου, ποτὲ δὲ ὑπὸ γῆς ὄντος, 
καὶ οἱ ἀρκτικοὶ συμμεταβάλλουσι, ποτὲ δὲ 
συνεκλείπουσι κατὰ τὰς τοιαύτας προχωρήσεις,5 
ὥστε οὐκ oD εἰδείης ὅπου ἐστὶ τὸ ἀρκτικὸν κλίμα, 
οὐδὲ ἀρχή.5 εἰ δὲ τοῦτο, οὐδὲ τοὐναντίον ἂν 

1 τέ Kramer, for δέ; so the later editors. 

2 συννεφῆ, Casaubon, for συναφῆῇ BCDAikI, συναφῆς nox ; 
so the Jater editors. 

3 προχωρεῖν, Jones, for παραχωρεῖν (cp. similar emendation 

4 καὶ yap... συμβαίνει, Jones transfers from position 
after ποιεῖ to position after ἄρκτου. 

5 προχωρήσει, Jones, for παραχωρήσει. 

6 ἐστιν, after ἀρχή, Jones deletes. Corais and Meineke, 
following conj. of Tyrwhitt, read οὐδ᾽ εἰ ἀρχὴν ἐστίν (‘‘or 
whether there is a northern clima at all”) ; Groskurd, follow- 

ing Tzschucke, reads οὐδ᾽ ὅπου ἀρχή ἐστιν. 

1 But in this passage ‘‘climata ” 15 used in a different sense 
from that in 1. 1. 10 (see also foot-note 2 ad loc., Vol. I, 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 12 

it is indeed possible to interpret this as meaning the 
four “climata,’! if we interpret “the dawn” as 
meaning the southerly region (and this has some 
plausibility), but it is better to conceive of the region 
which is along the path of the sun as set opposite 
to the northerly region, for the poetic words are 
intended to signify a considerable change in the 
celestial phenomena,? not merely a temporary con- 
cealment of the ‘‘climata,” for necessarily conceal- 
ment ensues every time the sky is clouded, whether 
by day or by night; but the celestial phenomena 
change to a greater extent as we travel farther and 
farther towards the south or in the opposite direc- 
tion. Yet this travel causes a hiding, not of the 
western or eastern sky, but only of the southern or 
northern, and in fact this hiding takes place when 
the sky is clear ; for the pole is the most northerly 
point of the sky, but since the pole moves and is 
sometimes at our zenith and sometimes below the 
earth, the arctic circles also change with it and in 
the course of such travels sometimes vanish with it,? 
so that you cannot know where the northern “ clima”’ 
is, or even where it begins. And if this is true, 

p. 22). It means here the (four) quarters of the sky, (1) 
where the sun sets, (2) where it rises, (3) the region of the 
celestial north pole, and (4) the region opposite thereto south 
of the equator. 

2 Odysseus was at the isle of Circe when he uttered the 
words in question, and hence, relatively, the celestial 
phenomena had changed (see 1. 1. 21). 

3 2,6. the infinite number of possible northern arctic circles 
vanish when the traveller (going south) crosses the equator, 
and, in the same way, the corresponding quarter of the 
southern sky vanishes when the traveller, going north, crosses 
the equator (see Vol. 1, p. 364, note 2). 

‘ See critical note. 


C 456 


; ; Sp pee ΙΝ i a dea ile P 
γνοίης. κύκλος δὲ τῆς ᾿Ιθάκης ἐστὶν ὡς ὀγδοή- 
κοντα σταδίων. περὶ μὲν ᾿Ιθάκης ταῦτα. 

13. Τὴν δὲ Κεφαλληνίαν, τετράπολιν οὖσαν, 
οὔτ᾽ αὐτὴν εἴρηκε τῷ νῦν ὀνόματι, οὔτε τῶν 
πο, οὐδεμίαν, πλὴν μιᾶς, εἴτε Σάμης εἴτε 
Σάμου, ἣ νῦν μὲν οὐκέτ᾽ ἐστίν, ἴχνη δ᾽ αὐτῆς 
δείκνυται κατὰ μέσον τὸν πρὸς ᾿Ιθάκῃ πορθμόν" 
οἱ δ᾽ am αὐτῆς Σαμαῖοι καλοῦνται" αἱ δ᾽ ἄλλαι 
καὶ νῦν εἰσὶν ἔτι, μικραὶ πόλει“ τινές, Παλεῖς,; 
Πρώνησος καὶ Κράνιοι. ἐφ᾽ ἡμῶν δὲ καὶ ἄλλην 
προσέκτισε Τάϊος ᾿Αντώνιος, ὁ θεῖος Μάρκου 
᾿Αντωνίου, ἡνίκα φυγὰς γενόμενος μετὰ τὴν 
ὑπατείαν, ἣν συνῆρξε Κικέρωνι. τῷ ῥήτορι, ἐν 
τῇ Κεφαλληνίᾳ “διέτριψε καὶ τὴν ὅλην νῆσον 
ὑπήκοον ἔσχεν, ὡς ἴδιον κτῆμα: οὐκ ἔφθη μέντοι 
συνοικίσας, ἀλλὰ καθόδου τυχών, πρὸς ἄλλοις 
μείζοσιν ὧν κατέλυσε τὸν βίον. 

14. Οὐκ ὥκνησαν δέ τινες τὴν Κεφαλληνίαν 
τὴν αὐτὴν τῷ Δουλιχίῳ φάναι, οἱ δὲ τῇ Tady, 
Kal Ταφίους τοὺς Κεφαλληνίους, τοὺς δ᾽ αὐτοὺς 
καὶ Τηλεβόύας, καὶ τὸν ᾿Αμφιτρύωνα δεῦρο στρα- 
τεῦσαι μετὰ Κεφάλου τοῦ Δηιονέως, ἐξ ᾿Αθηνῶν 
φυγάδος, παραληφθέντος, κατασχόντα δὲ τὴν 
νῆσον παραδοῦναι τῷ Κεφάλῳ, καὶ ταύτην μὲν 
ἐπώνυμον ἐκείνου γενέσθαι, τὰς δὲ πόλεις τῶν 
παίδων αὐτοῦ. ταῦτα δ᾽ οὐχ Ὁμηρικά' οἱ μὲν 
γὰρ Κεφαλλῆνες ὑπὸ ᾿Οδυσσεῖ καὶ Λαέρτῃ, ἡ δὲ 
Τάφος ὑπὸ τῷ Μέντῃ: 

1 But the Ithaca of to-day is nearer 300 stadia in circuit. 
Pliny says 25 Roman miles (Nat. Hist. 4. 12). Strabo must 
have written 180 (σ΄ x’) or 280 (7’ π΄) instead of 80 (πη). 
And if he meant Leucas, the error would be far greater. 

2 Παλεῖς, Casaubon inserts ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 12-14 

neither can you know the opposite ‘“ clima.” The 
circuit of Ithaca is about eighty stadia.! So much 
for Ithaca. 

13. As for Cephallenia, which is a Tetrapolis, the 
poet mentions by its present name neither it nor any 
of its cities except one, Samé or Samos, which now 
no longer exists, though traces of it are to be seen 
midway of the passage to Ithaca ; and its people are 
called Samaeans. The other three, however, survive 
even to this day in the little cities Paleis, Pronesus, 
and Cranii. And in our time Gaius Antonius, the 
uncle of Marcus Antonius, founded still another city, 
when, after his consulship, which he held with Cicero 
the orator, he went into exile,? sojourned in 
Cephallenia, and held the whole island in subjection 
as though it were his private estate. However, 
before he could complete the settlement he obtained 
permission to return home,’ and ended his days amid 
other affairs of greater importance. 

14. Some, however, have not hesitated to identify 
Cephallenia with Dulichium, and others with Taphos, 
calling the Cephallenians Taphians, and likewise 
Teleboans, and to say that Amphitryon made an 
expedition thither with Cephalus, the son of Deioneus, 
whom, an exile from Athens, he had taken along 
with him, and that when Amphitryon seized the 
island he gave it over to Cephalus, and that the 
island was named after Cephalus and the cities after 
his children. But this is not in accordance with 
Homer; for the Cephallenians were subject to 
Odysseus and Laertes, whereas Taphos was subject 

1 See critical note. 3.50. TC! 
8 Probably from Caesar. He was back in Rome in 44 B.c, 



Μέντης ᾿Αγχιάλοιο δαΐφρονος εὔχομαι εἶναι 
υἱός, ἀτὰρ 'Ῥαφίοισι φιληρέτμοισιν ἀνάσσω. 

καλεῖται δὲ νῦν Ταφιοῦς 1 ἡ Τάφος. οὐδ᾽ “Ελλά- 
νικος Ὁμηρικός, “Δουλίχιον τὴν Κεφαλληνίαν 
λέγων. τὸ μὲν γὰρ ὕπὸ Μέγητι εἴρηται καὶ αἱ 
λοιπαὶ ᾿Εχινάδες, οἵ τε ἐνοικοῦντες ᾽Επειοὶ Ἐξ 
Ηλιδος ἀφιγμένοι: διόπερ καὶ τὸν Ὦτον τὸν 

Φυλείδεω 3 ἕταρον μεγαθύμων ἀρχὸν ᾿Επειῶν 

αὐτὰρ Ὀδυσσεὺς ἦγε Κεφαλλῆνας μεγαθύμους. 
οὔτ᾽ οὖν Δουλίχιον ἡ Κεφαλληνία καθ᾽ “Ὅμηρον, 
οὔτε τῆς Κεφαλληνίας τὸ Δουλίχιον, ὡς ᾿Ανδρων 
φησί: τὸ μὲν 3 γὰρ ᾽Επειοὶ κατεῖχον, τὴν δὲ 
Κεφαλληνίαν ὅλην Κεφαλλῆνες, καὶ οἱ μὲν. ὑπὸ 
Ὀδυσσεῖ, οἱ δ᾽ ὑπὸ Μέγητι. οὐδὲ ὃ Παλεῖς 
Δουλίχιον ὑφ᾽ Ὁμήρου λέγονται, ὡς γράφει 
Φερεκύδης. μάλιστα δ᾽ ἐναντιοῦται Ὁμήρῳ ὁ 
τὴν Κεφ αλληνίαν τὴν αὐτὴν τῷ Δουλιχίῳ λέγων, 
εἴπερ, τῶν μνηστήρων ἐκ μὲν Δουλιχίοιο δύω καὶ 
πεντήκοντα ἦσαν, ἐκ δὲ Σάμης πίσυρές τε καὶ 
εἴκοσι. οὐ γὰρ τοῦτ᾽ ἂν εἴη λέγων, ἐξ Lo 
μὲν τόσους, ἐκ δὲ μιᾶς τῶν τεττάρων παρὰ δύο ὃ 
τοὺς ἡμίσεις ; εἰ δ᾽ ἄρα τοῦτο δώσει τις, ἐρησύ- 
μεθα, τίς ἂν εἴη ἡ Σάμη, ὅταν οὕτω φῆ; 

Δουλίχιόν τε Σάμην τ᾽ ἠδ᾽ ὑλήεντα Ζάκυνθον. 

1 Ταφιοῦς, Meineke, following Pliny, emends to Ταφιάς ; 
but see Ταφιοῦς in ὃ 20 below. 

2 φυλειδέω, Casaubon, for Φυλιέως CDhiksx, Φυλλιέως BI, 
Φυλιδέω Epit. 

3 τὸ μέν, Tzschucke, for τὴν μέν ; so the later editors. 
4 οἱ μέν, & inserts ; Meineke omits the καί instead. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 14 

to Mentes: “I declare that I am Mentes the son of 
wise Anchialus, and I am lord over the oar-loving 
Taphians.” 1 Taphos is now called Taphius. Neither 
is Hellanicus? in accord with Homer when he identi- 
fies Cephallenia with Dulichium, for Homer? makes 
Dulichium and the remainder of the Echinades sub- 
ject to Meges; and their inhabitants were Epeians, 
who had come there from Elis; and it is on this 
account that he calls Otus the Cyllenian “ comrade of 
Phyleides 4 and ruler of the high-hearted Epeians” ; ° 
“ but Odysseus led the high-hearted Cephallenians.” ὃ 
According to Homer, therefore, neither is Cephal- 
lenia Dulichium nor is Dulichium ἃ part of 
Cephallenia, as Andron? says; for the Epeians held 
possession of Dulichium, whereas the Cephallenians 
held possession of the whole of Cephallenia and were 
subject to Odysseus, whereas the Epeians were 
subject to Meges. Neither is Paleis called Dulichium 
by the poet, as Pherecydes writes. But that writer 
is most in opposition to Homer who identifies 
Cephallenia with Dulichium, if it be true that “ fifty- 
two” of the suitors were “from Dulichium” and 
“twenty-four from Samé’’;® for in that case would 
not Homer say that fifty-two came from the island 
as a whole and a half of that number less two from a 
single one of its four cities? However, if one grants 
this, I shall ask what Homer can mean by ‘‘Samé” 
in the passage, “ Dulichium and Samé and woody 
Zacynthos,”’ ὃ 

1 Od.1. 180. 2 See Dictionary in Vol. I. 8. Iliad 2. 625. 

4 Son of Phyleus (Meges). 5 Iliad 15. 519. 
8 Iliad 2. 631. 7 See foot-note on Andron, 10. 4. 6. 
8 Od 16. 247, 249. ® Od. 1.246. 

5 οὐδέ, Groskurd, for of δέ ; so the later editors. 
ὁ παρὰ δύο x, map’ eva Other MSS. 


Ὃ 457 


15. Κεῖται δ᾽ ἡ Κεφαλληνία κατὰ ᾿Ακαρνανίαν, 
διέχουσα τοῦ Λευκάτα περὶ πεντήκοντα (οἱ δὲ 
τετταράκοντά φασι) σταδίους, τοῦ δὲ Χελωνάτα 
περὶ ἑκατὸν ὀγδοήκοντα. αὐτὴ δ᾽ ἐστὶν ὡς 
τριακοσίων " τὴν περίμετρον, μακρὰ ὃ ἀνήκουσα 
πρὸς Evpov, ὀρεινή" μέγιστον δ᾽ ὄρος ἐν αὐτῇ 
Αἶνος, ἐν ᾧ τὸ τοῦ Διὸς Αἰνησίου ἱερόν" καθ᾽ 
ὃ δὲ στενωτάτη ἐστὶν ἡ νῆσος, ταπεινὸν ἰσθμὸν 
ποιεῖ, ὥσθ᾽ ὑπερκλύζεσθαι πολλάκις ἐκ θαλάτ- 
της εἰς θάλατταν: πλησίον δ᾽ εἰσὶ τῶν στενῶν 
ἐν τῷ κόλπῳ Κράνιοί τε καὶ Παλεῖς. 

16. Μεταξὺ δὲ τῆς ᾿Ιθάκης καὶ τῆς Κεφαλ- 
Anvias ἡ ᾿Αστερία νησίον" ᾿Αστερὶς δ᾽ ὑπὸ τοῦ 
ποιητοῦ λέγεται: ἣν ὁ μὲν Σκήψιος μὴ μένειν 
τοιαύτην, οἵαν φησὶν ὁ ποιητής, 

λιμένες δ᾽ ἔνι ναύλοχοι αὐτῇ 

ὁ δὲ ᾿Απολλόδωρος μένειν καὶ νῦν, καὶ πολίχνιον 
λέγει ἐν αὐτῇ ᾿Αλαλκομενάς, τὸ ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ τῷ 
ἰσθμῷ κείμενον. 

iz Kanes δ᾽ ὁ ποιητὴς Σάμον καὶ τὴν Opa- 
κίαν, ἣν νῦν Σαμοθράκην καλοῦμεν. τὴν δ᾽ 
᾿Ιωνικὴν οἷδε μέν, ὡς εἰκός" καὶ γὰρ τὴν ᾿Ιωνικὴν 
ἀποικίαν εἰδέναι φαίνεται: οὐκ ἂν" ἀντιδιέστειλε 
δὲ τὴν ὁμωνυμίαν, περὶ τῆς Σαμοθράκης λέγων, 
τοτὲ μὲν τῷ ἐπιθέτῳ" 

1 ἑκατὸν (p’), Jones inserts, following conj. of C. Miiller. 

2 Instead of τριακοσίων (τ' = 300), Strabo probably wrote 
ἑπτακοσίων (~’ = 700), which, not counting the sinuosities of 
the gulfs, is about correct. Pliny (4. 19) says ‘‘93 miles” 
(744 stadia), 


GEOGRAPHY, 10. 2. 15-17 

15. Cephallenia lies opposite Acarnania, at a 
distance of about fifty stadia from Leucatas (some say 
forty), and about one hundred and eighty from 
Chelonatas. It has a perimeter of about three 
hundred 1 stadia, is long, extending towards Eurus,” 
and is mountainous. The largest mountain upon it 
is Aenus, whereon is the temple of Zeus Aenesius ; 
and where the island is narrowest it forms an isthmus 
so low-lying that it is often submerged from sea to 
sea. Both Paleis and Crannii are on the gulf near 
the narrows. 

16. Between Ithaca and Cephallenia is the small 
island Asteria (the poet calls it Asteris), which the 
Scepsian 3 says no longer remains such as the poet 
describes it, “ but in it are harbours safe for anchorage 
with entrances on either side ” ;4 Apollodorus, how- 
ever, says that it still remains so to this day, and 
mentions a town Alaleomenae upon it, situated on the 
isthmus itself. 

17. The poet also uses the name “ Samos ”’ for that 
Thrace which we now call Samothrace. And it is 
reasonable to suppose that he knows the Ionian 
Samos, for he also appears to know of the Ionian mi- 
eration ; otherwise he would not have differentiated 
between the places of the same name when referring 
to Samothrace, which he designates at one time by the 

1 See critical note. 

2 2.6. towards the direction of winter sunrise (rather south- 
east) as explained by Poseidonius (see discussion in 1. 2, 21), 

3 Demetrius of Scepsis. 4 Od. 4. 846. 

3. Αἶνος, Xylander inserts; so the later editors. 
4 εἶδε Bhi. 
5 ἄν Corais inserts ; so the later editors. 



ὑψοῦ ἐπ᾽ ἀκροτάτης κορυφῆς Σάμου ὑληέσσης, 


A A a ν΄, lal , , 
τοτὲ δὲ TH συζυγίᾳ τῶν πλησίον νήσων" 

> 4, » 5» wv \ a > 

ἐς Σάμον és T Ἴμβρον καὶ Λῆμνον ἀμιχ- 


\ / 

καὶ πάλιν" 
4 4 \ wv 
μεσσηγύς τε Σάμοιο καὶ Ἴμβρου παιπα- 

» \ S » ] , ’ > / > 243) Lal 
ἤδει μὲν οὖν, οὐκ ὠνόμακε δ᾽ αὐτήν: οὐδ᾽ ἐκαλεῖτο 
A >? A , / , > \ / / 
τῷ αὐτῷ ὀνόματι πρότερον, ἀλλὰ Μελάμφυλος, 

Ὅν 9 , * 7 lal r 
εἶτ᾽ ᾿Ανθεμίς, εἶτα Llapfevia ἀπὸ τοῦ ποταμοῦ 
τοῦ ἸΠαρθενίου, ὃς Ἴμβρασος μετωνομάσθη. 
ἐπεὶ οὖν κατὰ τὰ Τρωικὰ Σάμος μὲν καὶ ἡ 
Κεφαλληνία ἐκαλεῖτο καὶ ἡ Σαμοθράκη (οὐ γὰρ 
ἂν ᾿βκάβη εἰσήγετο λέγουσα, OTL τοὺς παῖδας 
αὐτῆς πέρνασχ᾽, ὅν κε λάβοι, ἐς Σάμον ἔς τ᾽ 
Ἴμβρον), 1 ᾿Ιωνικὴ δ᾽ 2 οὐκ ἀπῴκιστό πω, δῆλον 
δ᾽ 8. ὅτι ἀπὸ τῶν προτέρων τινὸς τὴν ὁμωνυμίαν 
ἔσχεν. ἐξ ὧν κἀκεῖνο δῆλον, ὅτι παρὰ τὴν 
ἀρχαίαν ἱστορίαν ὃ λέγουσιν οἱ φήσαντες, μετὰ 
τὴν ᾿Ιωνικὴν ἀποικίαν καὶ τὴν Ῥεμβρίωνος πα- 

, “ \ 
ρουσίαν ἀποίκους ἐλθεῖν ἐκ Σάμου Kai ὀνομάσαι 
Σάμον τὴν Σαμοθράκην, ὡς οἱ Σώμιοι τοῦτ᾽ 
ἐπλάσαντο δόξης χάριν. πιθανώτεροι δ᾽ εἰσὶν οἱ 4 
ἀπὸ τοῦ σάμους 5 καλεῖσθαι τὰ ὕψη φήσαντες 
εὑρῆσθαι τοῦτο τοὔνομα τὴν νῆσον' ἐντεῦθεν γάρ 
’ - vo 
ἐφαίνετο πᾶσα μὲν “ldn, 
/ \ / / ἊΝ fal > a 
φαίνετο δὲ Πριάμοιο πόλις καὶ νῆες ᾿Αχαιῶν. 
1 Before Ἰωνική hi have 7, x ὥστ᾽, y ὥστε ἣ, Corais ἡ δ᾽. 

2 Kramer inserts δ᾽ before οὐκ; so the later editors, 
3 Kramer inserts δ᾽ before ὅτι ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 17 

epithet, “high on the topmost summit of woody 
Samos, the Thracian,” ἢ and at another time by con- 
necting it with the islands near it, “ unto Samos and 
Imbros and inhospitable 2 Lemnos.” And _ again, 
“ between Samos and rugged Imbros.’’ He therefore 
knew the Ionian island, although he did not name it ; 
in fact it was not called by the same name in earlier 
times, but Melamphylus, then Anthemis, then 
Parthenia, from the River Parthenius, the name of 
which was changed to Imbrasus. Since, then, both 
Cephallenia and Samothrace were called Samos at the 
time of the Trojan War (for otherwise Hecabe would 
not be introduced as saying that he® was for selling 
her children whom he might take captive “unto Samos 
and unto Imbros’’),? and since the Ionian Samos had 
not yet been colonised, it plainly got its name from 
one of the islands which earlier bore the same name, 
Whence that other fact is also clear, that those 
writers contradict ancient history who say that 
colonists came from Samos after the Ionian migration 
and the arrival of Tembrion ὅ and named Samothrace 
Samos, since this story was fabricated by the Samians 
to enhance the glory of their island. Those writers 
are more plausible who say that the island came upon 
this name from the fact that lofty places are called 
*‘samoi,” δ “ for thence all Ida was plain to see, and 
plain to see were the city of Priam and the ships of 
the Achaeans.” 7 But some say that the island was 

1 [liad 13. 12. 

2 Or ‘‘smoky ”’; the meaning of the Greek word is doubtful. 
5. Achilles. 4 Tliad 24. 752. 5)'See 14. 1. 3. 
See 8. 3. 19. 7 Iliad 13. 13. 

4 oi, before ἀπό, CDhil omit. — 
5 σάμους K, σαμαίους other MSS. 


C 458 


τινὲς δὲ Σάμον καλεῖσθαί φασιν ἀπὸ Σαΐων, τῶν 
οἰκούντων Θρᾳκῶν πρότερον, οἱ καὶ τὴν ἤπειρον 
ἔσχον τὴν προσεχῆ, εἴτε οἱ αὐτοὶ τοῖς Σαπαίοις 
ὄντες ἢ τοῖς Σιντοῖς, ods Σίντιας καλεῖ ὁ ποιητής, 
εἴθ᾽ ἕτεροι. μέμνηται δὲ τῶν Σαΐων ᾿Αρχίλοχος" 
ἀσπίδα μὲν Σαΐων τις ἀνείλετο! τὴν παρὰ 
ἔντος ἀμώμητον κάλλιπον οὐκ ἐθέλων. 

18. Λοιπὴ δ᾽ ἐστὶ τῶν. ὑπὸ τῷ Ὀδισσεῖ 
τεταγμένων νήσων ἡ ZaxvvOos, μικρῷ πρὸς 
ἑσπέραν μᾶλλον τῆς Κεφαλληνίας κεκλιμένη " 
τῆς Πελοποννήσου, συνάπτουσα δ᾽ αὐτῇ 3 πλέον. 
ἔστιν ὁ κύκλος τῆς Ζακύνθου σταδίων ἑκατὸν 4 
ἑξήκοντα" διέχει δὲ καὶ τῆς Κεφαλληνίας ὅσον 
ἑξήκοντα σταδίους, ὑλώδης μέν, εὔκαρπος δέ: 
καὶ ἡ πόλις ἀξιόλογος ὁμώνυμος. ἐντεῦθεν εἰς 

Ἑσπερίδας τῆς Λιβύης στάδιοι τρισχίλιοι 


19. Καὶ ταύτης δὲ καὶ τῆς Κεφαλληνίας πρὸς 
ἕω τὰς ᾿Εχινάδας ἱδρῦσθαι νήσους συμβέβηκεν" 
ὧν τό τε Δουλίχιόν ἐστι (καλοῦσι δὲ νῦν 
Δολίχαν) καὶ αἱ Ὃ ξεῖαι καλούμεναι, ἃς Θοὰς 
ὁ ποιητὴς εἶπε' καὶ ἡ μὲν Δολίχα κεῖται κατὰ 
Οἰνειάδας καὶ τὴν ἐκβολὴν τοῦ ᾿Αχελῴου, διέ- 

1 ἀνείλετο Epit. and corr. in B, ἀνείλατο Bay, ἀφείλατο 5, 
ἀγείλατο 7, ἀγάλλεται editors before Kramer (cp. readings of 
same passage in 12, 3. 20). 

* Palmer omits καί before τῆς ; so Tzschucke, Groskurd, 
and Meineke. 

3 αὐτῇ, Kramer, for αὐτή (gary); συνάπτων δ᾽ αὐτὴν (πλέον 
ἐστὶν ὁ κτλ.), other MSS.; so the later editors. 

“Instead of ἑκατὸν (p’=100) Strabo almost certainly 


GEOGRAPHY, to. 2. 17-19 

called Samos after the Saii, the Thracians who inhab- 
ited it in earlier times, who also held the adjacent 
mainland, whether these Saii were the same people 
as the Sapaei or Sinti (the poet calls them Sinties) 
or a different tribe. The Saii are mentioned by 
Archilochus: “One of the Saii robbed me of my 
shield, which, a blameless weapon, I left behind me 
beside a bush, against my will.’’? 

18. Of the islands classified as subject to Odysseus, 
Zacynthos remains to be described. It leans slightly 
more to the west of the Peloponnesus than Cephal- 
lenia and lies closer to the latter. The circuit of 
Zacynthos is one hundred and sixty stadia? It is 
about sixty stadia distant from Cephallenia. It is 
indeed a woody island, but it is fertile; and its city, 
which bears the same name, is worthy of note. The 
distance thence to the Libyan Hesperides is three 
thousand three hundred stadia. 

19. To the east of Zacynthos and Cephallenia are 
situated the Echinades Islands, among which is 
Dulichium, now called Dolicha, and also what are 
called the Oxeiae, which the poet called Thoae.* 
Dolicha lies opposite Oeneiadae and the outlet of the 
Acheloiis, at a distance of one hundred stadia from 

1 Bergk, Frag. 6 (51). Two more lines are preserved: 
“but I myself escaped the doom of death. Farewell to that 
shield! JI shall get another one as good,”’ 

2 See critical note. 

3 In Greek ‘‘ Oxeiai” and ‘‘ Thoai,’”’ both words meaning 
‘“‘sharp” or ‘‘ pointed” (see 8, 3. 26 and foot-note, and Οὐ. 

15, 299). 

wrote πεντακόσιοι (p’ = 500). 560 stadia is about correct for 
the circuit. Pliny’s text has 36 miles (4. 12). 
5 Meineke emends τριακόσιοι (τ΄) to ἑξακόσιοι (x’ = 600), as 
in 17. 3. 20, but this is doubtful. 


χουσα ᾿Αράξου, τῆς τῶν ᾿Ηλείων ἄκρας, ἑκατόν, 
καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ δ᾽ ᾿Εχινάδες (πλείους εἰσί, πᾶσαι 
λυπραὶ καὶ τραχεῖαι); πρὸ τῆς ἐκβολῆς τοῦ 
᾿Αχελῴου, πεντεκαίδεκα σταδίους ἀφεστῶσα ἡ 
ἀπωτάτω, ἡ δ᾽ ἐγγυτάτω πέντε, πελαγίζουσαι 
πρότερον' ἀλλ᾽ ἡ χοῦς τὰς μὲν ἐξηπείρωκεν 
αὐτῶν ἤδη, τὰς δὲ μέλλει, i ἢ καταφερομένη" 
ἧπερ καὶ τὴν Παραχελωΐτιν * καλουμένην χώραν," 
ἣν ὁ ποταμὸς ἐπικλύζξει, περιμάχητον 4 ἐποίει τὸ 
παλαιόν, τοὺς ὅρους συγχέουσα ἀεὶ τοὺς ἀπο- 
δεικνυμένους τοῖς ᾿Ακαρνᾶσι καὶ τοῖς Αἰτωλοῖς" 
ἐκρίνοντο γὰρ τοῖς ὅπλοις, οὐκ ἔχοντες διαιτητάς, 
ἐνίκων δ᾽ οἱ πλέον δυνάμενοι: ἀφ᾽ ἧς αἰτίας καὶ 
a » / ¢ € , 
μῦθος ἐπλάσθη τις, ὡς Ἡρακλέους καταπολε- 
μήσαντος τὸν Αχελῷον καὶ ἐνεγκαμένου τῆς 
νίκης ἄθλον τὸν Δηιανείρας γάμον, τῆς Οἰνέως 
θυγατρός, ἣν πεποίηκε Σοφοκλῆς τοιαῦτα 


μνηστὴρ γὰρ ἣν μοι ποταμός, ᾿Αχελῷον λέγω, 
ὅς μ᾽ ἐν τρισὶν μορφαῖσιν ἐξήτει πατρός, 
φοιτῶν ἐναργὴς ταῦρος, ἄλλοτ᾽ αἰόλος 
δράκων ἑλικτός, ἄλλοτ᾽ ἀνδρείῳ κύτει 
προστιθέασι δ᾽ ἔνιοι καὶ τὸ τῆς ᾿Αμαλθείας τοῦτ᾽ 
εἶναι λέγοντες κέρας, ὃ ἀπέκλασεν ὁ Ἣρακλῆς 
τοῦ ᾿Αχελῴου καὶ ἔδωκεν Οἰνεῖ τῶν γάμων ἕδνον'" 


Corais omits καί before πρό; so Meineke. 
MapaxeAg BK, MapaxeAwny nosx, Παραχελῷτιν Ὁ). 
After χώραν x adds ἐστὶ προσχοῦσα ; so Corais. 
Xylander omits δέ before ἐποίει ; so Meineke. 
τύπῳ Dhil. 

σι» © Pe 

GEOGRAPHY, to. 2. 19 

Araxus, the promontory of the Eleians; the rest of 
the Echinades (they are several in number, all poor- 
soiled and rugged) lie off the outlet of the Acheloiis, 
the farthermost being fifteen stadia distant and the 
nearest five. In earlier times they lay out in the high 
sea, but the silt brought down by the Acheloiis has 
already joined some of them to the mainland and will 
do the same to others. It was this silt which in early 
times caused the country called Paracheloitis,! which 
the river overflows, to be a subject of dispute, since 
it was always confusing the designated boundaries 
between the Acarnanians and the Aetolians; for 
they would decide the dispute by arms, since they 
had no arbitrators, and the more powerful of the 
two would win the victory ; and this is the cause of 
the fabrication of a certain myth, telling how 
Heracles defeated Acheloiis and, as the prize of his 
victory, won the hand of Deianeira, the daughter of 
Oeneus, whom Sophocles represents as speaking as 
follows: “ For my suitor was a river-god, 1 mean 
Acheloiis, who would demand me of my father in 
three shapes, coming now as a bull in bodily form, 
now as a gleaming serpent in coils, now with trunk 
of man and front of ox.’’? Some writers add to the 
myth, saying that this was the horn of Amaltheia,® 
which Heracles broke off from Acheloiis and gave to 
Oeneus as a wedding gift. Others, conjecturing the 

1 7.¢. ‘* Along the Acheloiis.” 

2 Trachiniae 7-11. One vase-painting shows Acheloiis 
fighting with Achilles as a serpent with the head and arms 
of a man, and with ox-horns, and another as a human figure, 
except that he had the forehead, horns, and ears of an ox 
(Jebb, note ad loc.). 

3 Cf. 3. 2. 14 and foot-note, 



οἱ δ᾽, εἰκάζεντες ἐξ: αὐτῶν τἀληθές, ταύρῳ μὲν 
ἐοικότα λέγεσθαι τὸν ᾿Αχελῷόν φασι, καθάπερ 
καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους ποταμούς, ἀπό τε τῶν ἤχων 
καὶ τῶν κατὰ τὰ ῥεῖθρα καμπῶν, ἃς καλοῦσι 
κέρατα, δράκοντι δὲ διὰ τὸ μῆκος καὶ τὴν σκο- 
λιότητα, βούπρωρον δὲ διὰ τὴν αὐτὴν αἰτίαν, 
δι᾿ ἣν καὶ “ταυρωπόν' τὸν Ἡρακλέα δέ, καὶ ἄλλως 
εὐεργετικὸν ὄντα καὶ τῷ Οἰνεῖ κηδεύσοντα, παρα- 
χώμασί τε καὶ διοχετείαις βιάσασθαι τὸν ποτα- 
C 459 μὸν πλημμελῶς ῥέοντα καὶ πολλὴν τῆς Παρα- 
χελωίτιδος ᾿ ἀναψῦξαι * χαριζόμενον τῷ Οἰνεῖ: 
καὶ τοῦτ᾽ εἶναι τὸ τῆς ᾿Αμαλθείας κέρας. τῶν 
μὲν οὖν ᾿Εχινάδων καὶ τῶν ᾿Οξειῶν κατὰ τὰ 
Τρωικὰ Μέγητα ἄρχειν φησὶν Ὅμηρος, 

ὃν τίκτε Διὶ φίλος ἱππότα Φυλεύς, 

»" , ,’ ’ , Ν 
ὅς ποτε Δουλιχίονδ᾽ ἀπενάσσατο, πατρὶ χο- 

πατὴρ δ᾽ ἣν Αὐγέας, ὁ τῆς Ἠλείας καὶ τῶν 
᾿Επειῶν “ἄρχων' ὥστ᾽ ᾽Επειοὶ τὰς νήσους ταύτας 
εἶχον οἱ συνεξάραντες εἰς τὸ Δουλίχιον τῷ 

20. Αἱ δὲ τῶν Ταφίων νῆσοι, πρότερον δὲ 
Τηλεβοῶν, ὧν ἦν καὶ ἡ Τάφος, νῦν δὲ Ταφιοῦς 3 
καλοῦ μεν, χωρὶς ἦσαν τούτων, οὐ τοῖς διαστή- 
μασιν * (ἐγγὺς γὰρ κεῖνται), ἀλλὰ ὑφ᾽ ἑτέροις 
ἡγεμόσι ταττόμεναι, Ταφίοις καὶ Τηλεβόαις" 
πρότερον μὲν οὖν ᾿Αμφιτρύων, ἐπιστρατεύσας 

1 After Παραχελωίτιδος, Bnox add φθείροντα. 

2 ἀναψῦξαι, Villebrun, for ἀναψύξιν ; so the later editors. 

3 Ταφιοῦς, Meineke, following Pliny, emends to Ταφιάς" 
but see Ταφίους in ὃ 14 above. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 19-20 

truth from the myths, say that the Acheloiis, like 
the other rivers, was called “like a bull” from the 
roaring of its waters, and also from the the bendings 
of its streams, which were called Horns, and “ like a 
serpent’’ because of its length and windings, and 
“with front of ox’! for the same reason that he 
was called “ bull-faced’”’ ; and that Heracles, who in 
general was inclined to deeds of kindness, but especi- 
ally for Oeneus, since he was to ally himself with 
him by marriage, regulated the irregular flow of the 
river by means of embankments and channels, and 
thus rendered a considerable part of Paracheloitis 
dry, all to please Oeneus; and that this was the 
horn of Amaltheia.2 Now, as for the Echinades, or 
the Oxeiae, Homer says that they were ruled over in 
the time of the Trojan War by Meges,‘“ who was 
begotten by the knightly Phyleus, dear to Zeus, 
who once changed his abode to Dulichium because 
he was wroth with his father.”* His father was 
Augeas, the ruler of the Eleian country and the 
Epeians ; and therefore the Epeians who set out for 
Dulichium with Phyleus held these islands. 

20. The islands of the Taphians, or, in earlier 
times, of the Teleboans, among which was Taphos, 
now called Taphius, were distinct from the Echi- 
nades; not in the matter of distances (for they lie 
near them), but in that they are classified as under 
different commanders, Taphians and Teleboans.* 
Now in earlier times Amphitryon made an expedition 

1 Literally, ‘‘ ox-prowed ” (see Jebb, Zoc. cit.). 
(Cf Ori 2:14: 3 Iliad 2. 628. 
4 The latter name is not found in the (iad or Odyssey. 

4 διαστήμασιν, Xylander, for διαιτήμασιν BDEKK noe. 


VOL. V. ς 


αὐτοῖς μετὰ Κεφάλου τοῦ Aniovéws! ἐξ ᾿Αθηνῶν 
φυγάδος, ἐκείνῳ τὴν ἀρχὴν παρέδωκεν αὐτῶν' 
- \ \ Cen 7, ΄, , \ 
ὁ δὲ ποιητὴς ὑπὸ Mévtn τετάχθαι φησί, AnoTAS 
r > 4 , Ἁ \ / “ 

καλῶν αὐτούς, καθάπερ καὶ τοὺς 'Γηλεβόας ἅπαν- 
τάς φασι. τὰ μὲν περὶ τὰς νήσους τὰς πρὸ 
τῆς ᾿Ακαρνανίας ταῦτα. 

21. Μεταξὺ δὲ Λευκάδος καὶ τοῦ ᾿Αμβρακικοῦ 
κόλπου λιμνοθάλαττά ἐστι, Μυρτούντιον λεγο- 

"4 > Ἃ \ / € an 4 ‘ 
μένη. ἀπὸ δὲ Λευκάδος ἑξῆς Lladatpos καὶ 
᾿Αλυζία ths Ακαρνανίας εἰσὶ 38 πόλεις, ὧν ἡ 
᾿Αλυζία πεντεκαίδεκα ἀπὸ θαλάττης διέχει 
σταδίους, καθ᾽ ἥν ἐστι λιμὴν Ἡρακλέους ἱερὸς 
καὶ τέμενος, ἐξ οὗ ὃ τοὺς Ἡρακλέους ἄθλους, 
ἔργα Λυσίππου, μετήνεγκεν εἰς “Ῥώμην τῶν 
ἡγεμόνων τες, παρὰ τόπον ὃ κειμένους διὰ τὴν 
ἐρημίαν. εἶτα ἄκρα Κριθωτὴ * καὶ αἱ ὃ ᾿Εχινάδες 
καὶ πόλις ᾿Αστακός, ὁμώνυμος τῇ περὶ Νικομή- 
decay καὶ τὸν ᾿Αστακηνὸν κόλπον, Bags: 

/ ὙΥῈ \ 3, ff ΄ / 

λεγομένη. Kal ἡ ἹΚριθωτὴ ὃ ὁμώνυμος πολίχνῃ 1 
τῶν ἐν τῇ Θρᾳκίᾳ Χερρονήσῳ. πάντα δ᾽ εὐλίμενα 
τὰ μεταξύ' εἶτ᾽ Οἰνιάδαι καὶ ὁ ᾿Αχελῷος" εἶτα 
λίμνη τῶν Οἰνιαδῶν, Μελίτη καλουμένη, μῆκος 
μὲν ἔχουσα τριάκοντα σταδίων, πλάτος δὲ 
εἴκοσι, καὶ ἄλλη Κυνία, διπλασία ταύτης καὶ 

1 Δηιονέως E and Eustathius (note on Od. 1. 105), Aniovos 
CDBhilnsx, Aniéveos Bo by corr., Aniwvos k. 

2 φασι, Corais, for φησι; so the later editors. 

3 εἰσί, Palmer, for ἐστί (all MSS. except nox, which omit 
the word). 
πόλεις x, πόλις Other MSS. 
οὗ, Casaubon, for αὐτοῦ ; so the later editors. 
παρατόπων 9: παρατόπως Corais. 
Κριθωτή, hand by corr. in D, Κορινθώτη ΒΟκίποϑο: and 
man. pr. in D and in margin of h. 



ὦ οἱ 

GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 20-21 

against them with Cephalus the son of Deioneus, an 
exile from Athens, and gave over their government 
to him, but the poet says that they were marshalled 
under Mentes,! calling them pirates,” as indeed all 
the Teleboans are said to be pirates. So much, then, 
for the islands lying off Acarnania. 

21. Between Leucas and the Ambracian Gulf is a 
salt-lake, called Myrtuntium. Next after Leucas 
one comes to Palaerus and Alyzia, cities of Acar- 
nania; of these, Alyzia is fifteen stadia distant from 
the sea, where is a harbour sacred to Heracles and 
a sacred precinct. It is from this precinct that one 
of the commanders carried to Rome the ‘‘ Labours of 
Heracles,” works of Lysippus, which were lying out 
of place where they were, because it was a deserted 
region. Then one comes to Cape Crithoté, and the 
Echinades, and the city Astacus, which bears the 
same name as the city near Nicomedeia and Gulf 
Astacenus,*? the name being used in the feminine 
gender. Crithoté also bears the same name as one 
of the little cities in the Thracian Chersonesus.* 
All parts of the coast between these places have 
good harbours. Then one comes to Oeniadae and 
the Acheloiis; then to a lake of the Oeniadae, 
called Melité, which is thirty stadia in length and 
twenty in breadth; and to another lake, Cynia, 

θα. Ne 180: Ξ: 0 αν 15. 497: 
3 Gulf of Ismid (see 12. 4. 9). 
“ See Frag. 55 (56), Vol. III, p. 377. 

8 gf, Corais and Meineke insert. 
9. θηλυκῶς, Miiller-Diibner and Meineke emend to ἑνικῶς. 
0 πολίχνῃ, Jones, for πολίχνη. 


C 460 


μῆκος καὶ πλάτος, τρίτη δ᾽ Οὐρία πολλῷ τού- 
των μικροτέρα: ἡ μὲν οὖν Κυνία καὶ ἐκδίδωσιν 
εἰς τὴν θάλατταν, αἱ λοιπαὶ δ᾽ ὑπέρκεινται ὅσον 
e / sf? ς Ἂν 5 a > Ν “ὋΣ / 
ἡμιστάδιον" εἶθ᾽ ὁ Εὔηνος, ets ὃν ἀπὸ τοῦ ᾿Ακτίου 
΄ ΄ ’ ΄ , A A x Μ 
στάδιοι ἑξακόσιοι ἑβδομήκοντα" μετὰ δὲ τὸν Εὔηνον 
\ » e 7 / Δ ΄ 1 » ᾽ , 
τὸ ὄρος ἡ Χαλκίς, ἣν Χαλκίαν 1 εἴρηκεν td ca 
Swpos: ° εἶθ᾽ ἡ Thevpor, εἶθ᾽ ἡ “Αλίκυρνα ® κώμη, 
ἧς ὑπέρκειται Καλυδὼν ἐν τῇ μεσογαίᾳ σταδίοις 
τριάκοντα' περὶ δὲ τὴν Καλυδῶνά ἐστι τὸ τοῦ 
Λαφρίου 1 ᾿Απόλλωνος ἱερόν: εἶθ᾽ ὁ Ταφιασσὸς ὃ 
Ἃ “47 > [4 , 5 4 
τὸ ὄρος, εἶτα Μακυνία πόλις, εἶτα Μολύκρεια 
καὶ πλησίον τὸ ᾿Αντίρριον, τὸ τῆς ᾿Αἰτωλίας 
ὅριον καὶ τῆς Λοκρίδος, εἰς ὃ ἀπὸ τοῦ Εὐήνου 
στάδιοι περὶ ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι: ᾿Αρτεμίδωρος μὲν 
> 6 a \ n Μ [ὃ » Χ' ΄ 
οὐχ ὃ οὕτω περὶ τῆς εἴτε Χαλκίδος εἴτε Χαλκίας 
τοῦ ὄρους, μεταξὺ τοῦ ᾿Αχελῴου καὶ τῆς Πλευ- 
» ε 4 > / » / ,ὔ e / 
pavos ἱδρύων αὐτήν, ᾿Απολλόδωρος δέ, ὡς πρό- 
τερον εἶπον, ὑπὲρ τῆς Μολυκρείας καὶ τὴν 
Χαλκίδα καὶ τὸν Ταφιασσόν" καὶ τὴν δὲδ 
Καλυδῶνα μεταξὺ ἱδρῦσθαί φησι τῆς τε Πλευ- 
ρῶνος καὶ τῆς Χαλκίδος: εἰ μὴ ἄρα ἕτερον θετέον 
A ἈΝ Lal bd vr ’ ’ 
τὸ πρὸς Πλευρῶνι ὄρος Χαλκίαν καλούμενον, 
ἕτερον δὲ τὴν Χαλκίδα τὴν πρὸς Μολυκρείᾳ. 
ἔστι δέ τις καὶ 190 πρὸς τῇ Καλυδῶνι λίμνη 

1 Χαλείαν DChsx, Χαλίαν no, Χάλκειαν editors before 

2 Kramer would transpose εἶθ᾽ ἡ Πλευρών.. . ἱερόν back 
to a position before εἶθ᾽ 6 Εὔηνος κτλ. (See his note and 
Miiller’s Jnd. Var. Lect. p. 1009.) 

5 “Αλίκυρνα (see Steph. Byz. s.v.), the editors, for Λικύρνα. 

* Λαφρίου, Palmer, for Aagpatov ; so the later editors. 
Ταφιασσός, the editors, for Ταφίασος. 
οὐχ, before οὕτω, Meineke inserts, frem conj. of Du Theil. 

GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 21 

which is twice the size of Melité, both in length and 
in breadth; and to a third, Uria, which is much 
smaller than those. Now Cynia empties into the 
sea, but the others lie about half a stadium above it. 
Then one comes to the Evenus, to which the dis- 
tance from Actium is six hundred and seventy 
stadia. After the Evenus one comes to the moun- 
tain Chalcis, which Artemidorus has called Chalcia ; 
then to Pleuron; then to the village Halicyrna, 
above which, thirty stadia in the interior, lies 
Calydon; and near Calydon is the temple of the 
Laphrian Apollo. Then one comes to the mountain 
Taphiassus; then to the city Macynia; then to 
Molycreia and, near by, to Antirrhium, the boundary 
between Aetolia and Locris, to which the distance 
from the Evenus is about one hundred and twenty 
stadia. _Artemidorus, indeed, does not give this 
account of the mountain, whether we call it Chalcis 
or Chalcia, since he places it between the Acheloiis 
and Pleuron, but Apollodorus, as I have said before,! 
places both Chalcis and Taphiassus above Molycreia, 
and he also says that Calydon is situated between 
Pleuron and Chalcis. Perhaps, however, we should 
postulate two mountains, one near Pleuron called 
Chalcis, and the other near Molycreia called Chalcis. 
Near Calydon, also, is a lake, which is large and 

110, 2. 4. 

7 Ταφιασσόν, the editors, for Ταφίασσον B, Ταφίασος other 

8 δέ, Kramer, from conj. of Tzschucke, for τε (BCDhh) ; 
other MSS. omit the word. 

9 φησι, the editors, for φασι. 

10 For τις καί Palmer conj. Ὄνθις ; so Kiepert in Tab. 



μεγάλη καὶ εὔοψος, ἣν ἔχουσιν οἱ ἐν Πάτραις 

22. Τῆς δὲ μεσογαίας κατὰ μὲν τὴν ᾿Ακαρνανίαν 
᾿Ερυσιχαίους τινάς φησιν ᾿Απολλόδωρος λέγεσθαι, 
ὧν ᾿Αλκμὰν μέμνηται" 

οὐδ᾽ ᾿ὡρυσιχαῖος οὐδὲ 5 ποιμήν, 
ἀλλὰ Σαρδίων ἀπ᾽ ἀκρᾶν. 

κατὰ δὲ τὴν Αἰτωλίαν ἦν Ὥλενος, ἧς ὃ ἐν τῴ 
Δἰτωλικῷ καταλόγῳ μέμνηται, “Ὅμηρος, ἴχνη δ᾽ 
αὐτῆς λείπεται μόνον ἐγγὺς τῆς Πλευρῶνος ὑπὸ 
τῷ ᾿Αρακύνθῳ"ὁ ἣν δὲ καὶ Λυσιμαχία πλησίον, 
ἠφανισμένη καὶ αὐτή, κειμένη πρὸς τῇ λίμνῃ, τῇ 
νῦν μὲν Λυσιμαχίᾳ, πρότερον δ᾽ ‘Tépa, “μεταξὺ 
Πλευρῶνος καὶ ᾿Αρσινόης πόλεως, ἣ κώμη μὲν 
ἣν πρότερον, καλουμένη Kovora,° κτίσμα 
ὑπῆρξεν ᾿Αρσινόης, τῆς Πτολεμαίου τοῦ δευτέρου 
γυναικὸς ἅμα καὶ ἀδελφῆς, εὐφυῶς ἐπικειμένη 
πῶς τῇ τοῦ ᾿Αχελᾳου διαβάσει: παραπλήσιον δέ 
τι καὶ ἡ Πυλήνη τῷ ᾿ῶὩλένῳ πέπονθεν. ὅταν δὲ 
φῆ τὴν Καλυδῶνα αἰπεῖών τε καὶ πετρήεσσαν, 
ἀπὸ τῆς χώρας δεκτέον" εἴρηται γάρ, ὅτι τὴν 
χώραν δίχα διελόντες τὴν μὲν ὀρεινὴν καὶ ἐπίκτη- 
τον τῇ Καλυδῶνι προσένειμαν, τὴν πεδιάδα δὲ τῇ 

28. Νυνὶ μὲν οὖν ἐκπεπόνηται καὶ ἀπηγόρευκεν 
ὑπὸ τῶν συνεχῶν πολέμων ἥ T ᾿Ακαρνανία καὶ 
Αἰτωλοί, καθάπερ καὶ πολλὰ τῶν ἄλλων ἐθνῶν" 

1 εὔυψος BCDghinoz ; 3 εὔψυχος k. 
3 Before ποιμήν Bergk (note to Prag. 24) reads merely οὐδέ 
instead of Καλυδωναίου δέ DHisn, Καλυδωνέου δέ Bk, Κλυδωναίου 
δέ C3 Καλυδώνιος οὐδέ, Corais from conj. of Casaubon. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 21-23 

well supplied with fish; it is held by the Romans 
who live in Patrae,. 

22. Apollodorus says that in the interior of 
Acarnania there is a people called Erysichaeans, 
who are mentioned by Aleman: “nor yet an Ery- 
sichaean nor shepherd, but from the heights of 
Sardeis.’ 1 But Olenus, which Homer mentions in 
the Aetolian catalogue, was in Aetolia, though only 
traces of it are left, near Pleuron at the foot of 
Aracynthus. Near it, also, was Lysimachia; this, 
too, has disappeared ; it was situated by the lake 
now called Lysimachia, in earlier times Hydra, 
between Pleuron and the city Arsinoé. In earlier 
times Arsinoé was only a village, and was called 
Conopa, but it was first founded as a city by Arsinoé, 
who was both wife and sister of Ptolemy the 
Second ;2 it was rather happily situated at the ford 
across the Acheloiis. Pylené® has also suffered a 
fate similar to that of Olenus. When the poet calls 
Calydon both “steep’’* and “rocky,’’® one should 
interpret him as referring to the country; for, as I 
have said,® they divided the country into two parts 
and assigned the mountainous part, or Epictetus,’ to 
Calydon and the level country to Pleuron. 

23. At the present time both the Acarnanians and 
the Aetolians, like many of the other tribes, have 
been exhausted and reduced to impotence by their 

1 Frag. 24 (Bergk). 2 She married him in 279 B.c, 
SCE 10 26; 4 Thad V3. 207. 5 Iliad 2. 640. 
GID, B83. 7 2,6. Aetolia the ‘‘ Acquired ” (10. 2. 3). 

3 ἧς, Corais, for ὡς ; so the later editors, 
4 τΑρακύνθῳ, the editors, for ᾽᾿Δρακίνθῳ. 
5 Κωνώπα, Tzschucke, for Κονώπα ; so the later editors. 


C 461 


πλεῖστον μέντοι χρόνον συνέμειναν Αἰτωλοὶ μετὰ 
τῶν ᾿Ακαρνάνων πρός τε τοὺς Μακεδόνας καὶ 
τοὺς ἄλλους Ἕλληνας, ὕστατα δὲ καὶ πρὸς 
Ῥωμαίους περὶ τῆς αὐτονομίας ἀγωνιζόμενοι. 
ἐπεὶ δὲ καὶ Ὅμηρος αὐτῶν ἐπὶ πολὺ μέμνηται καὶ 
οἱ ἄλλοι ποιηταί τε καὶ συγγραφεῖς, τὰ μὲν 
εὐσήμως τε καὶ ὁμολογουμένως, τὰ δ᾽ ἧττον 
γνωρίμως (καθάπερ τοῦτο 1 καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἤδη 
λεχθεῖσι περὶ αὐτῶν ἀποδέδεικται), προσληπτέον 
καὶ τῶν παλαιοτέρων τινὰ τῶν ἀρχῆς ἐχόντων 
τάξιν ἢ διαπορουμένων. 

24. Εὐθὺς ἐπὶ τῆς ᾿Ακαρνανίας, ὅτε μὲν αὐτὴν 
ὁ Λαέρτης καὶ οἱ Κεφαλλῆνες κατεκτήσαντο, 
εἴρηται ἡμῖν, τίνων δὲ κατεχόντων πρότερον, 
πολλοὶ μὲν εἰρήκασιν, οὐχ ὁμολογούμενα, δὲ 
εἰπόντων, ἐπιφανῆ δέ, ἀπολείπεταί τις λόγος ἡμῖν 
διαιτητικὸς περὶ αὐτῶν. φασὶ γὰρ τοὺς Tadious 
τε καὶ Τηλεβόας λεγομένους οἰκεῖν THY Axapvaviay 
πρότερον, καὶ τὸν “ἡγεμόνα αὐτῶν “Κέφαλον τὸν 
κατασταθέντα ὑ ὑπὸ Α μφιτρύωνος κύριον. τῶν περὶ 
τὴν Tadov νήσων κυριεῦσαι. καὶ ταύτης τῆς χώρας" 
ἐντεῦθεν δὲ καὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦ Λευκάτα νομιζόμενον 
ἅλμα τούτῳ πρώτῳ προσμυθεύουσιν, ὡς προείρη- 
ται. ὁ δὲ ποιητής, ὅτι μὲν ἦρχον οἱ Τάφιοι τῶν 
᾿Ακαρνάνων, πρὶν ἢ τοὺς Κεφαλλῆνας καὶ τὸν 
Λαέρτην ἐπελθεῖν, οὐ λέγει, διότι δ᾽ ἦσαν φίλοι 
τοῖς ᾿Ιθακησίοις λέγει, ὥστ᾽ ἢ οὐδ᾽ ὅλως ἐπῆρξαν 

1 χρῦτο no, τούτου BCDA#I. 

1 10. 2..8, 10. 2 .Cf,10;, 2.9; 

GEOGRAPHY, to. 2. 23-24 

continual wars. However, for a very long time the 
Aetolians, together with the Acarnanians, stood 
firm, not only against the Macedonians and the 
other Greeks, but also finally against the Romans, 
when fighting for autonomy. But since they are 
often mentioned by Homer, as also both by the 
other poets and by historians, sometimes in words 
that are easy to interpret and about which there is 
no disagreement, and sometimes in words that are 
less intelligible (this has been shown in what I have 
already said about them), I should also add some of 
those older accounts which afford us a basis of fact 
to begin with, or are matters of doubt. 

24. For instance, in the case of Acarnania, Laertes 
and the Cephallenians acquired possession of it, as I 
have said;1} but as to what people held it before 
that time, many writers have indeed given an 
opinion, but since they do not agree in their state- 
ments, which have, however, a wide currency, there 
is left for me a word of arbitration concerning them. 
They say that the people who were called both 
‘Taphians and Teleboans lived in Acarnania in earlier 
times, and that their leader Cephalus, who had been 
set up by Amphitryon as master over the islands 
about Taphos, gained the mastery over this country 
too. And from this fact they go on to add the 
myth that Cephalus was the first to take the leap 
from Leucatas which became the custom, as I have 
said before. But the poet does not say that the 
Taphians were ruling the Acarnanians before the 
Cephallenians and Laertes came over, but only that 
they were friends to the Ithacans, and therefore, 
according to the poet, they either had not ruled over 
the region at all, or had yielded Acarnania to the 



TOV τόπων KAT αὐτόν, ἢ ἑκόντες παρεχώρησαν ἢ 
καὶ σύνοικοι ἐγένοντο. φαίνονται δὲ καὶ ἐκ 
Λακεδαίμονός τινες ἐποικῆσαι τὴν ᾿Ακαρνανίαν, 
οἱ μετ᾽ Ἰκαρίου τοῦ Πηνελόπης πατρός: καὶ γὰρ 
τοῦτον καὶ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτῆς ζῶντας παραδί- 
δωσιν ὁ ποιητὴς κατὰ τὴν ᾿Οδύσσειαν" 

δ \ 5 , 
οἱ πατρὸς μὲν ἐς οἶκον ἀπερρίγασι νέεσθαι 
Ἰκαρίου, ὥς κ᾽ αὐτὸς ἐεδνώσαιτο θύγατρα: 

καὶ περὶ τῶν ἀδελφῶν’ 

ye ΄ « ΄, ἢ , ΄ 
ἤδη Yap pa πατὴρ τε κασίγνητοι τε κέλονται 
Εὐρυμάχῳ γήμασθαι. 

” \ » Δ ὃ / θ \ ’ \ » “ 
οὔτε γὰρ ἐν Λακεδαίμονι πιθανὸν αὐτοὺς οἰκεῖν' 
οὐ γὰρ ἂν ὁ Τηλέμαχος παρὰ Μενελάῳ κατήγετο, 
ἀφιγμένος ἐκεῖσε: οὔτ᾽ ἄλλην οἴκησιν παρειλήφα- 
μεν αὐτῶν. φασὶ δὲ Τυνδάρεων καὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν 

-“ ~ , , \ , 
αὐτοῦ tov Ἰκάριον, ἐκπεσόντας ὑπὸ Ἱπποκόωντος 
fol > / > cr \ / Ν nr 
τῆς οἰκείας, ἐλθεῖν παρὰ Θέστιον, Tov τῶν Πλευ- 
ρωνίων ἄρχοντα, καὶ συγκατακτήσασθαι τὴν 

/ 2 an ’ \ 3 > \ ἐν, \ \ 
mépav* τοῦ ᾿Αχελᾳου πολλὴν " ἐπὶ μέρει" τὸν μὲν 

2 / J a » / ΄ 
οὖν Τυνδάρεων ἐπανελθεῖν οἴκαδε, γήμαντα Λήδαν, 
τὴν τοῦ Θεστίου θυγατέρα, τὸν δ᾽ ᾿Ικάριον  ἐπι- 

“-“ fol / ld , 
μεῖναι," τῆς Akapvavias ἔχοντα μέρος, καὶ TEKVO- 
ποιήσασθαι τήν τε ἸΪηνελόπην ἐκ ἸΠολυκάστης 
fol \ \ A - 
τῆς Λυγαίου θυγατρὸς καὶ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτῆς. 
ἡμεῖς μὲν οὖν ἀπεδείξαμεν ἐν τῷ καταλόγῳ τῶν 
νεῶν καὶ τοὺς ᾿Ακαρνᾶνας καταριθμουμένους καὶ 

3 Ἰκάριον, Xylander, for” Ἵκαρον. 

ἢ For τὴν πέραν (τὴν περαίαν BEkno) Tzschucke and Corais, 
from conj. of Casaubon, read τῆς περαίας. 

3 πόλιν CDEghisla, eoind k. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 24 

Ithacans voluntarily, or had become joint-occupants 
with them. It appears that also a colony from Lace- 
daemon settled in Acarnania, I mean Icarius, father 
of Penelope, and his followers; for in the Odyssey 
the poet represents both Icarius and the brothers of 
Penelope as living : “who! shrink from going to the 
house of her father, Icarius, that he himself may 
exact the bride-gifts for his daughter,” * and, con- 
cerning her brothers, “for already her father and 
her brothers bid her marry Eurymachus ” ;? for, in 
the first place, it is improbable that they were living 
in Lacedaemon, since in that case Telemachus would 
not have lodged at the home of Menelatis when he 
went to Lacedaemon, and, secondly, we have no 
tradition of their having lived elsewhere. But they 
say that Tyndareus and his brother Icarius, after 
being banished by Hippocoén from their home-land, 
went to Thestius, the ruler of the Pleuronians, and 
helped him to acquire possession of much of the 
country on the far side of the Achelotis on condition 
that they should receive a share of it; that Tyn- 
dareus, however, went back home, having married 
Leda, the daughter of Thestius, whereas Icarius 
stayed on, keeping a portion of Acarnania, and by 
Polycasté, the daughter of Lygaeus, begot both 
Penelope and her brothers. Now I have already 
set forth that the Acarnanians were enumerated in 
the Catalogue of Ships,t that they took part in the 

1 The suitors. 2 Od. 2. 52, 3 Od. 15. 16. 
410. 2. 25; but Homer nowhere specifically mentions the 
‘© Acarnanians.” 

4 Ἴκαρον MSS. except E. 
5 ἐπιμεῖναι, Meineke emends to ὑπομεῖναι. 



μετασχοντας τῆς ἐπὶ "ἴλιον στρατείας, ἐν οἷς 
κατωνομάζοντο οἵ τε τὴν ἀκτὴν οἰκοῦντες καὶ 

οἵ τ᾽ ἤπειρον ἔχον ἠδ᾽ ἀντιπέραι᾽ ἐνέμοντο. 
οὔτε δ᾽ ἡ ἤπειρος ᾿Ακαρνανία ὠνομάξετό πω, οὔθ᾽ 
ἡ ἀκτὴ Λευκάς. 

C 462 25. Ἔφορος δ᾽ οὔ φησι συστρατεῦσαι" ᾿Αλκ- 
μαίωνα yap τὸν ᾿Αμφιάρεω, στρατεύσαντα 3 μετὰ 
Διομήδους καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ᾿Επιγόνων καὶ κατορ- 
θώσαντα τὸν πρὸς Θηβαίους πόλεμον, συνελθεῖν 
Διομήδει καὶ τιμωρήσασθαι pet αὐτοῦ τοὺς 
Οἰνέως ἐχθρούς, παραδόντα δ᾽ ἐκείνοις 3 τὴν 
Αἰτωλίαν, αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν ᾿Ακαρνανίαν παρελθεῖν 
καὶ ταύτην καταστρέφεσθαι. ᾿Αγαμέμνονα δ᾽, ἐν 
τούτῳ τοῖς ᾿Αργείοις ἐπιθέμενον, κρατῆσαι ῥᾳδίως, 
τῶν πλείστων τοῖς περὶ Διομήδη συνακοχλουθη- 
σάντων. μικρὸν δ᾽ ὕστερον ἐπιπεσούσης τῆς ἐπ᾽ 
ἼΛιον ἐξόδου, δείσαντα, μὴ ἀπόντος αὐτοῦ κατὰ 
τὴν στρατείαν ἐπανελθόντες οἴκαδε οἱ περὶ τὸν 
Διομήδη (καὶ γὰρ ἀκούεσθαι μεγάλην περὶ αὐτὸν 
συνεστραμμένην. δύναμιν) κατάσχοιεν τὴν μάλιστα 
προσήκουσαν αὐτοῖς ἀρχήν, τὸν μὲν γὰρ ᾿Αδράσ- 
του, τὸν δὲ τοῦ πατρὸς εἶναι “κληρονόμον, ταῦτα δὴ 
διανοηθέντα καλεῖν αὐτοὺς ἐπί τε τὴν τοῦ "Ἄργους 
ἀπόληψιν καὶ τὴν κοινωνίαν τοῦ πολέμου" τὸν 
μὲν οὖν Διομήδη πεισθέντα μετασχεῖν τῆς στρα- 
τείας, τὸν δὲ ᾿Αλκμαίωνα ἀγανακτοῦντα μὴ 
φροντίσαι' διὰ δὲ τοῦτο μηδὲ κοινωνῆσαι τῆς 
στρατείας μόνους τοὺς ᾿Ακαρνᾶνας tots” Ελλησι:" 

1 ᾿Αλκμαίωνα, Meineke emends to ᾿Αλκμέωνα. 

2 συστρατεύσαντα Clo, 
3 ἐκείνῳ C (2) and editors before Kramer. 


GEOGRAPHY, ro. 2. 24-25 

expedition to Ilium, and that among these were 
named “those who lived on the ‘shore,’’’! and 
also “‘ those who held the mainland and dwelt in parts 
opposite.” 2 But as yet neither had the mainland 
been named “ Acarnania” nor the shore ‘‘ Leucas.”’ 
25. Ephorus denies that they joined the Trojan 
expedition, for he says that Alemaeon, the son of 
Amphiaraiis, made an expedition with Diomedes and 
the other Epigoni, and had brought to a successful 
issue the war against the Thebans, and then joined 
Diomedes and with him took vengeance upon the 
enemies of Oeneus, after which he himself, first 
giving over Aetolia to them,® passed into Acarnania 
and subdued it ; and meanwhile Agamemnon attacked 
the Argives and easily prevailed over them, since the 
most of them had accompanied the army of Dio- 
medes; but a little later, when the expedition 
against [lium confronted him, he conceived the fear 
that, when he was absent on the expedition, Dio- 
medes and his army might come back home (and in 
fact it was reported that a great army had gathered 
round him) and seize the empire to which they had 
the best right, for one 4 was the heir of Adrastus and 
the other® of his father ;° and accordingly, after think- 
ing this all over, Agamemnon invited them both to 
resume possession of Argos and to take part in the 
war; and although Diomedes was persuaded to take 
part in the expedition, Alemaeon was vexed and 
refused to heed the invitation; and for this reason 
the Acarnanians alone refused to share in the ex- 

1 ««Shore of the mainland,” Od. 24. 378. 
2 See 10. 2. 8. 3 Diomedes and Oeneus. 
4. Diomedes, 5 Alcmaeon. ὁ Amphiaraiis 



τούτοις δ᾽, ὡς εἰκός, τοῖς λόγοις ἐπακολουθήσαντες 
οἱ ᾿Ακαρνᾶνες σοφίσασθαι Ῥωμαίους καὶ τὴν 
αὐτονομίαν παρ᾽ αὐτῶν ἐξανύσασθαι, λέγοντες, 
ὡς οὐ μετάσχοιεν μόνοι τῆς ἐπὶ τοὺς προγόνους 
τοὺς ἐκείνων στρατείας" οὔτε γὰρ ἐν τῷ Αἰτωλικῷ 
καταλόγῳ φράξοιντο, οὔτε ἰδίᾳ: οὐδὲ γὰρ ὅλως 
τοὔνομα τοῦτ᾽ ἐμφέροιτο ἐν τοῖς ἔπεσιν. 

20. Ὃ μὲν οὖν Ἔφορος, πρὸ τῶν Τρωικῶν ἤδη 
τὴν ᾿Ακαρνανίαν t ὑπὸ τῷ ᾿Αλκμαίωνι ποιήσας, τό 
τε “Apyos τὸ ᾿Αμφιλοχικὸν ἐκείνου κτίσμα ἀπο- 
φαίνει καὶ τὴν ᾿Ακαρνανίαν ὠνομάσθαι φησὶν 
ἀπὸ τοῦ παιδὸς αὐτοῦ ᾿Ακαρνᾶνος, ᾿Αμφιλόχους δὲ 
ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ ᾿Αμφιλόχου: ὥστε ἐκπίπτει εἰς 
τὰ παρὰ τὴν Ὁμηρικὴν ἱστορίαν λεγόμενα. 
Θουκυδίδης. δὲ καὶ ἄλλοι τὸν ᾿Αμφίλοχον, ἀπὸ 
τῆς στρατείας τῆς Τρωικῆς ἐ ἐπανιόντα, οὐκ ἀρεσκό- 
μενον τοῖς ἐν ΓἼΑργει, ταύτην οἰκῆσαί φασιϊ τὴν 
χώραν, οἱ μὲν κατὰ διαδοχὴν ἥκοντα τῆς τοῦ 
ἀδελφοῦ δυναστείας, οἱ δ᾽ ἄλλως. καὶ ἰδίᾳ μὲν 
περὶ ᾿Ακαρνάνων ταῦτα λέγοιτ᾽ ἄν, κοινῇ δ' ὅσα 
καὶ τοῖς Αἰτωλικοῖς ἐπιπλέκεται νῦν ἐροῦμεν, τὰ 
Δἰτωλικὰ λέγοντες ἐφεξῆς, ὅσα προσλαβεῖν τοῖς 
εἰρημένοις ἔγνωμεν. 

1 φησι BChino. 

1 liad 2. 638 ff. EOS. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 2. 25-26 

pedition with the Greeks. And it was probably by 
following this account that the Acarnanians tricked 
the Romans, as they are said to have done, and 
obtained from them their autonomy, urging that 
they alone had had no part in the expedition 
against the ancestors of the Romans, for they were 
named neither in the Aetolian catalogue! nor 
separately, and in fact their name was not men- 
tioned in the Epic poems at all. 

26. Ephorus, then, makes Acarnania subject to 
Alemaeon even before the Trojan War; and he not 
only declares that the Amphilochian Argos was 
founded by him, but also says that Acarnania was 
named after Alemaeon’s son Acarnan, and the 
Amphilochians after Alemaeon’s brother Amphi- 
lochus; therefore his account is to be cast out 
amongst those contrary to Homeric history. But 
Thucydides? and others say that Amphilochus, on 
his return from the Trojan expedition, was dis- 
pleased with the state of affairs at Argos, and took 
up his abode in this country, some saying that he 
came by right of succession to the domain of his 
brother, others giving a different account. So much 
may be said of the Acarnanians specifically ; I shall 
now speak of their history in a general way, in so 
far as their history is interwoven with that of the 
Aetolians, relating next in order the history of the 
Aetolians, in so far as I have thought best to add 
to my previous narrative. 


C 163 



1. Τοὺς δὲ Κουρῆτας τῶν μὲν ᾿Ακαρνᾶσι, τῶν 
δ᾽ Αἰτωλοῖς προσνεμόντων,. καὶ τῶν μὲν ex Κρήτης, 
τῶν δ᾽ ἐξ Εὐβοίας τὸ γένος εἶναι φασκόντων, 
ἐπειδὴ καὶ Ὅμηρος αὐτῶν μέμνηται, τὰ παρ᾽ 
ἐκείνου πρῶτον ἐπισκεπτέον. οἴονται δ᾽ αὐτὸν 
λέγειν Αἰτωλοὺς μᾶλλον ἢ ᾿Ακαρνᾶνας, εἴπερ οἱ 
ΠΠορθαονίδαι ἧσαν 

"Ayptos ἠδὲ Μέλας, τρίτατος δ᾽ ἣν ἱππότα 


@xeov δ᾽ ἐν Πλευρῶνι καὶ aitewh Καλυδῶνι. 
αὗται δ᾽ εἰσὶν Αἰτωλικαὶ πόλεις ἀμφότεραι καὶ 
φέρονται ἐν Αἰτωλικῷ καταλόγῳ, ὥστε, ἐπεὶ τὴν 
Πλευρῶνα οἰκοῦντες φαίνονται καὶ κατ᾽ αὐτὸν οἱ 
Κουρῆτες, Αἰτωλοὶ ἂν εἶεν. οἱ δ᾽ ἀντιλέγοντες 
τῷ τρόπῳ τῆς φράσεως παράγονται, ὅταν φῇ, 

Κουρῆτές 7 ἐμάχοντο καὶ Αἰτωλοὶ μενεχάρμαι 

ἀμφὶ πόλιν Καλυδῶνα. 
οὐδὲ γὰρ ἂν κυρίως εἶπεν οὕτως" ἐμάχοντο Βοιωτοὶ 
καὶ Θηβαῖοι πρὸς ἀλλήλους, οὐδ᾽ ᾿Αργεῖοι καὶ 
Πελοποννήσιοι. ἐδείχθη δ᾽ ἐν τοῖς ἔμπροσθεν, ὅτι 
ἐστὶ καὶ Ὁμηρικὸν τὸ ἔθος τοῦτο τῆς φράσεως καὶ 
ὑπὸ τῶν ἄλλων ποιητῶν τετριμμένον" τοῦτο μὲν 
οὖν εὐαπολόγητον. ἐκεῖνοι δὲ λεγέτωσαν πῶς ἂν 
μὴ ὁμοεθνεῖς ὄντας μηδ᾽ Αἰτωλοὺς τοὺς Ilevpo- 
νίους ἐν τοῖς Αἰτωλοῖς κατέλεγεν. 

2. "Eqopos δὲ τοὺς Αἰτωλοὺς εἰπὼν ἔθνος εἶναι 
μηδεπώποτε γεγενημένον ὑφ᾽ ἑτέροις, ἀλλὰ πάντα 

1 Tliad 14. 117. 2 Jliad 14. 116. 

GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. 1-2 


1. As for the Curetes, some assign them to the 
Acarnanians, others to the Aetolians; and some 
assert that the tribe originated in Crete, but others 
in KEuboea; but since Homer mentions them, I should 
first investigate his account. It is thought that he 
means that they were Aetolians rather than Acar- 
nanians, if indeed the sons of Porthaon were “ Agrius 
and Melas, and, the third, Oeneus the knight’; ! 
“and they lived in Pleuron and steep Calydon.”’ * 
These are both Aetolian cities, and are referred to 
in the Aetolian catalogue; and therefore, since, 
even according to the poet, the Curetes obviously 
lived in Pleuron, they would be Aetolians. Those 
writers who oppose this view are misled by Homer’s 
mode of expression when he says, “πε Curetes were 
fighting, and the Aetolians steadfast in battle, about 
the city of Calydon” ;3 for, they add, neither would 
he have spoken appropriately if he had said, “the 
Boeotians and the Thebans were fighting against one 
another” ; or “the Argives and the Peloponnesians.”’ 
But, as I have shown heretofore,‘ this habit of ex- 
pression not only is Homeric, but is much used by 
the other poets also. This interpretation, then, is 
easy to defend; but let those writers explain how 
the poet could catalogue the Pleuronians among the 
Aetolians if they were not Aetolians or at least of 
the same race. 

2. Ephorus,' after saying that the Aetolians were a 
race which had never become subject to any other 

3 Iliad 9. 529. 48.3.8, 10; 2.10; 
5 See Dictionary in Vol. 1. 


C 464 


τὸν μνημονευόμενον χρόνον. μεμενηκὸς ἀπόρθητον 
διά Te? τὰς δυσχωρίας τῶν τόπων καὶ διὰ τὴν 
περὶ τὸν πόλεμον ἄσκησιν, ἐξ ἀρχῆς μέν φησιν 3 
ἅπασαν τὴν χώραν Κουρῆτας κατασχεῖν, ἀφικο- 
μένου δ᾽ ἐξ΄Ηλιεδος Αἰτωλοῦ τοῦ ᾿Ενδυμίωνος καὶ 
τοῖς πολέμοις κρατοῦντος αὐτῶν, τοὺς μὲν ΚΚουρῆ- 
τας εἰς τὴν νῦν καλουμένην ᾿Ακαρνανίαν ὑπο- 
χωρῆσαι, τοὺς δ᾽ Αἰτωλοὺς συγκατελθόντας 
*Exresois τὰς ἀρχαιοτάτας κτίσαι τῶν ἐν Αἰτωλίᾳ 
πόλεων, δεκάτῃ δ᾽ 3 ὕστερον γενεᾷ τὴν Ἦλιν ὑπὸ 
᾿Οξύλου τοῦ Αἴμονος συνοικισθῆναι, περαιωθέντος 
ἐκ τῆς Αἰτωλίας. παρατίθησι δὲ τούτων μαρτύρια 
τὰ ἐπιγράμματα, τὸ μὲν ἐν Θέρμοις τῆς Αἰτωλίας, 
ὅπου τὰς ἀρχαιρεσίας ποιεῖσθαι πάτριον αὐτοῖς 

ἐστίν, ἐγκεχαραγμένον τῇ βάσει τῆς Αἰτωλοῦ 

χώρης οἰκιστῆρα, παρ᾽ ᾿Αλφειοῦ ποτὲ δίναις 
θρεφθέντα,, σταδίων γείτον᾽ ᾿Οχυμπιάδος, 
᾿ΕἘνδυμίωνος παῖδ᾽ Αἰτωλοὶ τόνδ᾽ ἀνέθηκαν 
Αἰὐτωλόν, σφετέρας μνῆμ᾽ ἀρετῆς ἐσορᾶν. 
τὸ δ᾽ ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ τῶν ᾿Ηλείων ἐπὶ τῷ ᾿Οξύλου 

Αἰτωλός ποτε τόνδε λιπὼν αὐτόχθονα δῆμον 
κτήσατο Κουρῆτιν γῆν, δορὶ πολλὰ καμών' 
τῆς δ᾽ αὐτῆς γενεᾶς δεκατόσπορος Αἵμονος 

Ὄξυλος ἀρχαίην ἔκτισε τήνδε πόλιν. 

1 +e, Tzschucke, for δέ; so the later editors. 
2 φησιν, Tzschucke, for φασι; so the later editors. 
8. δεκάτῃ δ᾽, Corais, for δέκα, τῇ δ᾽ ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. 2 

people, but throughout all time of which there is any 
record had remained undevastated, both because of 
the ruggedness of their country and because of their 
training in warfare, says at the outset that the Curetes 
held possession of the whole country, but when 
Aetolus,t the son of Endymion, arrived from Elis and 
overpowered them in war, the Curetes withdrew to 
what is now called Acarnania, whereas the Aetolians 
came back with Epeians and founded the earliest 
of the cities of Aetolia, and in the tenth generation 
after that Elis was settled by Oxylus? the son of 
Haemon, who had crossed over from Aetolia. And 
he cites as evidence of all this two inscriptions, the 
one at Therma in Aetolia (where it is their ancestral 
custom to hold their elections of magistrates), 
engraved on the base of the statue of Aetolus: 
“Founder of the country, once reared beside the 
eddies of the Alpheius, neighbour of the race-courses 
of Olympia, son of Endymion, this Aetolus has been 
set up by the Aetolians as a memorial of his valour 
to behold” ; and the other inscription in the market- 
place of the Eleians on the statue of Oxylus: 
“ Aetolus once left this autochthonous people, and 
through many a toil with the spear took possession 
of the land of Curetis; but the tenth scion of the 
same stock, Oxylus, the son of Haemon, founded 
this city in early times.” 

1 Cp. 8. 3. 33. 2 Cf. 8. 3. 33. 

4 θρεφθέντα, Jacobs, Corais, and later editors, for τραφέντα 
nz, τρεφθέντα other MSS. 

5 ᾿Ηλείων, correction in 7, and Pletho, for Αἰτωλῶν ; so the 



3. Τὴν μὲν οὖν συγγένειαν τὴν πρὸς ἀλλήλους 
τῶν τε ᾿Ηλείων καὶ τῶν Αὐτωλῶν ὀρθῶς ἐπιση- 
μαίνεται διὰ τῶν ἐπιγραμμάτων, ἐξομολογουμένων 
ἀμφοῖν οὐ τὴν συγγένειαν μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ 
ἀρχηγέτας ἀλλήλων εἶναι" Ou οὗ καλῶς ἐξελέγχει 
ψευδομένους τοὺς φάσκοντας τῶν μὲν. "Αἰτωλῶν 
ἀποίκους εἶναι τοὺς ᾿Ηλείους, μὴ μέντοι τῶν 
᾽ la \ ᾽ 
Ηλείων τοὺς Αἰτωλούς, τὴν δ᾽ ἀνομολογίαν τῆς 
γραφῆς καὶ τῆς ἀποφάσεως φαίνεται τὴν αὐτὴν 
ἐπιδεδειγμένος κἀνταῦθα, ἥνπερ ἐπὶ τοῦ μαντείου 
τοῦ ἐν Δελφοῖς παρεστήσαμεν. εἰπὼν γὰρ ἀπόρ- 
θητον ἐκ τοῦ μνημονευομένου χρόνου παντὸς 
τὴν Αἰτωλίαν, εἰπὼν δὲ καὶ ἐξ ἀρχῆς τὴν 
χώραν ταύτην τοὺς Κουρῆτας κατασχεῖν, ὦφειλε 
μὲν 1 τοῖς εἰρημένοις ἀκόλουθον τοῦτο ἐπιφέ- 
ρειν,3 ὅτι οἱ Κουρῆτες διέμειναν ἕως εἰς av- 
τὸν κατέχοντες τὴν Αἰτωλίαν γῆν, οὕτω γὰρ 
” > f θ / \ ὑδέ > 9 3 » 
ἐμέελλεν ἀπορθητὸοὸς τε καὶ οὐδέποτε ἐπ * αλ- 
Rows γεγονυῖα ὀρθῶς λεχθήσεσθαι: ὁ δ᾽ ἐκλαθό- 
μενος τῆς ὑποσχέσεως οὐ τοῦτ᾽ ἐπιφέρει, ἀλλὰ 

> / e » / > ” > lol 
τοὐναντίον, ws ἀφικομένου ἐξ ᾿Ηλιδος Αἰτωλοῦ 
καὶ τοῖς πολέμοις κρατοῦντος αὐτῶν, οἱ Κουρῆτες 
> nr » ΑΝ ᾽ /, [4 S my” 
ἀπῆλθον εἰς τὴν ᾿Ακαρνανίαν: τί οὖν ἄλλο 
πορθήσεως ἴδιον ἢ τῷ πολέμῳ κρατηθῆναι καὶ 
τὴν χώραν ἐκλιπεῖν ; > τοῦτο δὲ καὶ τὸ ἐπίγραμμα 
μαρτυρεῖ τὸ Tapa τοῖς ᾿Ηλείοις, ὁ γὰρ Αἰτωλός, 

κτήσατο Κουρῆτιν γῆν, δορὶ πολλὰ καμών. 

1 Corais and Meineke delete τοΐγε, before τοῖς. 

* ἐπιφέρειν, Meineke, following conj. of Casaubon, for 

3 ὑπ᾽ x, Corais, and Meineke. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. 3 

3. Now through these inscriptions Ephorus cor- 
rectly signifies the kinship of the Eleians and 
Aetolians with one another, since both inscriptions 
agree, not merely as to the kinship of the two 
peoples, but also that each people was the founder 
of the other, through which he successfully convicts 
of falsehood those who assert that, while the Eleians 
were indeed colonists of the Aetolians, the Aetolians 
were not colonists of the Eleians. But here, too, 
Ephorus manifestly displays the same inconsistency 
in his writing and his pronouncements as in the 
case of the oracle at Delphi, which I have already 
set forth ;1 for, after saying that Aetolia has been 
undevastated throughout all times of which there 
is any record, and after saying also that in the 
beginning the Curetes held possession of this 
country, he should have added as a corollary to 
what he had already said that the Curetes con- 
tinued to hold possession of the Aetolian land down 
to his own time, for only thus could it have been 
rightly said that the land had been undevastated 
and that it had never come under the power of 
others; and yet, utterly forgetting his promise,” he 
does not add this, but the contrary, that when 
Aetolus arrived from Elis and overpowered the 
Curetes in war, they withdrew into Acarnania. What 
else, pray, is specifically characteristic of a devastation 
than being overpowered in war and abandoning 
the country? And this is evidenced also by the 
inscription among the Eleians, for Aetolus, it says, 
“through many a toil with the spear took possession 
of the land of Curetis.” 

Δ 0 Bi Uke 2 See 9. 3. 11. 


”v , Xx , / » A δ, ΄ 

Ισως δή τις ἂν φαίη, λέγειν αὐτὸν ἀπόρθη- 

A > / > > ka » a? v 
tov τὴν Αἰτωλίαν, ἀφ ov τοὔνομα TOUT ἔσχε 

»- , 

peta τὴν Αἰτωλοῦ παρουσίαν: ἀλλ’ ἀφήρηται 
καὶ τούτου τοῦ νοήματος τὸν λόγον, φήσας ἐν 
τοῖς ἐφεξῆς τὸ μὲν πλεῖστον τοῦ λαοῦ τοῦ δια- 
μένοντος ἐν τοῖς Αἰτωλοῖς τοῦτο εἶναι, τὸ τῶν 

Lol , > ΄“ - 
᾿Επειῶν A€you,? συμμιχθέντων δ᾽ αὐτοῖς ὕστερον 

» , cal oe - > (Θ) , , 

Αἰολέων, τῶν ἅμα Βοιωτοῖς ἐκ Θετταλίας ava- 
στάντων, κοινῇ μετὰ τούτων τὴν χώραν κατα- 
σχεῖν. ap οὖν πιστόν 3 ἐστι χωρὶς πολέμου τὴν 
ἀλλοτρίαν ἐπελθόντας συγκατανείμασθαι τοῖς 
» \ ’, 4 
ἔχουσι, μηδὲν δεομένοις κοινωνίας τοιαύτης ; ὴ 
τοῦτο μὲν οὐ πισπὸν; τὸ δὲ κρατουμένοις τοῖς 
ὅπλοις ἐπ᾽ ἴσοις * συμβῆναι πιστόν ; τί οὖν ἄλλο 
πόρθησις ἢ τὸ κρατεῖσθαι τοῖς ὅπλοις ; καὶ 
᾿Απολλόδωρος δ᾽ εἴρηκεν ἐκ τῆς Βοιωτίας ἀπελ- 
θόντας ὃ" Ὕαντας ἱστορεῖσθαι καὶ ἐποίκους τοῖς 
Αἰτωλοῖς γενομένους: ὁ δ᾽ ὥσπερ κατωρθωκὼς 
ἐπιλέγει, διότι ὃ ταῦτα καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα διακριβοῦν 
εἰώθαμεν, ὅταν ἦ TL τῶν πραγμάτων ἢ παντελῶς 
ἀπορούμενον ἢ ψευδῆ δόξαν ἔχον. 

(465 abe. Τοιοῦτος δ᾽ ἃ ὧν "Edopos ἑτέρων ὅμως “κρείττων 
ἐστί: καὶ αὐτὸς ὁ ἐσπουδασμένως οὕτως ἐπαινέσας 
αὐτὸν IloAvBuos καὶ φήσας περὶ τῶν ᾿Ελληνικῶν 

aA ἢ = ᾿ 

καλῶς μὲν Εὔδοξον, κάλλιστα δ᾽ "Εφορον ἐξη- 

1 τούτου, Corais inserts; so the later editors. 

2 λέγων, Jones restores to the text. Corais emends to 
ἢ λείων ; Meineke deletes. 

3 πιστόν, Groskurd inserts; so the later editors. 

* ἴσης Bkinoz. 

5 ἀπελθόντας, Corais and Meineke emend to ἐπελθόντος ; a 

tempting emendation. 
5 ὅτι Bkinoz. 


GEOGRAPHY, to. 3. 4-5 

4, Perhaps, however, one might say that Ephorus 
means that Aetolia was undevastated from the time 
when it got this name, that is, after Aetolus arrived 
there; but Ephorus has deprived himself of the 
argument in support of this idea by saying in his 
next words that this, meaning the tribe of the 
Epeians, constituted the greatest part of the people 
who stayed on among the Aetolians, but that later, 
when Aeolians, who at the same time with Boeotians 
had been compelled to migrate from Thessaly, were 
intermingled with them, they in common with these 
held possession of the country. Is it credible, pray, 
that without war they invaded the country of a 
different people and divided it up with its possessors, 
when the latter had no need of such a partnership? 
Or, since this is not credible, is it credible that those 
who were overpowered by arms came out on an 
equality with the victors? What else, pray, is 
devastation than being overpowered by arms? 
Apollodorus, also, says that, according to history, 
the Hyantes left Boeotia and settled among the 
Aetolians. But Ephorus,as though he had achieved 
success in his argument, adds: “It is my wont to 
examine such matters as these with precision, when- 
ever any matter is either altogether doubtful or 
falsely interpreted.” 

5. But though Ephorus is such, still he is better 
than others. And Polybius! himself, who praises him 
so earnestly, and says concerning the Greek histories 
that Eudoxus? indeed gave a good account, but 
Ephorus gave the best account of the foundings of 

1 Book 34, Frag. 1. 
2 Eudoxus of Cnidus (fl. about 350 8.c¢.). 



γεῖσθαι περὶ κτίσεων, συγγενειῶν, μεταναστά- 
σεων, ἀρχηγετῶν, ἡ ἡμεῖς δέ, φησί, τὰ νῦν ὄντα 
δηλώσομεν καὶ περὶ θέσεως τόπων καὶ διαστημά- 
των" τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν οἰκειότατον Xwpoypagia. 
ἀλλὰ Pan σύ γε, ὦ Πολύβιε, ὁ τὰς λαοδογμα- 
τικὰς 1 ἀποφάσεις περὶ τῶν διαστημάτων εἰσάγων 
οὐκ ἐν τοῖς ἔξω τῆς Ἑλλάδος μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐν 
τοῖς Ἑλληνικοῖς, καὶ διδοῖς 3 εὐθύνας τὰς μὲν 
Ποσειδωνίῳ, τὰς δ᾽ ᾿Αρτεμιδώρῳ, τὰς δ᾽ ἄλλοις 
πλείοσι" καὶ ἡμῖν οὖν συγγνώμην Β ἔχειν 4 καὶ 
οὐ δυσχεραίνειν δεῖ, παρὰ τῶν ποιούτων μετα- 
φέρουσι τὴν πολλὴν ἱστορίαν, ἐάν τι πταίωμεν, 
ἀλλ᾽ ἀγαπᾷν, ἐὰν τὰ πλείω τῶν εἰρημένων 
ἑτέροις ἄμεινον λέγωμεν, ἢ τὰ παραλειφθέντα 
κατ᾽ ἄγνοιαν προστιθῶμεν. 

θ. Περὶ δὲ Κουρήτων ἔτι καὶ τοιαῦτα λέγεται, 
τὰ μὲν ἐγγυτέρω ὄντα τῆς περὶ Αἰτωλῶν καὶ 
᾿Ακαρνάνων ἱστορίας, τὰ δ᾽ ἀπωτέρω" “ἐγγυτέρω 
μὲν. τὰ τοιαῦτα, οἷα προείρηται, ὅτι τὴν χώραν, 
ἣ νῦν Αἰτωλία καλεῖται, Κουρῆτες ῴκουν, ἐλθόντες 
δ᾽ οἱ Αἰτωλοὶ μετὰ Αἰτωλοῦ τούτους ἐξέβαλον 
εἰς τὴν ᾿Ακαρνανίαν: καὶ ἔτι τὰ τοιαῦτα, ὅτι 
τὴν ΠΠ]λευρωνίαν ὑπὸ Κουρήτων οἰκουμένην καὶ 
Κουρῆτιν προσαγορευομένην Αἰολεῖς ἐπελθόντες 
ἀφείλοντο, τοὺς δὲ κατέχοντας ἐξέβαλον. ᾿Αρχέ- 

1 τὰς λαοδογματικάς, Tzschucke, from conj. of Tyrwhitt, for 
τάλας ὁ δογματικάς CDghilnosx, τὰς τῶν ἄλλων δογματικάς ΒΚ; 
so the later editors. 

2 καὶ διδοῖς, Casaubon, for καὶ διαδούς BCDghikx, καὶ 
διαδιδούς Ino, νὴ Δία, δίδως Corais; so the editors after 

3 συγγνώμη Bk; so Miiller-Diibner. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. 5-6 

cities, kinships, migrations, and original founders, 
‘but I,” he says, “shall show the facts as they now 
are, as regards both the position of places and the 
distances between them ; for this is the most appro- 
priate function of Chorography.” But assuredly 
you, Polybius, who introduce “popular notions’’ ὦ 
concerning distances, not only in dealing with places 
outside of Greece, but also when treating Greece 
itself, must also submit to an accounting, not only 
to Poseidonius,? and to ApeHederus, but to several 
others as well. One should therefore pardon me 
as well, and not be vexed, if I make any mistakes 
when I borrow from such writers most of my 
historical material, but should rather be content if 
in the majority of cases I improve upon the accounts 
given by others, or if I add such facts as have else- 
where, owing to lack of knowledge, been left 

6. Concerning the Curetes still further accounts, 
to the following effect, are given, some of them 
being more closely related to the history of the 
Aetolians and the Acarnanians, others more re- 
motely. More closely related are such accounts as 
I have given before—that the Curetes were living 
in the country which is now called Aetolia, and that 
the Aetolians came with Aetolus and drove them 
into Acarnania; and also accounts of this kind, that, 
when Pleuronia was inhabited by the Curetes and 
was called Curetis, Aeolians made an invasion and 
took it away from them, and drove out its occupants. 

1 See 2. 4, 2 and 7. 5. 9. 5310 ἢ. 2.3. loff; and! 2..4.53.ff. 

4 ἔχειν", Jones inserts, following a correction in x; Meineke 
merely indicates a lacuna ; Kramer conj. συγγνῶναι. 

As Tan il 


μαχος δ᾽ ὁ Εὐβοεύς φησι τοὺς Κουρῆτας ἐν 
Χαλκίδι συνοικῆσαι, συνεχῶς δὲ περὶ τοῦ 
Ληλάντου πεδίου πολεμοῦντας, ἐπειδὴ οἱ πολέ- 
μιοι τῆς κόμης ἐδράττοντο τῆς “ἔμπροσθεν καὶ 
κατέσπων αὐτούς, ὄπισθεν κομῶντας γενέσθαι, 
τὰ δ᾽ ἔμπροσθεν κείρεσθαι: διὸ καὶ Κουρῆτας 
ἀπὸ τῆς κουρᾶς κληθῆναι" μετοικῆσαι δ᾽ εἰς τὴν 
Αἰτωλίαν," καὶ κατασχόντας τὰ περὶ Πλευρῶνα 
χωρία τοὺς πέραν οἰκοῦντας τοῦ ᾿Αχελῴου διὰ τὸ 
ἀκούρους φυλάττειν τὰς κεφαλὰς ᾿Ακαρνᾶνας 
καλέσαι. ἔνιοι & ἀπὸ ἥρωος τοὔνομα σχεῖν 
ἑκάτερον τὸ φῦλον: οἱ δ᾽ ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄρους τοῦ 
Κουρίου τοὺς Κουρῆτας ὀνομασθῆναι τοῦ ὑπερκει- 
μένου τῆς Πλευρῶνος, εἶναί τε φῦλόν τι Αἰτωλικὸν 
τοῦτο, ὡς ᾿Οφιεῖς καὶ ᾿Αγραίους καὶ Εὐρυτᾶνας 
καὶ ἄλλα πλείω. ὡς δ᾽ εἴρηται, τῆς Αἰτωλίας 
δίχα διῃρημένης, τὰ μὲν περὶ Καλυδῶνα τὸν 
Οἰνέα ἐ ἔχειν φασί, τῆς δὲ Πλευρωνίας μέρος μέν 
τι καὶ τοὺς Πορθαονίδας ἔχειν τοὺς περὶ τὸν 
Αγριον, εἴπερ 3 
Ο 466 wxeov ἐν Πλευρῶνι καὶ αἰπεινῆ Καλυδῶνι" 
ἐπικρατεῖν μέντοι Θέστιον τῆς Πλευρωνίας, τὸν 
πενθερὸν τοῦ Οἰνέως, ᾿Αλθαίας δὲ πατέρα, ἡγού- 
μενον τῶν Κουρήτων: πολέμου δ᾽ ἐμπεσόντος 
1 Πλευρωνίαν no. 

2 καλέσαι, Meineke, from conj. of Kramer, for καλεῖσθαι. 
3 οἵπερ Bkno. 

1 Archemachus (fi. not later than the third century Β.6.) 
wrote works (now lost) on the History of Euboea and Meto- 
nymies (Change of Names). 

2 «°Cura.”” From this passage one might identify the 
“‘Curetes” with the ‘‘ Abantes” (see 10. 1, ἘΝ whom Homer 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. 6 

Archemachus the Euboean! says that the Curetes 
settled at Chalcis, but since they were continually 
at war for the Lelantine Plain and the enemy 
would catch them by the front hair and drag them 
down, he says, they let their hair grow long behind 
but cut short the part in front, and because of this 
they were called ‘“ Curetes,” from the cut of their 
hair,? and they then migrated to Aetolia, and, after 
taking possession of the region round Pleuron, called 
the people who lived on the far side of the Acheloiis 
‘* Acarnanians,”’ because they kept their heads “ un- 
shorn.” 3 But some say that each of the two tribes 
got its name from a hero; others, that the Curetes 
were named after the mountain Curium, which is 
situated about Pleuron, and also that this is an 
Aetolian tribe, like the Ophians and the Agraeans 
and the Eurytanians and several others. But, as | 
have already stated,* when Aetolia was divided into 
two parts, the region round Calydon, they say, was 
in the possession of Oeneus, whereas a certain part 
of Pleuronia was in the possession of the sons of 
Porthaon, that is, Agrius and his followers, if it be 
true that ‘they lived in Pleuron and _ steep 
Calydon”’;° the mastery over Pleuronia, however, 
was held by Thestius (the father-in-law of Oeneus 
and father of Althaea), who was leader of the 
Curetes; but when war broke out between the 

speaks of as ‘‘letting their hair grow long behind ” (Z/iad 2. 
542). According to a scholium (on J/iad 1. c.), the Kuboeans 
wore their hair long behind ‘‘ for the sake of manly strength.” 
The Greeks in general, however, let their hair grow long all 
over the head in Trojan times, being often referred to by 
Homer as the ‘‘long-haired Achaeans.” 

3 The Greek adjective used is ἀκούρους (‘‘acurus’’). 

410. 2. 3, 22. 5 Iliad 14. 116. 



τοῖς Θεστιάδαις πρὸς Οἰνέα καὶ Μελέαγρον, ws} 
μὲν ὁ ποιητὴς ἀμφὶ συὸς κεφαλῇ καὶ δέρματι, 
κατὰ τὴν περὶ τοῦ κάπρου μυθολογίαν, ὡς δὲ 

τὸ εἰκός, περὶ μέρος τῆς χώρας, οὕτω δὴ 

Κουρῆτές τ᾽ ἐμάχοντο καὶ Δίἰτωλοὶ μενε- 
ταῦτα μὲν τὰ ἐγγυτέρω. 

7. Ta & ἀπωτέρω τῆς ὑποθέσεως ταύτης, 
ἄλλως δὲ διὰ τὴν ὁμωνυμίαν εἰς ταὐτὸν ὑπὸ τῶν 
ἱστορικῶν ἀγόμενα, ἅπερ Κουρητικὰ μὲν καὶ 
περὶ Κουρήτων λέγεται, ὁμοίως ὥσπερ καὶ τὰ 
περὶ τῶν τὴν Αἰτωλίαν καὶ τὴν ᾿Ακαρνανίαν 
οἰκησάντων, ἐκείνων μὲν διαφέρει, ἔοικε δὲ μᾶλλον 
τῷ περὶ Σατύρων καὶ Σειληνῶν καὶ Βακχῶν 
καὶ Τιτύρων λόγῳ' τοιούτους γάρ τινας δαίμονας 
ἢ προπόλους θεῶν τοὺς Κουρῆτάς φασιν οἱ 
παραδόντες τὰ Κρητικὰ καὶ τὰ Φρύγια, ἱερουρ- 
γίαις τισὶν ἐμπεπλεγμένα ταῖς μὲν μυστικαῖς, 
ταῖς δ᾽ ἄλλαις 3 περί τε τὴν τοῦ Διὸς παιδοτροφίαν 
τὴν ἐν Κρήτῃ καὶ τοὺς τῆς μητρὸς τῶν θεῶν 
ὀργιασμοὺς ἐν τῇ Φρυγίᾳ καὶ τοῖς περὶ τὴν 
Ἴδην τὴν Τρωικὴν τόποις. τοσαύτη δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἐν 
τοῖς λόγοις τούτοις ποικιλία, τῶν μὲν τοὺς 
αὐτοὺς τοῖς Κουρῆσι τοὺς Κορύβαντας καὶ 
Καβείρους καὶ ᾿Ιδαίους Δακτύλους καὶ Τελχῖνας 
ἀποφαινόντων, τῶν δὲ συγγενεῖς ἀλλήλων, καὶ 

1 ὡς is omitted in all MSS. except E. 
5. Dhi read διαλέγεται instead of δὴ λέγεται. 
3 ἄλλαις x, instead of ἄλλως. 


GEOGRAPHY, to. 3. 6-7 

sons of Thestius, on the one hand, and Oeneus and 
Meleager, on the other (‘‘about the hog’s head and 
skin,” + as the poet says, following the mythical 
story of the boar,? but in all probability about the 
possession of a part of the territory), according to 
the words of the poet, “the Curetes were fight- 
ing, as also the Aetolians steadfast in battle.” ὃ 
So much for the accounts which are more closely 

7. The accounts which are more remotely related, 
however, to the present subject, but are wrongly, 
on. account of the identity of the names, brought 
into the same connection by the historians—I mean 
those accounts which, although they are called 
*‘Curetan History” and ‘“‘ History of the Curetes,” 
just as if they were the history of those Curetes 
who lived in Aetolia and Acarnania, not only are 
different from that history, but are more like the 
accounts of the Satyri, Sileni, Bacchae, and ‘Tityri; 
for the Curetes, like these, are called genii or 
ministers of gods by those who have handed 
down to us the Cretan and the Phrygian traditions, 
which are interwoven with certain sacred rites, some 
mystical, the others connected in part with the 
rearing of the child Zeus? in Crete and in part with 
the orgies in honour of the mother of the gods 
which are celebrated in Phrygia and in the region 
of the Trojan Ida. .But the variation in these 
accounts is so small that, whereas some represent 
the Corybantes, the Cabeiri, the Idaean Dactyli, and 
the Telchines as identical with the Curetes, others 

1 Tliad 9. 548. 
2 Known in mythology as ‘‘ the Calydonian boar.” 
3 Tliad 9. 529, SOs lls 

C 467 


μικράς τινας αὐτῶν πρὸς ἀλλήλους διαφορὰς 
διαστελλομένων, ὡς δὲ τύπῳ εἰπεῖν καὶ κατὰ 
τὸ πλέον, ἅπαντας ἐνθουσιαστικούς τινας καὶ 
Βακχικοὺς καὶ ἐνοπλίῳ κινήσει μετὰ θορύβου 
καὶ ψόφου καὶ κυμβάλων καὶ τυμπάνων καὶ 
ὅπλων, ἔτι δ᾽ αὐλοῦ καὶ βοῆς ἐπι ΤΕ ΟΥΤΩΣ 
κατὰ τὰς ἱερουργίας ἐν σχήματι διακόνων, ὥστε! 
καὶ τὰ ἱερὰ τρόπον τινὰ κοινοποιεῖσθαι ταῦτά 
τε καὶ τῶν Σαμοθράκων͵ καὶ τὰ ἐν Λήμνῳ καὶ 
ἄλλα πλείω διὰ τὸ τοὺς ,“προπόλους λέγεσθαι 
τοὺς αὐτούς. ἔστι μὲν οὖν θεολογικὸς πᾶς ὁ 
τοιοῦτος τρόπος τῆς ἐπισκέψεως καὶ οὐκ ἀλλότριος 
τῆς τοῦ φιλοσόφου θεωρίας. 

8. ᾿Επεὶ δὲ δι’ ὁμωνυμίαν 5 τῶν Κουρήτων καὶ 
οἱ ἱστορικοὶ συνήγαγον εἰς ἕν τὰ ἀνόμοια, οὐδ᾽ 
ἂν 3 αὐτὸς ὀκνήσαιμ᾽ ἂν εἰπεῖν περὶ αὐτῶν ἐπὶ 
πλέον ἐν παραβάσει, προσθεὶς τὸν οἰκεῖον τῇ 
ἱστορίᾳ φυσικὸν λόγον. καίτοι τινὲς καὶ συνοι- 
κειοῦν βούλονται ταῦτ᾽ ἐκείνοις, καὶ τυχὸν ἴσως 
ἔχονταί TLVOS πιθανοῦ" θηλυστολοῦντας γάρ, ὡς 
αἱ κόραι, τοὔνομα σχεῖν τοῦτο τοὺς * περὶ τὴν 
Αἰτωλίαν φασίν' εἶναι γὰρ καί τινα τοιοῦτοι" 
ζῆλον ἐν τοῖς “Ἕλλησι, καὶ laovas ἑλκεχίτωνας 
εἰρῆσθαι," καὶ τοὺς περὶ Λεωνίδαν κτενιζομένους, 
ὅτ᾽ ἐξήεσαν εἰς τὴν μάχην, καταφρονηθῆναι 


ὥστε, Corais, for te; sothe later editors. 
ἐπεὶ δὲ δι᾽ ὁμωνυμίαν, Corais, for ἐπειδὴ δὲ ὁμωνυμία (ἐπεὶ δέ 
no, ἐπεὶ δ᾽ 7 x); so the later editors. 

3 ay is omitted by now. 

4 τούς, the editors, for τοῖς. 

5 After εἰρῆσθαι Meineke (from Stephanus, s.v. ᾿Ακαρνανία) 
inserts the words καὶ κρώβυλον καὶ τέττιγα ἐμπλέκεσθαι. 



GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. 7-8 

represent them as all kinsmen of one another and 
differentiate only certain small matters in which 
they differ in respect to one another; but, roughly 
speaking and in general, they represent them, one 
and all, as a kind of inspired people and as subject 
to Bacchic frenzy, and, in the guise of ministers, as 
inspiring terror at the celebration of the sacred 
rites by means of war-dances, accompanied by up- 
roar and noise and cymbals and drums and arms, 
and also by flute and outery ; and consequently these 
rites are in a way regarded as having a common 
relationship, I mean these and those of the Samo- 
thracians and those in Lemnos and in several other 
places, because the divine ministers are called the 
same. However, every investigation of this kind 
pertains to theology, and is not foreign to the 
speculation of the philosopher. 

8. But since also the historians, because of the 
identity of name of the Curetes, have classed to- 
gether things that are unlike, neither should 1 
myself shrink from discussing them at greater 
length, by way of digression, adding such account 
of their physical habits as is appropriate to history. 
And yet some historians even wish to assimilate 
their physical habits with those others, and perhaps 
there is something plausible in their undertaking. 
For instance, they say that the Curetes of Aetolia got 
this name because, like “girls,” + they wore women’s 
clothes, for, they add, there was a fashion of this 
kind among the Greeks, and the Ionians were called 
“tunic-trailing,” 2. and the soldiers of Leonidas were 
« dressing their hair” 3 when they were to go forth 

1 «© Corai’’ (see foot-note on ‘‘ girls” and ‘‘ youths,” p. 91). 
2 e.g, Iliad 13. 685. 8 Herodotus 7. 208, 209. 


λέγουσιν ὑπὸ τῶν Llepody, ἐν δὲ τῇ μάχῃ 
θαυμασθῆναι. ἁπλῶς δ᾽ ἡ περὶ τὰς κόμας 
φιλοτεχνία συνέστηκε περί τε θρέψιν καὶ κουρὰν 
τριχός, ἄμφω δὲ κόραις καὶ KOpoLs ἐστὶν οἰκεῖα" 
ὥστε πλεοναχῶς τὸ ἐτυμολογεῖν τοὺς Κουρῆτας ' 
ἐν εὐπόρῳ κεῖται. εἰκὸς δὲ καὶ τὴν ἐνόπλιον 
ὄρχησιν ὑπὸ τῶν ἠσκημένων οὕτω περὶ κόμην 
καὶ στολὴν πρῶτον εἰσαχθεῖσαν, ἐκείνων ἹΚουρή- 
των καλουμένων, τ παρασχεῖν “πρόφασιν καὶ τοῖς 
στρατιωτικωτέροις ἑτέρων καὶ τὸν βίον ἐνόπλιον 
ἔχουσιν, ὥσθ' ὁμωνύμως καὶ αὐτοὺς Κουρῆτας 
λεχθῆναι, τοὺς ἐν Εὐβοίᾳ λέγω καὶ Αἰτωλίᾳ 
καὶ ᾿Ακαρνανίᾳ. καὶ “Ὅμηρος δὲ τοὺς νέους στρα- 
τιώτας οὕτω προσηγόρευσε" 

κρινάμενος “ούρητας ἀριστῆας Παναχαιῶν, 
δῶρα θοῆς * παρὰ νηὸς ἐνεγκεῖν, ὅσσ᾽ ᾿Αχιλῆι 
χθιζοὶ ὑπέστημεν' 

καὶ πάλιν, 
δῶρα φέρον κούρητες ᾿Α χαιοί.3 

Ν Ν 3 - ~ a / ᾽ ’ 
περὶ μὲν οὖν τῆς τῶν Κουρήτων ἐτυμολογίας 
ταῦτα. ἡ δὲ ὃ ἐνόπλιος ὄρχησις στρατιωτική, 

‘ Lal € a 
καὶ ἡ πυρρίχη δηλοῖ καὶ ὁ Ilvppixos, ὅν φασιν 

τοῖς Κουρῆσι CDhilsx. 

The editors omit καί, after προσηγόρευσε. 

The Jliad (19.193) has ἐμῆς instead of θοῆς. 

The Iliad (19. 248) has ᾿Αχαιῶν instead of ᾿Αχαιοί. 

The words ἡ δὲ évémAwos . . . στρατιωτικά are suspected 
by Kramer, οἰ, relegated to foot of page by Meineke. 

o 8 wo me 

1 “Corai”? and ‘“‘Coroi.” But the corresponding Homeric 
forms (κοῦροι, κοῦραι) yield in English ‘‘ Curae” and ‘‘ Curoe ” ; 


GEOGRAPHY, to. 3. 8 

to battle, so that the Persians, it is said, conceived a 
contempt for them, though in the battle they 
marvelled at them. Speaking generally, the art of 
caring for the hair consists both in its nurture and 
in the way it is cut, and both are given special 
attention by “ girls” and ““ youths” ;! so that there 
are several ways in which it is easy to derive an 
etymology of the word “Curetes.” It is reasonable 
to suppose, also, that the war-dance was first intro- 
duced by persons who were trained in this particular 
way in the matter of hair and dress, these being 
ealled Curetes, and that this dance afforded a pre- 
text to those also who were more warlike than the 
rest and spent their life under arms, so that 
they too came to be called by the same name, 
“«Curetes ’—I mean the Curetes in Euboea, Aetolia, 
and Acarnania. And indeed Homer applied this 
name to young soldiers, “choose thou the noblest 
young men? from all the Achaeans, and bring the 
gifts from the swift ship, all that we promised yester- 
day to Achilles” ;* and again, ‘‘the young men of 
the Achaeans brought the gifts.’4 So much for 
the etymology of the word “Curetes.” The war- 
dance was a soldiers’ dance; and this is plainly 
indicated both by the “Pyrrhic dance,” and by 
« Pyrrichus,’ who is said to be the founder of this 

and Strabo evidently had those forms in mind (see note on 
10 8. 11). 

2 “Curetes.” 8 [liad 19. 193. 

4 «The Pyrrhic dance of our time seems to bea sort of 
Dionysiac dance, being more respectable than that of early 
times, for the dancers have thyrsi instead of spears, and 
hurl them at one another, and carry fennel-stalks and 
torches” (Athenaeus 14. 631 B). 



εὑρετὴν εἶναι τῆς τοιαύτης ἀσκήσεως τῶν νέων 
καὶ 1 τὰ στρατιωτικά.5 

9. To & els ἐν συμφέρεσθαι τὰ τοσαῦτα ὀνό- 
ματα καὶ τὴν ἐνοῦσαν θεολογίαν ἐ ἐν τῇ περὶ αὐτῶν 
ἱστορίᾳ νῦν ἐπισκεπτέον. κοινὸν δὴ τοῦτο καὶ 
τῶν ᾿Ἑλλήνων καὶ τῶν βαρβάρων ἐστὶ τὸ τὰς 
ἱεροποιίας μετὰ ἀνέσεως ἑορταστικῆς ποιεῖσθαι, 
τὰς μὲν σὺν ἐνθουσιασμῷ, τὰς δὲ χωρίς: καὶ τὰς 
μὲν μετὰ μουσικῆς, τὰς δὲ μή: καὶ τὰς μὲν 
μυστικῶς, τὰς δὲ ἐν φανερῷ" καὶ τοῦθ᾽ ἡ φύσις 
οὕτως ὑπαγορεύε.. ἦ τε γὰρ ἄνεσις τὸν νοῦν 
ἀπάγει ἀπὸ τῶν ἀνθρωπικῶν ἀσχολημάτων, τὸν 
δὲ ὄντως νοῦν τρέπει πρὸς τὸ θεῖον" 6 τε ἐνθου- 
σιασμὸς ἐπίπνευσίν τινα θείαν ἔχειν δοκεῖ καὶ 
τῷ μαντικῷ γένει πλησιάζειν". ἥ τε κρύψις ἡ 
μυστικὴ τῶν ἱερῶν σεμνοποιεῖ τὸ θεῖον, μιμουμένη 
τὴν φύσιν αὐτοῦ φεύγουσαν ἡμῶν τὴν αἴσθησιν' 
ἥ τε μουσική, περί τε ὄρχησιν οὖσα καὶ ῥυθμὸν 
καὶ μέλος, ἡδονῇ τε ἅμα καὶ καλλιετεχνίᾳ “πρὸς 
τὸ θεῖον ἡμᾶς συνάπτει κατὰ τοιαύτην αἰτίαν. 
εὖ μὲν γὰρ εἴρηται καὶ τοῦτο, τοὺς ἀνθρώπους 
τότε μάλιστα μιμεῖσθαι τοὺς θεούς, ὅταν εὐεργε- 
τῶσιν' ἄμεινον δ᾽ ἂν λέγοι τις, ὅταν εὐδαιμονῶσι" 
τοιοῦτον δὲ τὸ χαίρειν καὶ τὸ ἑορτάζειν καὶ τὸ 
φιλοσοφεῖν καὶ μουσικῆς ἅπτεσθαι: μὴ γάρ, εἴ 
τις ἔκπτωσις πρὸς τὸ χεῖρον γεγένηται,3 τῶν 

1 καί, Xylander, Casaubon, and Corais emend to ἐπί; 
Kramer conj. κατά. 

2 ἢ στρατιωτική Ὁ. 8 γεγένηται, Meineke, for γένηται. 

1 Or, following the conjecture of Kramer (see critical 
note), we should have, instead of *‘ but . . . affairs,” simply 
“ἢ the work of the soldier.” 


GEOGRAPHY, to. 3. 8-9 

kind of training for young men, as also by the 
treatises on military affairs. 

9. But I must now investigate how it comes 
about that so many names have been used of one 
and the same thing, and the theological element 
contained in their history. Now this is common 
both to the Greeks and to the barbarians, to per- 
form their sacred rites in connection with the 
relaxation of a festival, these rites being performed 
sometimes with religious frenzy, sometimes without 
it; sometimes with music, sometimes not; and 
sometimes in secret, sometimes openly. And it is 
in accordance with the dictates of nature that this 
should be so, for, in the first place, the relaxation 
draws the mind away from human occupations and 
turns the real mind towards that which is divine ; 
and, secondly, the religious frenzy seems to afford 
a kind of divine inspiration and to be very like that 
of the soothsayer; and, thirdly, the secrecy with 
which the sacred rites are concealed induces rever- 
ence for the divine, since it imitates the nature 
of the divine, which is to avoid being perceived by 
our human senses; and, fourthly, music, which in- 
cludes dancing as well as rhythm and melody, at 
the same time, by the delight it affords and by 
its artistic beauty, brings us in touch with the 
divine, and this for the following reason; for 
although it has been well said that human beings 
then act most like the gods when they are doing 
good to others, yet one might better say, when 
they are happy; and such happiness consists of 
rejoicing, celebrating festivals, pursuing philosophy, 
and engaging in music; for, if music is perverted 
when musicians turn their art to sensual delights 



μουσικῶν εἰς ἡδυπαθείας τρεπόντων τὰς τέχνας 

468 ἐν τοῖς συμποσίοις καὶ θυμέλαις καὶ σκηναῖς καὶ 
ἄλλοις τοιούτοις, διαβαλλέσθω τὸ πρᾶγμα, ἀλλ᾽ 
ἡ φύσις ἡ τῶν παιδευμάτων ἐξεταζέσθω τὴν 
ἀρχὴν ἐνθένδε ἔχουσα. 

10. Καὶ διὰ τοῦτο μουσικὴν ἐκάλεσε Πλάτων 
καὶ ἔτι πρότερον οἱ Πυθαγόρειοι τὴν φιλοσοφίαν, 
καὶ καθ᾽ ἁρμονίαν τὸν κόσμον συνεστάναι φασί, 
πᾶν τὸ μουσικὸν εἶδος θεῶν ἔργον ὑπολαμβά- 
νοντες. οὕτω δὲ καὶ αἱ Μοῦσαι θεαὶ καὶ ᾿Απόλ» 
λων Μδυσηγέτης καὶ ἡ ποιητικὴ πᾶσα ὑμνητική.ἷ 
ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ τὴν τῶν ἠθῶν κατασκευὴν τῇ 
μουσικῇ προσνέμουσιν, ὡς πᾶν τὸ ἐπανορθωτικὸν 
τοῦ νοῦ τοῖς θεοῖς ἐγγὺς ὄν. οἱ μὲν οὖν " EXXnVEs 
οἱ πλεῖστοι τῷ Διονύσῳ προσέθεσαν καὶ τῷ 
> \ a © / \ a f \ 
Ἀπόλλωνι καὶ τῇ Exatn καὶ ταῖς Μούσαις καὶ 
Δήμητρι, νὴ Δία," τὸ ὀργιαστικὸν πᾶν καὶ τὸ 
βακχικὸν καὶ τὸ χορικὸν καὶ τὸ περὶ τὰς τελετὰς 
μυστικόν, Ιακχόν τε καὶ τὸν Διόνυσον καλοῦσι 
καὶ τὸν ἀρχηγέτην τῶν μυστηρίων, τῆς Δήμητρος 
δαίμονα" _Sevdpopopiar Te Kal χορεῖαι καὶ τελεταὶ 
κοιναὶ τῶν θεῶν εἰσὶ τούτων' αἱ δὲ Μοῦσαι καὶ 

ὁ ᾿Απόλλων, αἱ μὲν τῶν “χορῶν προεστᾶσιν, ὁ δὲ 
καὶ τούτων καὶ τῶν κατὰ μαντικήν" πρόπολοι δὲ 
τῶν Μουσῶν οἱ πεπαιδευμένοι πάντες, καὶ ἰδίως 
οἱ μουσικοί, τοῦ δ᾽ ᾿Απόλλωνος οὗτοί τε καὶ οἱ 

1 οὖσα, after ὑμνητική, Kramer omits ; so the later editors. 

2. x, Tzschucke, and Corais write καὶ Διί instead of νὴ Ala. 

1 Plato, Phaedo 61. 
2 Philolatis, Frag. 4 (Stobaeus 1. 458-460). See also 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. 9-10 

at symposiums and in orchestric and scenic perform- 
ances and the like, we should not lay the blame 
upon music itself, but should rather examine the 
nature of our system of education, since this is 
based on music. 

10. And on this account Plato, and even before 
his time the Pythagoreians, called philosophy music ; } 
and they say that the universe is constituted in 
accordance with harmony,? assuming that every 
form of music is the work of the gods. And in 
this sense, also, the Muses are goddesses, and 
Apollo is leader of the Muses, and poetry as a 
whole is laudatory of the gods. And by the same 
course of reasoning they also attribute to music 
the upbuilding of morals, believing that everything 
which tends to correct the mind is close to the 
gods. Now most of the Greeks assigned to 
Dionysus, Apollo, Hecaté, the Muses, and above 
all to Demeter, everything of an orgiastic or Bacchic 
or choral nature, as well as the mystic element in 
initiations; and they give the name “ lIacchus” 
not only to Dionysus but also to the leader-in-chief 
of the mysteries, who is the genius of Demeter. 
And branch-bearing, choral dancing, and initiations 
are common elements in the worship of these gods. 
As for the Muses and Apollo, the Muses preside over 
the choruses, whereas Apollo presides both over 
these and the rites of divination. But all educated 
men, and especially the musicians, are ministers 
of the Muses; and both these and those who have 
to do with divination are ministers of Apollo; 

Athenaeus 14, 632 B-C Aristotle, Metaphysics 1. 5, Sextus 
Empiricus, Adv. Math. 4. 6. Cp. Plato, Timaeus 32 C, 
36 D, 37 A, 41 B, Republic 617 B, Epinomis 991 EK. 



περὶ μαντικήν, Δήμητρος δὲ οἵ τε μύσται καὶ 
δᾳδοῦχοι καὶ ἱεροφάνται, Διονύσου δὲ Σείληνοί 
τε καὶ Σάτυροι καὶ Βάκχαι, Λῆναί τε καὶ Θυῖαι 
καὶ Μιμαλλόνες καὶ Ναΐδες καὶ Νύμφαι καὶ 
Τίτυροι προσαγορευόμενοι. 

ΠΣ Ἔν δὲ τῇ Κρήτῃ καὶ ταῦτα καὶ τὰ τοῦ 
Διὸς ἱερὰ ἰδίως ἐπετελεῖτο μετ᾽ ὀργιασμοῦ καὶ 
τοιούτων προπόλων, οἷοι 3 περὶ τὸν Διόνυσόν 
εἰσεῦ οἱ Σάτυροι: τούτους δ᾽ ὠνόμαζον Κουρῆτας, 
νέους τινὰς ἐνόπλιον κίνησιν μετ᾽ ὀρχήσεως 
ἀποδιδόντας, προστησάμενοι μῦθον τὸν περὶ τῆς 
τοῦ Διὸς γενέσεως, ἐν ᾧ τὸν μὲν Κρόνον εἰσάγουσιν 
εἰθισμένον καταπίνειν τὰ τέκνα ἀπὸ τῆς γενέσεως 
εὐθύς, τὴν δὲ “Ῥέαν πειρωμένην ἐπικρύπτεσθαι 
τὰς ὠδῖνας καὶ τὸ γεννηθὲν βρέφος ἐκποδὼν 
ποιεῖν καὶ περισώζειν εἰς δύναμιν πρὸς δὲ τοῦτο 
συνεργοὺς λαβεῖν τοὺς Κουρῆτάς φασιν,ὃ οἱ μετὰ 
τυμπάνων καὶ τοιούτων ἄλλων ψόφων καὶ ἐνοπλίου 
χορείας καὶ θορύβου περιέποντες τὴν θεὸν ἐκπλή- 
ἕξειν ἔμελλον τὸν Κρόνον καὶ λήσειν ὑποσπά- 
σαντες αὐτοῦ τὸν παῖδα, τῇ δ᾽ αὐτῇ ἐπιμελείᾳ 
καὶ τρεφόμενον ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν παραδίδοσθαι: ὥσθ᾽ 

i Κουρῆτες ἤτοι. διὰ τὸ νέοι 3 καὶ κόροι ὄντες 
ὑπουργεῖν ἢ διὰ τὸ κουροτροφεῖν τὸν Δία (λέγεται 
γὰρ ἀμφοτέρως) ταύτης ἠξιώθησαν τῆς προσηγο- 

C 469 ρίας, οἱονεὶ ἀτυροί τινες ὄντες περὶ τὸν Δία. 
οἱ μὲν οὖν “EXAnves τοιοῦτοι περὶ τοὺς ὀργιασ- 


1 καὶ Τίτυροι προσαγορευόμενοι no, for καὶ Σάτυροι προσαγο- 
ρευόμεναι (other MssS.). Cp. 10. 3. 7. 
2 "οἷοι x, ot other MSS. 3 φασιν, Jones inserts. 
νέοι EK, νέον other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. ro-11 

and the initiated and torch-bearers and hierophants, of 
Demeter; and the Sileni and Satyri and Bacchae, 
and also the Lenae and Thyiae and Mimallones and 
Naides and Nymphae and the beings called Tityri, 
of Dionysus. 

11. In Crete, not only these rites, but in particular 
those sacred to Zeus, were performed along with 
orgiastic worship and with the kind of ministers 
who were in the service of Dionysus, I mean the 
Satyri. These ministers they called “Curetes,” 
young men who executed movements in armour, 
accompanied by dancing, as they set forth the 
mythical story of the birth of Zeus; in this they 
introduced Cronus as accustomed to swallow his 
children immediately after their birth, and Rhea 
as trying to keep her travail secret and, when the 
child was born, to get it out of the way and save 
its life by every means in her power; and to 
accomplish this it is said that she took as helpers 
the Curetes, who, by surrounding the goddess with 
tambourines and similar noisy instruments and with 
war-dance and uproar, were supposed to strike terror 
into Cronus and without his knowledge to steal 
his child away; and that, according to tradition, 
Zeus was actually reared by them with the same 
diligence ; consequently the Curetes, either because, 
being young, that is ‘“‘youths,’! they performed 
this service, or because they “reared” Zeus “ in 
his youth”? (for both explanations are given), were 
accorded this appellation, as if they were Satyrs, so 
to speak, in the service of Zeus. Such, then, were 
the Greeks in the matter of orgiastic worship, 

1 “Coroi” (see note on ‘‘ youths,” 10. 3. 8). 
2 “*Curo-trophein,” to ‘‘rear youth.” 



΄ - -“ \ 
12. Οἱ δὲ Bepéxuvtes, Φρυγῶν τι φῦλον, Kai 
ἁπλῶς οἱ Φρύγες καὶ τῶν Τρώων οἱ περὶ τὴν 
Ἴδην κατοικοῦντες, Ῥέαν μὲν καὶ αὐτοὶ τιμῶσι 
καὶ ὀργιάζουσι ταύτῃ, μητέρα καλοῦντες θεῶν 
Ν ὟΝ 1 \ / \ ‘ > \ 
καὶ Ἄγδιστιν ἢ καὶ Φρυγίαν θεὸν μεγάλην, ἀπὸ 
δὲ τῶν τόπων ᾿Ιδαίαν καὶ Δινδυμήνην καὶ 
Σιπυλήνην 5 καὶ ΠΠεσσινουντίδα 3 καὶ Κυβέλην 
καὶ Κυβήβην.. οἱ δ᾽ “EXXnves τοὺς προπόλους 
fol e ΄ A 
αὐτῆς ὁμωνύμως Κουρῆτας λέγουσιν, ov μήν γε 
ἀπὸ τῆς αὐτῆς μυθοποιίας, ἀλλ᾽ ἑτέρους, ὡς ἂν 
ὑπουργούς τινας, τοῖς Σατύροις ἀνὰ λόγον: τοὺς 
δ᾽ αὐτοὺς καὶ Κορύβαντας καλοῦσι. 
18. Μάρτυρες & οἱ ποιηταὶ τῶν τοιούτων 
ς nr “ Ν 4 > a , 2 
ὑπονοιῶν" 6 τε yap Πίνδαρος ἐν τῷ διθυράμβῳ, οὗ 
id > / 
7) αρχῆ 
Πρὶν μὲν εἷρπε σχοινοτένειά 
θ NAS a \ \ , “ a 
μνησθεὶς ὃ τῶν περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον ὕμνων τῶν τε 
-“ Lal , 
παλαιῶν καὶ τῶν ὕστερον, μεταβὰς ἀπὸ τούτων 

σοὶ μὲν κατάρχειν, 
μᾶτερ μεγάλα, πάρα 19 ῥόμβοι κυμβάλων, 

5 τ᾽ ἀοιδά ® 


1 ἤλγδιστιν (word omitted by x), Casaubon, for Αἴεστιν ; so 
the later editors. 

2 Σιπυλήνην, Tzschucke, for Πυλήνην ; so the later editors. 

8 Πεσσινουντίδα, the editors, for Περισσινοῦντα B, Πισινοῦντα 
x, Πισσινοῦντα other MSS. 

* καὶ Κυβήβην, omitted by MSS. except Eno. 

5 σχοινοτένεια Bergk, for σχοῖνος tovlas k, cxowoxovias hi, 
σχοινοτονίας other MSS. 

8 ἀοιδαί Bklnox. 

7 διθυράμβων x and Dionys. (de Comp. Verb. 14) ; διθυράμβῳ, 
other MSS. 

8 δέ͵ after μνησθείς, Corais and Meineke eject. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. 12-13 

12. But as for the Berecyntes,) a tribe of 
Phrygians, and the Phrygians in general, and 
those of the Trojans who live round Ida, they too 
hold Rhea in honour and worship her with orgies, 
calling her Mother of the gods and Agdistis and 
Phrygia the Great Goddess, and also, from the 
places where she is worshipped, Idaea and Dindy- 
mené and Sipylené and Pessinuntis and Cybelé 
and Cybebé.2. The Greeks use the same name 
“Curetes” for the ministers of the goddess, not 
taking the name, however, from the same mythical 
story,®> but regarding them as a different set of 
“Curetes,” helpers as it were, analogous to the 
Satyri; and the same they also call Corybantes. 

13. The poets bear witness to such views as I have 
suggested. For instance, when Pindar, in the dithy- 
ramb which begins with these words, “In earlier 
times there marched? the lay of the dithyrambs 
long drawn οὐδ, mentions the hymns sung in honour 
of Dionysus, both the ancient and the later ones, and 
then, passing on from these, says, “ΤῸ perform the 
prelude in thy honour, great Mother, the whirling 

1 See 12. 8. 21. 

2 ἡ... from Mt. Ida, Mt. Dindymum (12. 5. 3), Mt. Sipylus, 
Pessinus (d.c.),and Mt. Cybela (/.c.), and Cybeba. Cf. Diodorus 
Siculus (3. 58), who spells the next to last name ‘‘Cybelum.”’ 

3 The story of the Cretan Curetes. 

4 Or perhaps ‘‘ was drawled” (sc. from the lips of men ; 
see Bergk, or Sandys in Loeb Classical Library, Frag. 79). 
Roberts (Dionysius of Halicarnassus, On Literary Composi- 

tion 14) translates the verb ‘‘crept in” and Sandys (l.c.) 
** flowed.” 

® κατάρχειν, Bergk, following kx, instead of κατάρχει other 
MSS. ; so Kramer, Miiller-Diibner, and Meineke. 
10 μεγάλα, mapa Bergk, for πάρα μεγάλαι corr. in B, πάρα 
μεγάλοι other MSS. 


ἐν δὲ KaxXdcwy! κρόταλ᾽, αἰθομένα τε 
Sas ὑπὸ ξανθαῖσι πεύκαις, 

\ ᾽ὔ a \ \ , , / 

τὴν κοινωνίαν τῶν περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον ἀποδειχθέν- 
ral A “ 
των νομίμων παρὰ τοῖς "ἔλλησι καὶ τῶν παρὰ 
τοῖς Φρυξὶ περὶ τὴν μητέρα τῶν θεῶν συνο!κειῶν 
> / 2 E > id > a B / \ 
ἀλλήλοις. ὑριπίδης τε ἐν ταῖς Βάκχαις τὰ 
παραπλήσια ποιεῖ, τοῖς Φρυγίοις ἅμα καὶ τὰ 
Λύδια συμφέρων διὰ τὸ ὅμοιον" * 

ἀλλ᾽ ὦ λιποῦσαι μῶλον, ἔρυμα Λυδίας, 
θίασος ἐμός, γυναῖκες, ἃς ἐκ βαρβάρων 
ἐκόμισα παρέδρους καὶ ξυνεμπόρους ἐμοί, 
αἴρεσθε τἀπιχώρι᾽ ἐν πόλει Φρυγῶν 
τύμπανα, Péas τε μητρὸς ἐμά θ᾽ εὑρήματα 

καὶ πάλιν" 

δ » Ὁ > ὔ A ~ 
ὦ μάκαρ, ὅστις εὐδαίμων τελετὰς θεῶν 
εἰδώς, βιοτὰν ἁγιστεύει" 
τά τε ματρὸς μεγάλας ὄργια Κυβέλας θεμι- 
τεύων 4 
, \ ΄ 4 a , 
ava θύρσον τετινάσσων, κισσῷ τε στεφανωθείς, 
Διόνυσον θεραπεύει. 
ἴτε Βάκχαι, ἴτε Βάκχαι, Βρόμιον παῖδα θεὸν 
Διόνυσον κατάγουσαι Φρυγίων ἐξ ὀρέων 
/ ΄, 
Ἑλλάδος εἰς εὐρυχόρους ἀγυιάς. 
᾽ al A \ 
πάλιν δ᾽ ἐν τοῖς ἑξῆς καὶ τὰ Κρητικὰ συμπλέκει 
1 καχλάδων (= sistrorum), Wilamowitz restores the reading 
of all MSS. For other emendations, see C. Miiller, Znd. Var. 

Lect. p. 1010. 
2 ἀλλήλαις BCDAikilz. 


GEOGRAPHY, 10. 2:12 

of cymbals is at hand, and among them, also, the 
clanging of castanets, and the torch that blazeth 
beneath the tawny pine-trees,’’ he bears witness to 
the common relationship between the rites exhibited 
in the worship of Dionysus among the Greeks and 
those in the worship of the Mother of the gods 
among the Phrygians, for he makes these rites 
closely akin to one another. And Euripides does 
likewise, in his Bacchae, citing the Lydian usages 
at the same time with those of Phrygia, because of 
their similarity: “But ye who left Mt. Tmolus, 
fortress of Lydia, revel-band of mine, women whom 
I brought from the land of barbarians as my assist- 
ants and travelling companions, uplift the tam- 
bourines native to Phrygian cities, inventions of mine 
and mother Rhea.” ! And again, “happy he who, 
blest man, initiated in the mystic rites, is pure in his 
life, . . . who, preserving the righteous orgies of the 
great mother Cybelé, and “brandishing the thyrsus on 
high, and wreathed with ivy, doth worship Dionysus. 
Come, ye Bacchae, come, ye Bacchae, bringing 
down 2 Bromius,? god the child of god, Dionysus, out 
of the Phrygian mountains into the broad highways 
of Greece.” 4 And again, in the following verses he 
connects the Cretan usages also with the Phrygian: 

1 Bacchae δῶ. 

2 The verb is also used in the sense of “‘ bringing back 
home,’ and in the above case might be construed as a 
double entente. 

3 1.6. ‘© Boisterous”’ one. 4 Bacchae 72 

3 διὰ τὸ ὅμοιον, Professor Capps, for διά re Ὅμηρον (κατὰ τὸν 
Ὅμηρον Bkno); οὐ κατὰ τὸν Ὅμηρον, Corais, διὰ τὸ ὕμορυν, 

4 θεμιτεύων, Musgrave, for θεμιστεύων, on account of metre. 


C 470 


ὦ θαλάμευμα Κουρήτων, ζάθεοί τε Kpnras 
διογενέτορες ἔναυλοι, 
Μ a ” 
ἔνθα τρικὄρυθες ἄντροις 
βυρσότονον κύκλωμα τόδε 
μοι Κορύβαντες εὗρον, 
ἀνὰ δὲ Βακχεῖα συντόνῳ 
‘ [2 d / 
κέρασαν ἁδυβόᾳ Φρυγίων 
αὐλῶν πνεύματι, ματρός τε ‘Péas 
εἰς χέρα θῆκαν κτύπον εὐάσμασι Βακχᾶν 
παρὰ δὲ μαινόμενοι Σάτυροι 
ματέρος ἐξανύσαντο Ρέας, 
εἰς δὲ χορεύματα 
προσῆψαν Τριετηρίδων, 
αἷς χαίρει Διόνυσος. 

καὶ ἐν Παλαμήδει φησὶν ὁ χορός" 

/ 7 
Θύσαν Διονύσου 

a 3-9/5 
κόραν, ὃς av Ἴδαν 

/ \ \ , 
τέρπεται σὺν ματρὶ φιλᾳ 

, 2 Fi lal 

τυμπάνων ἐπ᾽ ἰαχαῖς." 

14. Καὶ Σειληνὸν καὶ Μαρσύαν καὶ "Ολυμπον 
συνάγοντες εἰς ἕν καὶ εὑρετὰς αὐλῶν ἱστοροῦντες 
πάλιν καὶ οὕτως τὰ Διονυσιακὰ καὶ Φρύγια εἰς 
A / ’ὔ » Ν Ν » 
ἐν συμφέρουσι; τήν τε Ἴδην καὶ τὸν ᾽ὌΟλυμπον 
συγκεχυμένως πολλάκις ὡς τὸ αὐτὸ ὄρος κτυ- 

r ’ 
ποῦσιν. εἰσὶ μὲν οὖν λόφοι τέτταρες "Ολυμποι 

Ἂ nr wv \ ἣν ’ , 4 
καλούμενοι τῆς Ἴδης κατὰ τὴν ᾿Αντανδρίαν, ἔστι 
Ν « Ν » ΄ 
δὲ καὶ ὁ Μυσὸς Ὄλυμπος, ὅμορος μέν, οὐχ ὁ 

> \ \ AM € > = -“ 72 Ν 
αὐτὸς δὲ τῇ Ἴδη. ὁ δ᾽ οὖν Σοφοκλῆς ποιήσας τὸν 

1 The reading and metrical arrangement of this corrupt 
passage is that of Nauck, Frag. 586 (q.v.). 


GEOGRAPHY, to. 3. 13-14 

“Ὁ thou hiding-bower! of the Curetes, and sacred 
haunts of Crete that gave birth to Zeus, where for 
me ? the triple-crested 5 Corybantes 4 in their caverns 
invented this hide-stretched circlet,> and blent its 
Bacchic revelry with the high-pitched, sweet-sound- 
ing breath of Phrygian flutes, and in Rhea’s hands 
placed its resounding noise, to accompany the shouts 
of the Bacchae,® and from Mother Rhea frenzied 
Satyrs obtained it and joined it to the choral dances 
of the Trieterides,’ in whom Dionysus takes delight.” 
And in the Palamedes the Chorus says, ‘ Thysa, 
daughter of Dionysus, who on Ida rejoices with his 
dear mother in the Iacchic revels of tambourines.”’§ 

14. And when they bring Seilenus and Marsyas 
and Olympus into one and the same connection, and 
make them the historical inventors of flutes, they 
again, a second time, connect the Dionysiac and the 
Phrygian rites ; and they often in a confused manner 
drum on ® Ida and Olympus as the same mountain. 
Now there are four peaks of Ida called Olympus, 
near Antandria; and there is also the Mysian 
Olympus, which indeed borders on Ida, but is not 
the same. At any rate, Sophocles, in his Polyxena, 

1 Where Zeus was hid. 

2 The leader of the Chorus in Bacchae 120 ff. is spokesman 
of the chorus, and hence of all the Greeks. 

3 Referring to the triple rim of their helmets (cp. the triple 
crown of the Pope). 

‘ Name of the Phrygian priests of Cybele. 

5 ¢.e. the tambourine. 

6 They shouted ‘‘ev-ah!” (eda; cf. Lat. ovatio), as the 
Greek word shows, 

7 «‘Triennial Festivals.” 

8 See critical note. 

9. «‘Drum on” is an effort to reproduce in English Strabo’s 



Μενέλαον ἐκ τῆς Τροίας ἀπαίρειν σπεύδοντα ἐν 
τῇ Πολυξένῃ, τὸν δ᾽ ᾿Αγαμέμνονα μικρὸν ὑπολειφ- 
θῆναι βουλόμενον τοῦ ἐξιλάσασθαι τὴν ᾿Αθηνᾶν 
χάριν, εἰσάγει λέγοντα τὸν Mevédaov: 

σὺ δ᾽ αὖθι μίμνων που κατ᾽ ᾿Ιδαίαν χθόνα 

ποίμνας ᾽Ολύμπου συναγαγὼν ae 

15. Τῷ δ᾽ αὐλῷ καὶ κτύπῳ κροτάλων τε καὶ 
κυμβάλων καὶ τυμπάνων καὶ ταῖς ἐπιβοήσεσι 
καί εὐασμοῖς καὶ ποδοκρουστίαις οἰκεῖα ἐξεύροντο 
καί τινα τῶν ὀνομάτων, ἃ τοὺς προπόλους καὶ 
χορευτὰς καὶ θεραπευτὰς τῶν ἱερῶν ἐκάλουν, 
Καβείρους καὶ Κορύβαντας. καὶ Πᾶνας καὶ 
Σατύρους καὶ T ἐτύρους, καὶ τὸν θεὸν Βάκχον καὶ 
τὴν “Ῥέαν Κυβέλην καὶ Κυβήβην 3 καὶ Δινδυμήνην 
κατὰ τοὺς τόπους αὐτούς. καὶ ὁ “Σαβάξιος δὲ τῶν 
Φρυγιακῶν ἐστὶ καὶ τρόπον τινὰ τῆς Mz pos TO 
παιδίον παραδοὺς τὰ 3 τοῦ Διονύσου καὶ αὐτός. 

16. Τούτοις δ᾽ ἔοικε καὶ τὰ παρὰ τοῖς Θρᾳξὶ τά 
τε Κοτύτια 4 καὶ τὰ Βενδίδεια, 5 παρ᾽ οἷς καὶ τὰ 
Ὀρφικὰ τὴν καταρχὴν ἔσχε. τῆς μὲν οὖν Κότυος ° 
τῆς ἐν τοῖς ᾿Ηδωνοῖς Αἰσχύλος. μέμνηται καὶ τῶν 
περὶ αὐτὴν ὀργάνων. εἰπὼν yap" 

An a A 
σεμνὰ Κότυς ἐν tots ᾿Ηδωνοῖς, 
" 2 pe » ] “ 

opera’ δ᾽ ὄργαν᾽ ἔχοντες, 

1 που, Corais, from conj. of Xylander, for τοῦ CDA/, τήν 

2 Κυβήβην, Tzschucke, for Κύβην ; ; 80 the later editors. 

3 παραδοὺς ta, Meineke from conj. of Kramer, for παμάδων 
τά x, παραδίδοντα 8, παραδιδόμενος τοῖς Bkano. 

4 Κότυα Dh, Κόττυα 7, Κοττύτια Epit. 

5 Βενδίδια nom, Μενδίδια Ck/, Βενθείδια E. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. 14-16 

representing Menelaiis as in haste to set sail from 
Troy, but Agamemnon as wishing to remain behind 
for a short time for the sake of propitiating Athena, 
introduces Menelaiis as saying, “ But do thou, here 
remaining, somewhere in the Idaean land collect 
flocks of Olympus and offer them in sacrifice.”’ 1 

15. They invented names appropriate to the flute, 
and to the noises made by castanets, cymbals, and 
drums, and to their acclamations and shouts of 
“ev-ah,’ and stampings of the feet ;? and they also 
invented some of the names by which to designate the 
ministers, choral dancers, and attendants upon the 
sacred rites, | mean “ Cabeiri” and “ Corybantes”’ 
and “Pans” and “Satyri” and “ Tityri,’ and they 
called the god “Bacchus,” and Rhea “Cybelé” 
or “Cybebé” or “ Dindymené” according to the 
places where she was worshipped. Sabazius also 
belongs to the Phrygian group and in a way is the 
child of the Mother, since he too transmitted the 
rites of Dionysus.® 

16. Also resembling these rites are the Cotytian 
and the Bendideian rites practised among the Thra- 
cians, among whom the Orphic rites had _ their 
beginning. Now the Cotys who is worshipped 
among the Edonians, and also the instruments used 
in her rites, are mentioned by Aeschylus; for he 
says, “O adorable Cotys among the Edonians, and 
ye who hold mountain-ranging * instruments” ; and 

1 Frag. 47. 9 (Nauck). 2 Cp. end of § 17 following. 

3 Cp. end of § 18 following. 

4 The instruments, like those who play them (ep. §§ 19 and 
23 following), are boldly referred to as ‘‘ mountain-ranging.” 

6 Κόττυος ino. 7 dpera Dh, ὅρια other MSS. 

C 4 


Tous περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον εὐθέως ἐπιφέρει" 
ὁ μὲν ἐν χερσίν 
βόμβυκας ἔχων, τόρνου κάματον, 
δακτυλόδεικτον | πίμπλησι μέλος, 
μανίας ἐπαγωγὸν ὁμοκλάν, ; ; 
ὁ δὲ χαλκοδέτοις ὃ κοτύλαις ὀτοβεῖ 
καὶ πάλιν" 
ψαλμὸς δ᾽ ἀλαλάζει: 
ταυρόφθογγοι δ᾽ ὑπομυκῶνται 
ποθὲν ἐξ ἀφανοῦς φοβεροὶ μῖμοι, 
τυμπάνου δ᾽ εἰκὼν 4 ὥσθ᾽ ὑπογαίου 
βροντῆς, φέρεται βαρυταρβής. 
ταῦτα γὰρ ἔοικε τοῖς Φρυγίοις" καὶ οὐκ ἀπεικός 
γε, ὥσπερ αὐτοὶ οἱ Φρύγες Θρᾳκῶν ἄποικοί εἰσιν, 
οὕτω καὶ τὰ ἱερὰ ἐκεῖθεν μετενηνέχθαι. καὶ τὸν 
Διόνυσον δὲ καὶ τὸν Ηδωνὸν Λυκοῦργον συνάγον- 
τες εἰς ἕν τὴν ὁμοιοτροπίαν τῶν ἱερῶν αἰνίττονται. 
17. ᾿Απὸ δὲ τοῦ μέλους καὶ τοῦ ῥυθμοῦ καὶ τῶν 
ὀργάνων καὶ ἡ μουσικὴ πᾶσα Θρᾳκία καὶ 
᾿Ασιᾶτις νενόμισται. δῆλον δ᾽ ἔκ τε τῶν τόπων, 
ἐν οἷς αἱ Μοῦσαι τετίμηνται' Πιερία γὰρ καὶ 


Ὄλυμπος καὶ Πίμπλα καὶ Λείβηθρον τὸ παλαιὸν 

Φ , , \ v lal \ Μ 

ἣν Opaxia χωρία καὶ ὄρη, νῦν δὲ ἔχουσι Μακε- 
, ΄ -“ Cal 

doves: τόν τε “EXtx@va καθιέρωσαν ταῖς Μούσαις 

Θρᾷκες οἱ τὴν Βοιωτίαν ἐποικήσαντες, οἴπερ καὶ 

1 δακτυλόδεικτον MSS., but Corais, from conj. of Jacobs, 
reads δακτυλόθικτον. Perhaps δακτυλύδικτον is right ; so 
Nauck reads, Frag. 57, but the interpretation of the word in 
L. and 5. (‘‘ of the humming of a top ”’) is wrong. 

2 χαλκοδέτοις, Casaubon, for χαλκοθέοις MSS., χαλκοθέτοι- 
Epit. ; so the later editors. 

3 ὑπομηκῶνται Bkino. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. 16-17 

he mentions immediately afterwards the attendants 
of Dionysus: “one, holding in his hands the bom- 
byces,! toilsome work of the turner’s chisel, fills full 
the fingered melody, the call that brings on frenzy, 
while another causes to resound the bronze-bound 
cotylae”’ ; 2 and again, “stringed instruments raise 
their shrill ery, and frightful mimickers from some 
place unseen bellow like bulls, and the semblance 8 
of drums, as of subterranean thunder, rolls along, a 
terrifying sound”; for these rites resemble the 
Phrygian rites, and it is at least not unlikely that, 
just as the Phrygians themselves were colonists from 
Thrace, so also their sacred rites were borrowed 
from there. Also when they identify Dionysus and 
the Edonian Lycurgus, they hint at the homoge- 
neity of their sacred rites. 

17. From its melody and rhythm and instruments, 
all Thracian music has been considered to be 
Asiatic. And this is clear, first, from the places where 
the Muses have been worshipped, for Pieria and 
Olympus and Pimpla and Leibethrum were in 
ancient times Thracian places and mountains, though 
they are now held by the Macedonians ; and again, 
Helicon was consecrated to the Muses by the 
Thracians who settled in Boeotia, the same who 

1 A kind of reed-flute. 

2. Literally ‘‘ cups” ; hence, a kind of cymbal. 

3 In connection with this bold use of ‘‘ semblance” (εἰκών) 
by Aeschylus, note Strabo’s studied use of ‘ resembles” 
(ἔοικε, twice in this paragraph) and “‘ unlikely ” (ἀπεικός). 
Others either translate εἰκών ‘‘ echo,” or omit the thought. 

4 εἰκών, Kramer restores, instead of ἠχώ kno and earlier 
editors ; εἰχών B(by corr. )/x. 



τὸ τῶν Λειβηθριάδων Νυμφῶν ἄντρον καθιέρωσαν. 
οἵ τ᾿ ἐπιμεληθέντες τῆς ἀρχαίας μουσικῆς Θρᾷκες 
λέγονται, ᾿Ορφεύς τε καὶ Μουσαῖος καὶ Θάμυρις 
καὶ τῷ Εὐμόλπῳ δὲ τοὔνομα ἐνθένδε, καὶ οἱ τῷ 
Διονύσῳ τὴν ᾿Ασίαν ὅχην καθιερώσαντες μέχρι 
τῆς ᾿Ινδικῆς ἐκεῖθεν καὶ τὴν πολλὴν μουσικὴν 
μεταφέρουσι' καὶ ὁ μέν τίς φησιν' κιθάραν 
᾿Ασιᾶτιν ῥάσσων,' ὁ δὲ τοὺς αὐλοὺς Βερεκυντίους 
καλεῖ καὶ Φρυγίους: καὶ τῶν ὀργάνων ἔνια 

/ γ᾽ , / \ / \ 
βαρβάρως ὠνόμασται νάβλας 3 Kai σαμβύκη Kal 
βάρβιτος καὶ μαγάδις καὶ ἄλλα πλείω. 

18. ᾿Αθηναῖοι δ᾽ ὥσπερ περὶ τὰ ἄλλα φιλοξε- 
νοῦντες διατελοῦσιν, οὕτω καὶ περὶ τοὺς θεούς. 
πολλὰ γὰρ τῶν ξενικῶν ἱερῶν παρεδέξαντο, ὥστε 
καὶ ἐκωμῳδήθησαν' καὶ δὴ καὶ τὰ Θρᾷκια καὶ τὰ 
Φρύγια. τῶν μὲν γὰρ Βενδιδείων 8 Πλάτων 
μέμνηται, τῶν δὲ Φρυγίων Δημοσθένης, διαβάλ- 
λων τὴν Αἰσχίνου μητέρα. καὶ αὐτόν, ὡς τελού ὕσῃ 
τῇ μητρὶ συνόντα καὶ συνθιασεύοντα καὶ 
ἐπιφθεγγόμενον εὐοῖ σαβοῖ πολλάκις καὶ Uns 
ἄττης, ἄττης * ὕης" ταῦτα γάρ ἐστι Σαβάζια καὶ 

9, Ἔτι δ᾽ ἂν τις καὶ ταῦτα εὕροι περὶ τῶν 
δαιμόνων τούτων καὶ τῆς τῶν ὀνομάτων ποικιλίας 
καὶ ὅτι οὐ πρόπολοι θεῶν μόνον, ἀλλὰ καὶ αὐτοὶ 
θεοὶ προσηγορεύθησαν. Ἡσίοδος μὲν γὰρ ᾿Εκα- 

1 ἀράσσων NOx. 

2 νάμβλας CDilnosx, νάμβλα ἘΠῚ and corr. in B. 

8 Βεδιδείων Dhi, Βενδιδίων other MSS. 

* The second &rrns Kramer restores (for the variant read- 
ings see his edition). 

> εὕροι omitted except in Bkno. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. 17-19 

consecrated-the cave of the nymphs called Leibe- 
thrides. And again, those who devoted their 
attention to the music of early times are called 
Thracians, I mean Orpheus, Musaeus, and Thamyris ; 
and Eumolpus,! too, got his name from there. And 
those writers who have consecrated the whole of 
Asia, as far as India, to Dionysus, derive the greater 
part of music from there, And. one writer says, 
“ striking the Asiatic cithara’”’; another calls flutes 
£s Berecyntian ” and “ Phrygian” ; and some of the 
instruments have been called by havbatian names, 
“nablas,” ‘‘sambycé,” ‘“ barbitos,’ “ magadis,” and 
several others. 

18. Just as in all other respects the Athenians 
continue to be hospitable to things foreign, so also 
in their worship of the gods; for they welcomed so 
many of the foreign rites that they were ridiculed 
therefor by comic writers; and among these were 
the Thracian and Phrygian rites. For instance, the 
Bendideian rites are mentioned by Plato,? and the 
Phrygian by Demosthenes,? when he casts the 
reproach upon Aeschines’ mother and Aeschines 
himself that he was with her when she conducted 
initiations, that he joined her in leading the Dio- 
nysiac march, and that many a time he cried out 
“ὄνος saboe,” and ‘hyés attés, attés hyés”’ ; for 
these words are in the ritual δε Sabazius and the 

619. Further, one might also find, in addition to 
these facts concerning these genii and their various 
names, that they were called, not only ministers of 
gods, but also gods themselves. For instance, Hesiod 

1 ἐς Sweet-singer. ” 2 Republic 1. 327, IL 354. 
3 On the Crown 313. 

C 472 


tépou! καὶ τῆς Φορωνέως θυγατρὸς πέντε γενέσ- 
θαι θυγατέρας φησίν, 

ἐξ @ ὧν οὔρειαι Νύμφαι θεαὶ ἐξεγένοντο, 3 

καὶ γένος οὐτιδανῶν Σατύρων καὶ ἀμηχα- 

Κουρῆτές τε θεοὶ φιλοπαίγμονες, ὀρχηστῆρες. 

ὁ δὲ τὴν Φορωνίδα γράψας 3 αὐλητὰς. καὶ Φρύγας 
τοὺς Κουρῆτας λέγει, ἄλλοι δὲ γηγενεῖς καὶ 
χαλκάσπιδας" οἱ δ᾽ οὐ τοὺς Κουρῆτας, ἀλλὰ τοὺς 
Κορύβαντας Φρύγας, ἐκείνους δὲ Κρῆτας, περι- 
θέσθαι δ᾽ ὅπλα χαλκᾶ πρώτους ἐν Εὐβοίᾳ: 610 
καὶ Χαλκιδέας αὐτοὺς κληθῆναι" οἱ δ᾽ ὑπὸ Τι- 
τάνων ἱῬέᾳ δοθῆναι προπόλους ἐνόπλους τοὺς 
Κορύβαντας ἐκ τῆς Βακτριανῆς ἀφιγμένους, οἱ δ᾽ 
ἐκ Κόλχων φασίν. ἐν δὲ τοῖς Κρητικοῖς λόγοις οἱ 
Κουρῆτες Διὸς τροφεῖς λέγονται καὶ φύλακες, εἰς 
Κρήτην ἐκ Φρυγίας μεταπεμφθέντες ὑπὸ τῆς 
“Ῥέας: οἱ δὲ Τελχίνων ἐν Ῥόδῳ ἐ ἐννέα ὄντων, τοὺς 
‘Péa συνακολουθήσαντας εἰς Κρήτην καὶ τὸν Δία 
κουροτροφήσαντας Κουρῆτας ὀνομασθῆναι: Κύρ- 
βαντα δέ, τούτων ἑταῖρον, ἹἹεραπύτνης * ὄντα 
κτίστην, παρὰ τοῖς Ῥοδίοις παρασχεῖν πρόφασιν 
τοῖς Ιρασίοις ὥστε λέγειν ὡς εἶεν Κορύβαντες 
δαίμονές τινες ᾿Αθηνᾶς καὶ Ἡλίου παῖδες. ἔτι δὲ 

1 ‘Exatepov Nauck, following n (man. sec.) and Géottling ; 
‘Exatéou B, ‘Exaralov k and editors before Kramer ; ‘Exatépw 
other MSS. But Hecaterus is otherwise unknown. At any 
rate, the person mentioned was probably a son or descendant 
of Hecaté, unless one should read ‘Exfropos or 'Εκητόρου (see 
Diod. Sic. 5. 50) or ‘Exarov (Apollo). 

2 ἐξεγένοντο, Corais, for ἐγένοντο; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. 19 

says that five daughters were born to Hecaterus 
and the daughter of Phoroneus, “ from whom sprang 
the mountain-ranging nymphs, goddesses, and the 
breed of Satyrs, creatures worthless and unfit for 
work, and also the Curetes, sportive gods, dancers.” ὦ 
And the author of Phoronis 5 speaks of the Curetes as 
“flute-players’’’ and “ Phrygians’’; and others as 
“ earth-born ” and “ wearing brazen shields.”” Some 
call the Corybantes,and not the Curetes, “ Phrygians,” 
but the Curetes “ Cretes,’’ 3 and say that the Cretes 
were the first people to don brazen armour in 
Euboea, and that on this account they were also 
called “ Chalcidians” ;4 still others say that the 
Corybantes, who came from Bactriana (some say 
from among the Colchians), were given as armed 
ministers to Rhea by the Titans. But in the Cretan 
accounts the Curetes are called ‘“‘rearers of Zeus,” 
and “protectors of Zeus,” having been summoned 
from Phrygia to Crete by Rhea. Some say that, of 
the nine Telchines® who lived in Rhodes, those who 
accompanied Rhea to Crete and “ reared’ Zeus “in 
his youth’”’® were named “Curetes”; and that 
Cyrbas, a comrade of these, who was the founder of 
Hierapytna, afforded a pretext to the Prasians? for 
saying among the Rhodians that the Corybantes 
were certain genii, sons of Athena and Helius. 

1 Frag. 198 (Rzach). 
3 Hellanicus of Lesbos (fl. about 430 ΒΓ ΟΣ 
3 “*Cretans.” 4 “Chalc-” means ‘‘ brazen.” 
5 See 14. 2. 7. 6 See 10. 3. 11. 7 See 10. 4. 12. 

3 γράψας, Xylander, following x, instead of oréWas, other 
MSS. ; so the later editors. 

4 Ἱεραπύτνης, Casaubon, for ‘Iepéa Πύδνης ; so the later 



Κρόνου τινὲς τοὺς Κορύβαντας, ἄλλοι δὲ Atos 
καὶ Καλλιόπης φασὶ τοὺς Κορύβαντας, τοὺς 
αὐτοὺς τοῖς Καβείροις ὄντας: ἀπελθεῖν δὲ τούτους 
εἰς Σαμοθράκην, καλουμένην. πρότερον Μελίτην, 
τὰς δὲ πράξεις αὐτῶν μυστικὰς εἶναι. 

20. Ταῦτα δ᾽ οὐκ ἀποδεξάμενος ὁ Σκήψιος ὁ 
τοὺς μύθους συναγαγὼν τούτους, ὡς μηδενὸς ἐν 
Σαμοθρά AKN μυστικοῦ το περὶ Καβείρων λεγο- 
μένου, παρατίθησιν ὅ ὅμως * καὶ Στησιμβρότου τοῦ 
Θασίου δόξαν, ὡς τὰ ἐν Σαμοθράκῃ ἱερὰ τοῖς 
Καβείροις ἐπιτελοῖτο: καλεῖσθαι δέ φησιν αὐτοὺς 
ἐκεῖνος ἀπὸ τοῦ ὄρους τοῦ ἐν τῇ Βερεκυντίᾳ Κα- 
Beipov. οἱ & “Ἑκάτης προπόλους νομίζουσι 
τοὺς Κουρῆτας, τοὺς αὐτοὺς τοῖς Κορύβασιν 
ὄντας. φησὶ δὲ πάλιν ὁ Σκήψιος ἐν τῇ Κρήτῃ 
τὰς τῆς Ῥέας τιμὰς μὴ νομίζεσθαι μηδὲ ἐ ἐπίχω- 
ριάξειν, ὑ ὑπεναντιούμενος τῷ τοῦ Εὐριπίδου λόγῳ, 
ἀλλ᾽ ἐν τῇ Φρυγίᾳ μόνον καὶ τῇ Τρωάδι, τοὺς 
δὲ “λέγοντας μυθολογεῖν μᾶλλον ἢ ἱστορεῖν, πρὸς 
τοῦτο δὲ καὶ τὴν τῶν τόπων ὁμωνυμίαν συμπρᾶξαι 
τυχὸν ἴσως αὐτοῖς" Ἴδη γὰρ τὸ ὄρος τό τε Τρωι- 
κὸν καὶ τὸ Κρητικόν, καὶ Δίκτη τόπος ἐν τῇ 
Σκηψίᾳ καὶ ὄρος ἐν Ἱζρήτῃ" τῆς δὲ Ἴδης λόφος 
Πύτνα, ἀφ᾽ οὗ ἹΙεράπυτνα ἡ πόλις, Ἱπποκόρωνά 
τε τῆς ᾿Αδραμυττηνῆς καὶ ἹἹπποκορώνιον ἐν 
Κρήτῃ, Σαμώνιόν τε τὸ ἑωθινὸν ἀκρωτήριον τῆς 
νήσου καὶ πεδίον ἐν τῇ Νεανδρίδι καὶ τῇ ᾿Αλε- 

1 τοὺς Κορύβαντας, Meineke omits ; perhaps rightly. 

2 ὅμως, Corais, from conj. of Xylander, for ὁμοίως. 

1 Demetrius of Scepsis. 

GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. 19-20 

Further, some call the Corybantes sons of Cronus, 
but others say that the Corybantes were sons of 
Zeus and Calliopé and were identical with the 
Cabeiri, and that these went off to Samothrace, 
which in earlier times was called Melité, and that 
their rites were mystical. 

20. But though the Scepsian,! who compiled these 
myths, does not accept the last statement, on the 
ground that no mystic story of the Cabeiri is told in 
Samothrace, still he cites also the opinion of Stesim- 
brotus the Thasian? that the sacred rites in Samo- 
thrace were performed in honour of the Cabeiri : and 
the Scepsian says that they were called Cabeiri after 
the mountain Cabeirus in Berecyntia. Some, how- 
ever, believe that the Curetes were the same as the 
Corybantes and were ministers of Hecaté, But the 
Scepsian again states, in opposition to the words of 
Euripides,® that the rites of Rhea were not sanctioned 
or in vogue in Crete, but only in Phrygia and the 
Troad, and that those who say otherwise are dealing 
in myths rather than in history, though perhaps the 
identity of the place-names contributed to their 
making this mistake. For instance, Ida is not only 
a Trojan, but also a Cretan, mountain ; and Dicté is 
a place in Scepsia 4 and also a mountain in Crete ; 
and Pytna, after which the city Hierapytna® was 
named, is a peak of Ida. And there is a Hippo- 
corona in the territory of Adramyttium and a Hippo- 
coronium in Crete. And Samonium is the eastern 
promontory of the island and a plain in the territory 
of Neandria and in that of the Alexandreians.® 

* FI. about 460 B.c.; only fragments of his works are extant. 
3. Quoted in 10. 3. 13. © isis dle, Gil 
5 In Crete. 6. See 13. 1. 47. 



21. ᾿Ακουσίλαος δ᾽ ὁ ᾿Αργεῖος ἐκ Καβειροῦς ᾿ 

καὶ “Πφαίστου Ἰζαδμῖλον 5 λέγει, τοῦ δὲ τρεῖς 
Καβείρους, ὧν 35 Νύμφας Καβειρίδας" Φερεκύδης 
δ᾽ ἐξ Απόλλωνος καὶ ‘Pytias* Κύρβαντας ἐννέα, 
οἰκῆσαι δ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἐν Σαμοθράκῃ" ἐκ δὲ ἹΚαβειροῦς 
τῆς Πρωτέως καὶ Ἡφαίστου Καβείρους 5 τρεῖς 
καὶ Νύμφας τρεῖς Καβειρίδας, ἑκατέροις δ᾽ ἱερὰ 
Ο 473 γίνεσθαι: μάλιστα μὲν οὖν ἐν Ἴμβρῳ καὶ Λήμνῳ 
τοὺς Καβείρους τιμᾶσθαι συμβέβηκεν, ἀλλὰ καὶ 
ἐν Τροίᾳ κατὰ πόλεις" τὰ δ᾽ ὀνόματα αὐτῶν ἐστὶ 
μυστικά. Ἡρόδοτος δὲ καὶ ἐν Μέμφει λέγει τῶν 
Καβείρων ἱερά, καθάπερ καὶ τοῦ Ἡφαίστου, 
διαφθεῖραι 8 αὐτὰ Καμβύσην. ἔστι δ᾽ ἀοίκητα 
τὰ χωρία τῆς τῶν δαιμόνων τούτων τιμῆς, τό τε 
Κορυβαντεῖον ὃ τὸ ἐν τῇ ᾿Δμαξιτίᾳ τῆς νῦν ᾿Αλε- 
ξανδρέων χώρας ἐγγὺς τοῦ Σμινθίου, καὶ ἡ Κορύ- 
βισσα ἐν τῇ Σκηψίᾳ περὶ ποταμὸν Εὐρήεντα καὶ 
κώμην ὁμώνυμον καὶ ἔτι χείμαρρον Αἰθαλόεντα. 
πιθανὸν δέ φησιν ὁ Σκήψιος, Κουρῆτας μὲν καὶ 
Κορύβαντας εἶναι τοὺς αὐτούς, οἱ περὶ τὰς τῆς 
μητρὸς τῶν θεῶν ἁγιστείας πρὸς ἐνόπλιον ὄρχησιν 
ἠίθεοι καὶ κύόροι τυγχάνουσι παρείλήμμενοι, καὶ 

1 Καβείρους gs, Καβείρον ΟἸ)ηΐ (ovs added above in D), 
Καβείρης Bkilno. 

2 Καδμῖλον, Jones, for Κάμιλον Bklo, Κάμιλλον other MSS. 
and the editors. 

3 ὧν kno, ois other MSS. and editors. 

4 “Purias x, perhaps rightly, as suggested by the fact that 
there was a Ῥύτιον in Crete (see 10. 4. 14). 

° KaBelpov CDhilnos, KaBelpns Bk. 

ὃ Κορυβαντεῖον, Meineke, for Κορυβάντιον. 


GEOGRAPHY, ro. 3. 21 

21. Acusilaiis,! the Argive, calls Cadmilus the son 
of Cabeiro and Hephaestus, and Cadmilus the father 
of three Cabeiri, and these the fathers of the nymphs 
called Cabeirides. Pherecydes? says that nine 
Cyrbantes were sprung from Apollo and Rhetia, and 
that they took up their abode in Samothrace ; and 
that three Cabeiri and three nymphs called Cabei- 
rides were the children of Cabeiro, the daughter of 
Proteus, and Hephaestus, and that sacred rites were 
instituted in honour of each triad. Now it has so 
happened that the Cabeiri are most honoured in 
Imbros and Lemnos, but they are also honoured in 
separate cities of the Troad ; their names, however, 
are kept secret. Herodotus* says that there were 
temples of the Cabeiri in Memphis, as also of 
Hephaestus, but that Cambyses destroyed them. 
The places where these deities were worshipped are 
uninhabited, both the Corybanteium in Hamaxitia in 
the territory now belonging to the Alexandreians 
near Sminthium,? and Corybissa in Scepsia in the 
neighbourhood of the river Euréeis and of the village 
which bears the same name and also of the winter- 
torrent Aethaléeis. The Scepsian says that it is 
probable that the Curetes and the Corybantes were 
the same, being those who had been accepted as 
young men, or “ youths,” for the war-dance in con- 
nection with the holy rites of the Mother of the gods, 
and also as “corybantes” from the fact that they 

1 Acusilaiis (fl. fifth century B.c.) wrote works entitled 
History and Genealogies. Only fragments remain. 

3 Pherecydes (fl. in the fifth century B.c.) wrote a mytho- 
logical and historical work in ten books. Only fragments 

5. 9: 5}: 4.15.1: 45. 



κορύβαντες δὲ a ἀπὸ τοῦ κορύπτοντας βαίνειν ὁ ορχη- 
στικώς. OVS καὶ βητάρμονας λέγει ὁ ποιητής" 

δεῦτ᾽ ἄγε Φαιήκων βητάρμονες, ὅσσοι ἄριστοι. 

τῶν δὲ Κορυβάντων ὀρχηστικῶν καὶ ἐνθουσιαστι- 
κῶν ὄντων, καὶ τοὺς μανικῶς κινουμένους κορυ- 
βαντιᾷν φαμέν. 

22. Δακτύλους δ᾽ ᾿Ιδαίους φασί τινες κεκλῆσθαι 
τοὺς πρώτους οἰκήτορας τῆς κατὰ τὴν Ἴδην ὑ ὑπω- 
ρείας: πόδας μὲν γὰρ λέγεσθαι τὰς ὑπωρείας, 
κορυφὰς δὲ τὰ ἄκρα τῶν ὀρῶν' αἱ οὖν κατὰ μέρος 
ἐσχατιαί (καὶ πᾶσαι τῆς μητρὸς τῶν θεῶν ἱεραί) 
περὶ τὴν Ἴδην δάκτυλοι ἐκαλοῦντο." Σοφοκλῆς δὲ 
οἴεται πέντε τοὺς πρώτους ἄρσενας γενέσθαι, οἱ 
σίδηρόν τε ἐξεῦρον καὶ εἰργάσαντο πρῶτοι καὶ 
ἄλλα πολλὰ τῶν πρὸς τὸν βίον χρησίμων, πέντε 
δὲ καὶ ἀδελφὰς τούτων, ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ ἀριθμοῦ 
Δακτύλους κληθῆναι. ἄλλοι δ᾽ ἄλλως μυθεύου- 
σιν, ἀπόροις ἄπορα συνάπτοντες, διαφόροις δὲ καὶ 
τοῖς ὀνόμασι καὶ τοῖς ἀριθμοῖς χρῶνται, ὧν 
Κέλμιν 3 ὀνομάζουσί τινα καὶ Δαμναμενέα 3 καὶ 
Ἡρακλέα καὶ “Axpova: καὶ οἱ μὲν ἐπιχωρίους 
τῆς Ἴδης, οἱ δὲ ἐποίκους, πάντες δὲ σίδηρον 
εἰργάσθαι ὑπὸ τούτων ἐν"]δῃ πρῶτόν φασι, πάντες 
δὲ καὶ γόητας ὑπειλήφασι καὶ περὶ τὴν μητέρα 
τῶν θεῶν καὶ ἐν Φρυγίᾳ ῳκηκότας περὶ τὴν Ἴδην, 
Φρυγίαν τὴν Τρωάδα καλοῦντες διὰ τὸ τοὺς 

1 Certain words must have been omitted from the text after 
Ἴδην. a adds δάκτυλοι, Jones also ἐκαλοῦντο. Others merely 
indicate a lacuna. 

2 Κέλμιν, Tzschucke, for Σαλαμῖνον ; so the later editors 

3 Aauvauevéa, Tzschucke, for Aauvéa x, Δαμνανέα other 
MSS. : 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. 21-22 

“walked with a butting of their heads ” in a dancing 
way.! These are called by the poet “‘ betarmones ”’ : ἢ 
“Come now, all ve that are the best ‘betarmones’ 
of the Phaeacians.”* And because the Corybantes 
are inclined to dancing and to religious frenzy, we 
say of those who are stirred with frenzy that they 
are “ corybantising.”’ 

22. Some writers say that the name “Idaean 
Dactyli” was given to the first settlers of the lower 
slopes of Mt. Ida, for the lower slopes of mountains 
are called “ feet,’ and the summits “ heads”’; 
accordingly, the several extremities of Ida (all of 
which are sacred to the Mother of the gods) were 
called Dactyli.t Sophocles® thinks that the first 
male Dactyli were five in number, who were the 
first to discover and to work iron, as well as many 
other things which are useful for the purposes of life, 
and that their sisters were five in number, and that 
they were called Dactyli from their number. But 
different writers tell the myth in different ways, 
joining difficulty to difficulty ; and both the names 
and numbers they use are different ; and they name 
one of them “ Celmis ” and others “ Damnameneus ”’ 
and ‘ Heracles” and ‘‘Acmon.” Some call them 
natives of Ida, others settlers ; but all agree that iron 
was first worked by these on Ida; and all have assumed 
that they were wizards and attendants of the Mother 
of the gods, and that they lived in Phrygia about 
Ida; and they use the term Phrygia for the Troad 

1 i.e. ‘‘Cory-bant-es” is here derived from the two verbs 
‘“coryptein” (‘butt with the head”) and ‘‘bainein” 
(‘‘ walk” or ‘‘ go’’). 

2 «* Harmony-walkers.” 5 Od. 8. 250. 

4 “Dactyli” means either “fingers” or ‘‘ toes.” 

§ In his Cophi Satyri, now lost. Frag. 337 (Nauck). 


C 474 


Φρύγας ἐπικρατῆσαι πλησιοχώρους ὄντας, τῆς 
Τροίας ἐκπεπορθημένης. ὑπονοοῦσι δὲ τῶν ᾿Ιδαίων 
Δακτύλων ἐκγόνους εἶναι τούς τε Κουρῆτας καὶ 
τοὺς Κορύβαντας" τοὺς γοῦν πρώτους γεννηθέντας 
ἐν Κρήνῃ ἑ ἑκατὸν ἄνδρας ᾿Ιδαίους Δακτύλους κλη- 
θῆναι, τούτων δ᾽ ἀπογόνους φασὶ Κουρῆτας ἐννέα 
γενέσθαι, τούτων δ᾽ ἕκαστον δέκα παῖδας τεκνῶσαι 
τοὺς ᾿Ιδαίους καλουμένους Δακτύλους. 

23. Προήχθημεν δὲ διὰ πλειόνων εἰπεῖν περὶ 
τούτων, καίπερ ἥκιστα φιλομυθοῦντες, ὅτι τοῦ 
θεολογικοῦ γένους ἐφάπτεται τὰ πράγματα ταῦτα. 
πᾶς δὲ ὁ περὶ τῶν θεῶν λόγος ἀρχαίας ἐξετάζει 
δόξας καὶ μύθους, αἰνιττομένων * τῶν παλαιῶν ἃ ἃς 
εἶχον ἐννοίας φυσικὰς περὶ τῶν πραγμάτων καὶ 
προστιθέντων ἀεὶ τοῖς λόγοις τὸν μῦθον. ἅπαντα 
μὲν οὖν τὰ αἰνίγματα λύειν ἐπ᾽ ἀκριβὲς ov ῥάδιον, 
τοῦ δὲ πλήθους τῶν μυθευομένων ἐκτεθέντος εἰς 
τὸ μέσον, τῶν μὲν ὁμολογούντων ἀλλήλοις, τῶν 
δ᾽ ἐναντιουμένων, εὐπορώτερον ἄν τις δύναιτο 
εἰκάζειν ἐξ αὐτῶν τἀληθές: οἷον τὰς ὀρειβασίας 
τῶν περὶ τὸ θεῖον σπουδαζόντων καὶ αὐτῶν τῶν 
θεῶν καὶ τοὺς ἐνθουσιασμοὺς εἰκότως μυθεύουσι 
κατὰ τὴν αὐτὴν αἰτίαν, καθ᾽ ἣν καὶ οὐρανίους 
νομίζουσι τοὺς θεοὺς καὶ προνοητικοὺς τῶν τε 
ἄλλων καὶ τῶν προσημασιῶν" TH μὲν οὗν ὀρει- 
βασίᾳ τὸ μεταλλευτικὸν καὶ τὸ θηρευτικὸν καὶ 3 
ζητητικὸν τῶν πρὸς τὸν βίον χρησίμων ἐφάνη 

1 αἰνιττομένων, Xylander, for αἰνιττομένους ; so the later 

2 ἄν τις δύναιτο, Kramer, from conj. of Tyrwhitt, for 
ἀντιδοῦναι τό BChil, ἄν τι δοῦναι τό 1), ἂν δοῦναί τι no, ἄν τις 
ἐξ αὐτῶν εἰκάσειε x, Tzschucke, Corais ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 3. 22-23 

because, after Troy was sacked, the Phrygians, whose 
territory bordered on the Troad, got the mastery 
over it. And they suspect that both the Curetes and 
the Corybantes were offspring of the Idaean Dactyli; 
at any rate, the first hundred men born in Crete 
were called Idaean Dactyli, they say, and as off- 
spring of these were born nine Curetes, and each 
of these begot ten children who were called Idaean 

23. 1 have been led on to discuss these people 
rather at length, although I am not in the least 
fond of myths, because the facts in their case border 
on the province of theology. And theology as a 
whole must examine early opinions and myths, since 
the ancients expressed enigmatically the physical 
notions which they entertained concerning the facts 
and always added the mythical element to their 
accounts. Now it is not easy to solve with accuracy 
all the enigmas, but if the multitude of myths be 
set before us, some agreeing and others contradicting 
one another, one might be able more readily to con- 
jecture out of them what the truth is. For instance, 
men probably speak in their myths about the 
“ mountain-roaming ”’ of religious zealots and of gods 
themselves, and about their ‘‘ religious frenzies,” for 
the same reason that they are prompted to believe 
that the gods dwell in the skies and show fore- 
thought, among their other interests, for prognostica- 
tion by signs. Now seeking for metals, and hunting, 
and searching for the things that are useful for the . 
purposes of life, are manifestly closely related to 

δ καί, Kramer inserts ; so the later editors. 



συγγενές, τῶν δ᾽ ἐνθουσιασμῶν Kal θρησκείας καὶ 
μαντικῆς τὸ ἀγυρτικὸν καὶ γοητεία ἐγγύς. τοιοῦτον 
δὲ καὶ τὸ φιλότεχνον μάλιστα τὸ περὶ τὰς Διονυ- 
σιακὰς τέχνας καὶ τὰς Ορφικάς. ἀλλ᾽ ἀπόχρη 
περὶ αὐτῶν. 


, \ δὲ A \ Lol fol / 

Επεὶ δὲ πρῶτον περὶ τῶν τῆς Πελοποννήσου 
ΓΕ τῶν τε ἄλλων διῆλθον καὶ τῶν ἐν τῷ 
Κορινθιακῷ κόλπῳ καὶ τῶν πρὸ αὐτοῦ, ree 
τῆς Κρήτης ἐφεξῆς ῥητέον (καὶ γὰρ αὐτὴ" τῆς 
Πελοποννήσου ἐστί) καὶ εἴ τις περὶ τὴν Κρήτην. 
ἐν δὲ ταύταις αἵ τε Κυκλάδες εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ Σποράδες, 
αἱ μὲν ἄξιαι μνήμης, αἱ δ᾽ ἀσημότεραι. 

2. Νυνὶ δὲ περὶ τῆς Κρήτης πρῶτον λέγωμεν. 
Εὔδοξος μὲν οὖν ἐν τῷ Αἰγαίῳ φησὶν αὐτὴν 
¢ lal -“ \ A “ > \ Lal ‘ 
ἱδρῦσθαι, δεῖ δὲ μὴ οὕτως, ἀλλὰ κεῖσθαι μὲν 

\ nm / \ fol « / nr > \ 
μεταξὺ τῆς Κυρηναίας καὶ τῆς “Ελλάδος τῆς ἀπὸ 
Σουνίου μέχρι τῆς Λακωνικῆς, ἐπὶ μῆκος, ταύταις 
ταῖς χώραις παράλληλον ἀπὸ τῆς ἑσπέρας ἐπὶ 
τὴν ἕω: κλύζεσθαι δὲ ἀπὸ μὲν τῶν ἄρκτων τῷ 
Αὐγαίῳ πελάγει καὶ τῷ Κρητικῷ, ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ νό- 
του τῷ Λιβυκῷ τῷ συνάπτοντι πρὸς τὸ Αἰγύπτιον 
πέλαγος. τῶν δὲ a ἄκρων τὸ μὲν ἑσπέριόν ἐστι τὸ 
περὶ Φαλάσαρνα," πλάτος ἔχον διακοσίων που 
σταδίων καὶ εἰς δύο ἀκρωτήρια μεριζόμενον (ὧν 
τὸ μὲν νότιον καλεῖται Κριοῦ μέτωπον, τὸ 
ἀρκτικὸν Κίμαρος), τὸ δ᾽ ἑῷον τὸ Σαμώνιόν ἐστιν, 
ὑπέρπιπτον τοῦ Σουνίου οὐ πολὺ πρὸς ἕω. 

1 For τέχνας, Jones conjectures τελετάς. 

2 αὐτή, Corais, and later editors (except Meineke αὕτη), for 
αὐτῇ... Corais inserts πρό after αὐτή 

8 Φαλάσαρνα, Corais, for Φάλαρνα ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, ro. 3. 23-4. 2 

mountain-roaming, whereas juggling and magic are 
closely related to religious frenzies, worship, and 
divination. And such also is devotion to the arts, 
in particular to the Dionysiac and Orphie arts. But 
enough on this subject. 


1. Since I have already described the islands of 
the Peloponnesus in detail, not only the others, but 
also those in the Corinthian Gulf and those in front 
of it, I must next discuss Crete (for it, too, belongs 
to the Peloponnesus) and any islands that are in the 
neighbourhood of Crete. Among these are the 
Cyclades and the Sporades, some worthy of mention, 
others of less significance. 

2. But at present let me first discuss Crete.1 Now 
although Eudoxus says that it is situated in the 
Aegaean Sea, one should not so state, but rather 
that it lies between Cyrenaea and that part of 
Greece which extends from Sunium to Laconia, 
stretching lengthwise parallel with these countries 
from west to east, and that it is washed on the north 
by the Aegaean and the Cretan Seas, and on the 
south by the Libyan Sea, which borders on the 
Aegyptian. As for its two extremities, the western 
is in the neighbourhood of Phalasarna; it has a 
breadth of about two hundred stadia and is divided 
into two promontories (of these the southern is 
called Criumetopon,? the northern Cimarus), whereas 
the eastern is Samonium, which falls toward the east 
not much farther than Sunium. 

1 For map of Crete, see Insert in Map VIII at end of 
Viel. ΤῊ 


2 “© Ram’s Forehead.” 


3. Μέγεθος δὲ Σ Σωσικράτης μέν, ὅν φησιν ἀκρι- 
βοῦν ᾿Απολλόδωρος τὰ περὶ τὴν νῆσον, ἀφορίζεται 
C 475 μήκει μὲν πλειόνων ἢ “δισχιλίων σταδίων καὶ 
τριακοσίων, πλάτει δὲ ὑπὸ τὸ μέγεθος," ὥσθ᾽ ὁ 
κύκλος κατὰ τοῦτον γίνοιτ᾽ ἂν πλέον ἢ πεντα- 
κισ χίλιοι στάδιοι" ᾿Αρτεμίδωρος δὲ τετρακισ- 
χιλίους καὶ ἑκατόν φησιν. ἹἹερώνυμος δέ, μῆκος 
δισχιλίων φήσας, τὸ δὲ πλάτος ἀνώμαλον, πλειό- 
VOv ἂν εἴη λέγων τὸν κύκλον, ἢ ἢ ὅσων ᾿Αρτεμίδωρος. 
κατὰ δὲ 3 τὸ τρίτον μέρος τοῦ μήκους. Ss Ok aoe 
δὲ ἔνθεν ἰσθμός ἐστιν ὡς ἑκατὸν σταδίων, ἔχων 
κατοικίαν πρὸς μὲν τῇ βορείῳ θαλάττῃ ᾿Αμφί: 
4 \ δὲ fol , / x . / 5 
μαλλαν,, πρὸς δὲ τῇ νοτίῳ Φοίνικα τὸν Λαμπέων" 
Ν , 
πλατυτάτη δὲ κατὰ TO μέσον ἐστί. πάλιν ὃ 
ἐντεῦθεν εἰς στενώτερον τοῦ προτέρου συμπίπτου- 
ow ἰσθμὸν αἱ ἠιόνες περὶ ἑξήκοντα σταδίων, τὸν" 
ἀπὸ Μινώας τῆς Λυκτίων εἰς ἹἹεράπυτναν καὶ τὸ 
Λιβυκὸν πέλαγος" ἐν κόλπῳ δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἡ πόλις. 
εἶτα πρόεισιν εἰς ὀξὺ ἀκρωτήριον τὸ Σαμώνιον 
ἐπὶ τὴν Αἴγυπτον νεῦον καὶ τὰς Ῥοδίων νήσους. 

1 ὑπὸ τὸ μέγεθος is corrupt. B has οὔπω τὸ μέγεθος ; kno 
and h (between lines) and editors before Kramer read οὐ 
κατὰ τὸ μέγεθυς. Groskurd conj. ὅσον διακοσίων (a = 200) ; 
Kramer τετρακοσίων (υ' = 400) or τριακοσίων (τ' = 300%, 
Meineke τετρακοσίων (v’ ), Jones τετρακοσίων ὀγδοήκοντα (v' x’), 
omitting τὸ μέγεθος. υ' π' (480) is more in proportion to 
Strabo’s number for the maximum length (2400). 

2 δέ, Corais, for te ; so the later editors. 

. Something has fallen out after μήκους. Jones conj. δια- 
κοσίων (σ΄ = 200). Others suggest a number of words, but 
these contain no number (see Miller, Jnd. Var. Lect., p. 

4 ᾿Αμφίμαλλαν, Casaubon, for ᾿Αμφιπαλίαν ; so the later 

5 Λαμπέων, Tzschucke, for Λαμπέω : so the later editors. 

GEOGRAPHY, το. 4. 3 

3. As for ils size, Sosicrates, whose account of the 
island, according to Apollodorus, is exact, defines it 
as follows: In length, more than two thousand three 
hundred stadia, and in breadth, ... ,1 so that its 
circuit, according to him, would amount to more than 
five thousand stadia; but Artemidorus says it is four 
thousand one hundred. Hieronymus? says that its 
length is two thousand stadia and its breadth 
irregular, and therefore might mean that the circuit 
is greater than Artemidorus says. For about a third 
of its length . . .;% and then comes an isthmus of 
about one hundred stadia, which, on the northern 
sea, has a settlement called Amphimalla, and, on 
the southern, Phoenix, belonging to the Lampians. 
The island is broadest near the middle. And from 
here the shores again converge to an isthmus narrower 
than the former, about sixty stadia in width, which 
extends from Minoa, city of the Lyctians, to Hiera- 
pytna and the Libyan Sea; the city is situated on 
the gulf. Then the island projects into a sharp 
promontory, Samonium, which slopes in the direction 
of Aegypt and the islands of the Rhodians. 

1 The text is corrupt (see critical note), and no known 
MS. contains a number for the breadth of the island. More- 
over, the Greek words (either three or four) contained in the 
MSS. at this point are generally unintelligible. According 
to measurements on Kiepert’s wall map, however, the 
maximum dimensions are 1400 x 310 stadia. 

2 On Hieronymus, see notes on 8, 6. 21 and 9. 5. 22. 

3 All MSS. omit something here (see critical note). Jones 
conjectures ‘‘(it is) abont two hundred stadia” in breadth 
(the breadth of the western end as given in 10. 4. 2). 

4 τόν, Corais, for τῶν ; so the later editors, 


VOL. V. E 


"ἔστι δ᾽ ὀρεινὴ καὶ δασεῖα ἡ νῆσος, ἔχει δ᾽ 
αὐλῶνας εὐκάρπους. τῶν δ᾽ ὀρῶν τὰ μὲν πρὸς 
δύσιν καλεῖται Λευκά, οὐ λειπόμενα τοῦ Ταὐὔγέτου 
κατὰ τὸ ὕψος, ἐπὶ τὸ μῆκος δ᾽ ἐκτεταμένα ὅσον 
τριακοσίων σταδίων, καὶ ποιοῦντα ῥάχιν, τελευ- 
τῶσάν πως ἐπὶ τὰ στενά. ἐν μέσῳ δ᾽ ἐστὶ κατὰ 
τὸ εὐρυχωρότατον τῆς νήσου τὸ ᾿Ιδαῖον ὄρος, 
ὑψηλότατον τῶν ἐκεῖ, περιφερὲς δ᾽ ἐν κύκλῳ 
σταδίων ἑξακοσίων: περιοικεῖται δ᾽ ὑπὸ τῶν 
ἀρίστων πόλεων. ἄλλα δ᾽ ἐστὶ πάρισα τοῖς 
Λευκοῖς, τὰ μὲν ἐπὶ νότον, τὰ δ᾽ ἐπὶ τὴν ἕω 

Ἔστι δ᾽ ἀπὸ τῆς Κυρηναίας ἐπὶ τὸ Κριοῦ 
μέτωπον δυεῖν ἡμερῶν καὶ νυκτῶν πλοῦς, ἀπὸ δὲ 
Κιμάρου ἐπὶ Ταίναρόν 1 εἰσι στάδιοι ἑπτακόσιοι 
(μεταξὺ δὲ Κύθηρα), ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Σαμωνίου πρὸς 
Αἴγυπτον τεττάρων ἡμερῶν καὶ νυκτῶν πλοῦς, 
οἱ δὲ τριῶν φασί: σταδίων δ᾽ εἶναι τοῦτόν τινες 
πεντακισχίλίων εἰρήκασιν, οἱ δὲ ἔτι ἐλαττόνων. 
᾿ρατοσθένης δ᾽ ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς Κυρηναίας μέχρι 
Κριοῦ μετώπου δισχιλίους φησίν, ἔνθεν δ᾽ εἰς 
Πελοπόννησον ἐλάττους. .. .3 

6. Ἄλλη δ᾽ ἄλλων γλῶσσα μεμιγμένη, 
φησὶν ὁ ποιητής, 
ἐν μὲν ᾿Αχαιοί, 
ἐν 8 ᾿Ετεόκρητες μεγαλήτορες, ἐν δὲ Κύδωνες, 
Δωριέες τε τριχάϊκες δῖοί τε Πελασγοί. 
1 ἐπὶ Ταίναρον, Meineke, from conj. of Kramer, inserts; 
others, ἐπὶ MaAéa(s). 

2 After ἐλάττους probably χιλίων (2) has fallen out, as 
Groskurd suggests. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 4. 4-6 

4. The island is mountainous and thickly wooded, 
but it has fruitful glens. Of the mountains, those 
towards the west are called Leuca;+ they do not 
fall short of Taygetus in height, extend in length 
about three hundred stadia, and form a ridge which 
terminates approximately at the narrows. In the 
middle, in the most spacious part of the island, is 
Mount Ida, loftiest of the mountains of Crete and 
circular in shape, with a circuit of six hundred stadia ; 
and around it are the best cities. There are other 
mountains in Crete that are about as high as the 
Leuca, some terminating towards the south and 
others towards the east. 

5. The voyage from Cyrenaea to Criumetopon 
takes two days and nights, and the distance from 
Cimarus to Taenarum is seven hundred stadia,” 
Cythera lying between them ; and the voyage from 
Samonium to Aegypt takes four days and nights, 
though some say three. Some state that this is 
a voyage of five thousand stadia, but others still 
less. Eratosthenes says that the distance from 
Cyrenaea to Criumetopon is two thousand, and from 
there to the Peloponnesus less. . .3 

6. “ But one tongue with others is mixed,” the poet 
says; “there dwell Achaeans, there Eteo-Cretans 4 
proud of heart, there Cydonians and Dorians, too, of 
waving plumes, and goodly Pelasgians.” > Of these 

1  Wihitess 

2 A very close estimate (for the same estimate, see 8. 5. 1). 

3 Eratosthenes probably said ‘‘a thousand less,” but no 
number is given in the MSS. (see critical note). 

4 **Cretans of the old stock.” 

5 See 5. 2. 4, where the same passage (Od. 19. 175) is 





τούτων φησὶ Στάφυλος τὸ μὲν πρὸς ἕω Δωριεῖς 
κατέχειν, τὸ δὲ δυσμικὸν Κύδωνας, τὸ δὲ νότιον 
᾿Ετεόκρητας, ὧν εἶναι πολίχνιον ἸΠρᾶσον, ὅπου 
τὸ τοῦ Δικταίου Διὸς ἱερόν τοὺς δ᾽ ἄλλους, 
ἰσχύοντας πλέον, οἰκῆσαι τὰ πεδία. τοὺς μὲν 
οὖν ᾿᾿τεόκρητας καὶ τοὺς ΚΚύδωνας αὐτόχθονας 
ὑπάρξαι εἰκός, τοὺς δὲ λοιποὺς ἐπήλυδας, οὺς ἐκ 
Θετταλίας φησὶν ἐλθεῖν "Ανδρων τῆς Δωρίδος 
μὲν πρότερον, νῦν δὲ ᾿Ἑστιαιώτιδος λεγομένης" 
ἐξ ἧς ὡρμήθησαν, ὥς φησιν, οἱ περὶ τὸν Llapvac- 
σὸν οἰκήσαντες Δωριεῖς καὶ ἔκτισαν τήν τε 
᾿Ερινεὸν καὶ Βοῖον καὶ Κυτίνιον, ad’ οὗ καὶ 
τριχάϊκες ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ λέγονται. οὐ πάνυ 
δὲ τὸν τοῦ ᾿Ανδρωνος λόγον ἀποδέχονται, τὴν 
μὲν τετράπολιν Δωρίδα τρίπολιν ἀποφαίνοντος, 
τὴν δὲ μητρόπολιν τῶν Δωριέων ἄποικον Θετ- 
ταλῶν᾽" τριχάϊκας δὲ δέχονται ἤτοι ἀπὸ τῆς 
τριχοφίας ἢ ἀπὸ τοῦ τριχίνους 1 εἶναι τοὺς 

1. Πόλεις δ᾽ εἰσὶν ἐν τῇ Κρήτῃ πλείους μέν, 
μέγισται δὲ καὶ ἐπιφανέσταται τρεῖς, Κνωσσός, 
Γόρτυνα, Κυδωνία. διαφερόντως δὲ τὴν Kywooor 

1 τριχίνους, Xylander (from Eustath., note on Od. 19. 176) 
for τριχινίου ; so the later editors. 

2 After λόφους CDhi have εὐαμισολοφος (εὐαμίλλους added 
above in h), ἐφαμισολόφος B, εὐαμισολόφους gl, καὶ ἡμισολόφος 
8, ἐφαμίλλους nok and editors before Corais (who brackets it). 
Kramer and Meineke omit, following Eustathius (J.c.). 

1 Staphylus of Naucratis wrote historical works on Thes- 
saly, Athens, Aeolia, and Arcadia, but only a few fragments 
are preserved. The translator does not know when he lived. 

3 Andron (fl. apparently in the fourth century B.c.) wrote 
a work entitled Kinships, of which only a few fragments 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 4. 6-7 

peoples, according to Staphylus,! the Dorians occupy 
the part towards the east, the Cydonians the western 
part, the Eteo-Cretans the southern; and to these 
last belongs the town Prasus, where is the temple 
of the Dictaean Zeus; whereas the other peoples, 
since they were more powerful, dwelt in the plains. 
Now it is reasonable to suppose that the Eteo- 
Cretans and the Cydonians were autochthonous, and 
that the others were foreigners, who, according to 
Andron,? came from Thessaly, from the country 
which in earlier times was called Doris, but is now 
called Hestiaeotis;* it was from this country that 
the Dorians who lived in the neighbourhood of 
Parnassus set out, as he says, and founded Erineiis, 
Boeiim, and Cytinium, and hence by Homer? are 
called “trichaices.”.5 However, writers do not 
accept the account of Andron at all, since he repre- 
sents the Tetrapolis Doris as being a Tripolis,® and 
the metropolis of the Dorians as a mere colony 
of Thessalians; and they derive the meaning of 
“trichaices”’ either from the “trilophia,’? or from 
the fact that the crests were “ trichini.” 8 

7. There are several cities in Crete, but the 
greatest and most famous are three: Cnossus, 
Gortyna and Cydonia. The praises of Cnossus are 
remain. It treated the genealogical relationships between 
the ences tribes and cities, and appears to have been an able 

3 See foot-note 2, p. 397, in Vol. IV. 4 Odyssey, 19.177. 

5 Andron fancifully connects this adjective with ‘‘tricha” 
(‘‘in three parts”), making it mean ‘‘ three-fold ” (so Liddell 
and Scott q.v.), but it is surely a compound of θρίξ and ἀΐσσω 
(cp. κορυθάϊξ), and means ‘‘hair-shaking,” or, as translated in 
the above passage from Homer, “ of waving plumes.” 

5 7.e. as composed of three citiessinstead of four. 
1 «Triple-crest’”’ (of a helmet). 8 “* Made of hair.” 



i Ὅμηρος ὑ ὑμνεῖ, μεγάλην καλῶν καὶ βασίλειον 
τοῦ Μίνω, καὶ οἱ ὕστερον. καὶ δὴ καὶ διετέλεσε 
μέχρι πολλοῦ φερομένη τὰ πρῶτα, εἶτα ἐταπεινώθη 
καὶ πολλὰ τῶν νομίμων ' ἀφῃρέθη, μετέστη δὲ τὸ 
ἀξίωμα εἴς τε Γόρτυναν καὶ Λύκτον, ὕστερον δ᾽ 
ἀνέλαβε πάλιν τὸ παλαιὸν σχῆμα τὸ τῆς μητρο- 

πόλεως. κεῖται δ᾽ ἐν πεδίῳ κύκλον ἔχουσα ἡ 
Κνωσσὸς τὸν ἀρχαῖον τριάκοντα σταδίων μεταξὺ 
τῆς Λυκτίας καὶ τῆς Voptuvias, διέχουσα τῆς 
μὲν Γορτύνης ξ σταδίους διακοσίους, τῆς δὲ ΔΛύττου,3 
ἣν ὁ ποιητὴς Δύκτον ὠνόμασεν, ἑκατὸν εἴκοσι" τῆς 
δὲ θαλάττης Κνωσσὸς μὲν τῆς βορείου πέντε καὶ 
εἴκοσι, Γόρτυνα δὲ τῆς Λιβυκῆς ἐνενήκοντα, ΔΛύκτος 
δὲ καὶ αὐτὴ τῆς Λιβυκῆς ὀγδοήκοντα. ἔγχει δ᾽ 
ἐπίνειον τὸ «Ἡράκλειον ἡ Κνωσσός. 

8, Μίνω δέ φασιν ἐπινείῳ χρήσασθαι τῷ 
᾿Αμνισῷ, ὅπου τὸ τῆς Εἰλειθυίας ἱερόν. ἐκαλεῖτο 
δ᾽ ἡ Κνωσσὸς Καίρατος πρότερον, ὁμώνυμος τῷ 
παραρρέοντι ποταμῷ. ἱστόρηται δ᾽ ὁ Μίνως 
νομοθέτης γενέσθαι σπουδαῖος θαλαττοκρατῆσαί 
τε πρῶτος, τριχῇ δὲ διελὼν τὴν νῆσον ἐν ἑκάστῳ 
τῷ μέρει κτίσαι πόλιν, τὴν μὲν Κνωσσὸν ἐν 
TO. .... .ὅ καταντικρὺ τῆς Πελοποννήσου" καὶ 
αὐτὴ δ᾽ ἐστὶ προσβύρειος. ὡς δ᾽ εἴρηκεν ”Edopos, 

1 νόμων CDghisz. 

2 διέχουσα τῆς μὲν Γορτύνης, Meineke inserts, from conj. of 

Λύττου, Xylander, for Δύκτου ; so Meineke, 
Καίρατος, Casaubon, for Képatos; so the later editors. 

5 After ἐν τῷ Miller-Diibner insert from Diod. Sic. (5. 78): 
πρὸς βορρᾶν καὶ τὴν ᾿Ασίαν νεύοντι μέρει τῆς νήσου, Φαιστὸν δ᾽ 
ἐπὶ θαλάσσης ἐστραμμένην ἐπὶ μεσημβρίαν, Κυδωνίαν δ᾽ ἐν τοῖς 
πρὸς ἑσπέραν κεκλιμένοις τόποις. 


»" ὦ 

GEOGRAPHY, to. 4. 7-8 

hymned above the rest both by Homer, who calls 
it “great” and “the kingdom of Minos,”+ and by 
the later poets. Furthermore, it continued for a 
long time to win the first honours; then it was 
humbled and deprived of many of its prerogatives, 
and its superior rank passed over to Gortyna and 
Lyctus; but later it again recovered its olden 
dignity as the metropolis. Cnossus is situated in 
a plain, its original circuit being thirty stadia, 
between the Lyctian and Gortynian territories, 
being two hundred stadia distant from Gortyna, 
and a hundred and twenty from Lyttus, which the 
poet named Lyctus.? Cnossus is twenty-five stadia 
from the northern sea, Gortyna is ninety from the 
Libyan Sea, and Lyctus itself is eighty from the 
Libyan. And Cnossus has Heracleium as its seaport. 

8. But Minos is said to have used as seaport Amni- 
sus, where is the temple of Eileithuia.? In earlier 
times Cnossus was called Caeratus, bearing the same 
name as the river which flows past it. According to 
history, Minos was an excellent law-giver, and also 
the first to gain the mastery of the sea;4 and he 
divided the island into three parts and founded a city 
in each part, Cnossus in the . . .5 opposite the Pelo- 
ponnesus. And it, too,® lies tothe north. As Ephorus 

1 Od. 19. 178. 2 Iliad 2. 647 and 17. 611. 

3 The goddess of child-birth. 

4 So Diodorus Siculus (/.c.), but see Herodotus 3. 122. 

5. The thought, if not the actual Greek words, of the 
passage here omitted from the Greek MSS. can be supplied 
from Diodorus Siculus (5. 78), who, like Strabo, depends 
much upon Ephorus for historical material: ‘‘(Cnossus in 
the) part of the island which inclines towards Asia, Phaestus 
on the sea, turned towards the south, and Cydonia in the 
region which lies towards the west, opposite the Pelopon- 
nesus ”, 6 Cydonia, as well as Cnossus. 


C 477 


ζηλωτὴς ὁ Μίνως ἀρχαίου τινὸς “Ῥαδαμάνθυος, 
δικαιοτάτου ἀνδρός, ὁ ὁμωνύμου τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ, 
ὃς “πρῶτος τὴν νῆσον ἐξημερῶσαι δοκεῖ νομίμοις 
καὶ συνοικισμοῖς πόλεων καὶ πολιτείαις, σκη- 
ψάμενος παρὰ Διὸς φέρειν ἕκαστα τῶν τιθεμένων 

ογμάτων εἰς μέσον. τοῦτον δὴ μιμούμενος καὶ ὁ 
Μίνως δι᾿ ἐννέα ἐτῶν, ὡς ἔοικεν, ἀναβαίνων ἐπὶ τὸ 
τοῦ Διὸς ἄντρον καὶ διατρίβων ἐνθάδε, ἀπήει 
συντεταγμένα ἔχων παραγγέλματά τινα, ἃ ἔφα- 
σκεν εἶναι προστάγματα τοῦ Διός: ἀφ᾽ ἧς αἰτίας 
καὶ τὸν ποιητὴν οὕτως εἰρηκέναι" 

ἐνθάδε Μίνως 
ἐννέωρος βασίλευε Διὸς μεγάλου ὀαριστής. 

τοιαῦτα δ᾽ εἰπόντος, οἱ ἀρχαῖοι περὶ αὐτοῦ πάλιν 
ἄλλους εἰρήκασι λόγους ὑπεναντίους τούτοις, ὡς 
τυραννικός τε γένοιτο καὶ βίαιος καὶ δασμολόγος, 
τραγῳδοῦντες τὰ περὶ τὸν Μινώταυρον καὶ τὸν 
Λαβύρινθον καὶ τὰ Θησεῖ συμβάντα καὶ Δαι- 

oe Ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ὁποτέρως ἔχει, χαλεπὸν 
εἰπεῖν. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἄλλος λόγος οὐχ ὁμολο- 

1 See 10. 4. 14. 

= We should say ‘‘every cight years,” or ‘‘every ninth 

3. Five different interpretations of this passage have been 
set forth, dependent on the meaning and syntax of évvéwpos: 
that Minos (1) reigned as king for nine years, (2) was nine 
years old when he became king, (3) for nine years held con- 
verse with Zeus, (4) every nine years held converse with 
Zeus, and (5) reigned as king when he had come to mature 
age. Frazer (Pausanias 3. 2. 4) adopts the first. Butcher 
and Lang, and A. T. Murray, adopt the second. Heracleides 
of Pontus (On the Cretan Constitutions 3) seems to have 


GEOGRAPHY, to. 4. 8-9 

states, Minos was an emulator of a certain Rhada- 
manthys of early times, a man most just and bearing 
the same name as Minos’s brother, who is reputed 
to have been the first to civilise the island by 
establishing laws and by uniting cities under one 
city as metropolis ! and by setting up constitutions, 
alleging that he brought from Zeus the several 
decrees which he promulgated. So, in imitation of 
Rhadamanthys, Minos would go up every nine years,” 
as it appears, to the cave of Zeus, tarry there, and 
come back with commandments drawn up in writing, 
which he alleged were ordinances of Zeus; and it 
was for this reason that the poet says, ‘“‘ there Minos 
reigned as king, who held converse with great Zeus 
every ninth year.”’* Such is the statement of 
Ephorus; but again the early writers have given a 
different account of Minos, which is contrary to that 
of Ephorus, saying that he was tyrannical, harsh, and 
an exactor of tribute, representing in tragedy the 
story of the Minotaur and the Labyrinth, and the 
adventures of Theseus and Daedalus. 

9. Now, as for these two accounts, it is hard to 
say which is true; and there is another subject 

adopted the third, saying that Minos spent nine years 
formulating his laws. But Plato (Minos 319C and Laws 
624 D) says that Minos visited the cave of his father ‘‘ every 
ninth year” (5° ἐνάτου é€rovs); and Strabo (as 16. 2. 38 
shows) expressly follows Plato. Hence the above rendering 
of the Homeric passage. Apart from the above interpreta- 
tions, EKustathius (note on Od. 10. 19, on a different passage) 
suggests that ἐννέωρος might pertain to ‘‘nine seasons, that 
is, two years and one month ” (the ‘one month,” however, 
instead of ‘‘one season,” seems incongruous). This suggests 
that the present passage might mean that Minos held 
converse with Zeus during a period of one season every other 



youpevos, τῶν μὲν ξένον τῆς νήσου tov Μίνω 
λεγόντων, τῶν δ᾽ ἐπιχώριον. ὁ μέντοι ποιητὴς 
τῇ δευτέρᾳ δοκεῖ μᾶλλον συνηγορεῖν ἀποφάσει, 
ὅταν φῇ, ὅτι 

’, / , > / 
πρῶτον Μίνωα τέκε Κρήτῃ ἐπίουρον. 

ὑπὲρ δὲ τῆς Κρήτης ὁμολογεῖται, διότι κατὰ τοὺς 
παλαιοὺς γρόνους ἐτύγχανεν εὐνομουμένη καὶ 
ζηλωτὰς ἑαυτῆς τοὺς ἀρίστους τῶν “Ελλήνων 
ἀπέφηνεν, ἐν δὲ τοῖς πρώτοις Λακεδαιμονίους, 
καθάπερ ἸΪλάτων τε ἐν τοῖς Νόμοις δηλοῖ net 
"Edopos ὃς 1 ἐν τῇ Εὐρώπῃ τὴν πολιτείαν ὃ δὰν 
γέγραφεν" ὕστερον δὲ πρὸς τὸ χεῖρον ΠΣ k@ans 
ἐπὶ πλεῖστον. μετὰ γὰρ τοὺς Tuppnvovs,* οἱ 
μάλιστα ἐδήωσαν τὴν καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς θάλατταν, οὗτοί 
εἰσιν οἱ διαδεξάμενοι τὰ ληστήρια' τούτους δ᾽ 
ἐπόρθησαν ὕστερον οἱ Κίλικες" κατέλυσαν δὲ 
πάντας Ῥωμαῖοι, τήν τε Κρήτην ἐκπολεμήσαντες 
καὶ τὰ πειρατικὰ τῶν Κιλίκων φρούρια. νῦν δὲ 
Κνωσσὸς καὶ Ρωμαίων ἀποικίαν ἔχει. 

10. Περὶ μὲν οὖν Κνωσσοῦ ταῦτα, πόλεως οὐκ 
ἀλλοτρίας ἡμῖν, διὰ δὲ τἀνθρώπινα καὶ τὰς ἐν 
αὐτοῖς μεταβολὰς καὶ συντυχίας ἐκλελειμμένων 
τῶν συμβολαίων τῶν ὑπαρξάντων ἡμῖν πρὸς τὴν 
πόλιν. Δορύλαος γὰρ ἣν ἀνὴρ τακτικός, τῶν 
Μιθριδάτου τοῦ Εὐεργέτου φίλων: οὗτος διὰ τὴν 
ἐν τοῖς πολεμικοῖς ἐμπειρίαν ξενολογεῖν ἀπο- 
δειχθείς, πολὺς ἢ ἦν ἔν τε TH “Ἑλλάδι καὶ τῇ Θράκῃ, 
πολὺς δὲ καὶ τοῖς παρὰ τῆς Κρήτης ἰοῦσιν, οὔπω 
τὴν νῆσον ἐχόντων 'Ῥωμαίων, συχνοῦ δὲ ὄντος ἐν 

1 ὅς, Jones inserts, from conj. of C. Miiller. 


2 χὴν πολιτείαν, Jones inserts, from conj. of C. Miiller, 

GEOGRAPHY, το. 4. 9-10 

that is not agreed upon by all, some saying that 
Minos was a foreigner, but others that he was a 
native of the island. The poet, however, seems 
rather to advocate the second view when he says, 
“ Zeus first begot Minos, guardian o’er Crete.”’ In 
regard to Crete, writers agree that in ancient times 
it had good laws, and rendered the best of the 
Greeks its emulators, and in particular the Lacedae- 
monians, as is shown, for instance, by Plato in his 
Laws, and also by Ephorus, who in his Europe * 
has described its constitution. But later it changed 
very much for the worse; for after the Tyrrhenians, 
who more than any other people ravaged Our Sea,’ 
the Cretans succeeded to the business of piracy ; 
their piracy was later destroyed by the Cilicians ; 
but all piracy was broken up by the Romans, who 
reduced Crete by war and also the piratical strong- 
holds of the Cilicians. And at the present time 
Cnossus has even a colony of Romans. 

10. So much for Cnossus, a city to which I myself 
am not alien, although, on account of man’s fortune 
and of the changes and issues therein, the bonds 
which at first connected me with the city have 
disappeared: Dorylatis was a military expert and 
one of the friends of Mithridates Euergetes. He, 
because of his experience in military affairs, was 
appointed to enlist mercenaries, and often visited 
not only Greece and Thrace, but also the mer- 
cenaries of Crete, that is, before the Romans were 

1 631 B, 693K, 751 D ff., 950. 
2 The fourth book of his history was so entitled. 
3 The Mediterranean. 

3 Before avayéypa ev C. Miiller would insert αὐτῶν. 
4 πυρρηνούς, Tzschucke, for τυράννους ; so the later editors. 


C 478 


αὐτῇ TOU μισθοφορικοῦ Kal στρατιωτικοῦ πλήθους, 
ἐξ οὗ καὶ τὰ ληστήρια πληροῦσθαι συνέβαινεν. 
ἐπιδημοῦντος δὲ τοῦ Δορυλάου, κατὰ τύχην 
ἐνέστη πόλεμος τοῖς Κνωσσίοις πρὸς τοὺς Γορτυ- 
νίους" αἱρεθεὶς δὲ στρατηγὸς καὶ κατορθώσας διὰ 
ταχέων ἤρατο τιμὰς τὰς μεγίστας, καὶ ἐπειδὴ 
μικρὸν ὕστερον ἐξ ἐπιβουλῆς δολοφονηθέντα ἔγνω 
τὸν Εὐεργέτην ὑπὸ τῶν φίλων ἐν Σινώπῃ, τὴν 
διαδοχὴν δὲ εἰς γυναῖκα καὶ παιδία ἥκουσαν, 
ἀπογνοὺς τῶν ἐκεῖ κατέμεινεν ἐν! τῇ Κνωσσῷ: 
τεκνοποιεῖται © ἐκ Μακέτιδος 3 γυναικός, Στε- 
ρόπης τοὔνομα, δύο μὲν υἱεῖς, Λαγέταν καὶ Στρα- 
τάρχαν, ὧν τὸν Στρατάρχαν ἐσχατογήρων καὶ 
ἡμεῖς ἤδη εἴδομεν, θυγατέρα δὲ μίαν. δυεῖν δὲ 
ὄντων υἱῶν τοῦ Evepyérou, διεδέξατο τὴν βασι- 
λείαν Μιθριδάτης ὁ προσαγορευθεὶς Εὐπάτωρ, 
ἕνδεκα ἔτη γεγονώς" τούτῳ σύντροφος ὑπῆρξεν ὁ 
τοῦ Φιλεταίρου Δορύλαος: ἣν δ᾽ ὁ Φιλέταιρος 
ἀδελφὸς τοῦ τακτικοῦ Δορυλάου. ἀνδρωθεὶς δ᾽ ὁ 
βασιλεὺς ἐπὶ τοσοῦτο ἥρητο τῇ συντροφίᾳ τῇ 
πρὸς " τὸν Δορύλαον, ὥστ᾽ οὐκ ἐκεῖνον “μόνον εἰς τι- 
μὰς ἦγε τὰς μεγίστας, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῶν συγγενῶν 
ἐπεμελεῖτο καὶ τοὺς ἐν Κνωσσῷ μετεπέμπετο" 
ἦσαν δ᾽ οἱ περὶ Λαγέταν, τοῦ μὲν πατρὸς nen 
τετελευτηκότος, αὐτοὶ δ᾽ ᾿ἦνδρωμένοι, καὶ ἧκον 
ἀφέντες τὰ ἐν Κνωσσῷ:' τοῦ δὲ Λαγέτα θυγάτηρ ἢ ἣν 
ἡ μήτηρ τῆς ἐμῆς μητρός. εὐτυχοῦντος μὲν δὴ 
ἐκείνου, συνευτυχεῖν καὶ τούτοις συνέβαινε, κατα- 
λυθέντος δέ (ἐφωράθη γὰρ ἀφιστὰς τοῖς Ῥωμαίοις 


ἐν is omitted except in ΒΑ“. 2 Μαμέτιδος Bk. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 4. 10 

yet in possession of the island and while the number 
of mercenary soldiers in the island, from whom the 
piratical bands were also wont to be recruited, was 
large. Now when Dorylaiis was sojourning there 
war happened to break out between the Cnossians 
and the Gortynians, and he was appointed general, 
finished the war successfully, and speedily won the 
greatest honours. But when, a little later, he learned 
that Euergetes, as the result of a plot, had been 
treacherously slain in Sinopé by his closest associates, 
and heard that the succession had passed to his wife 
and young children, he despaired of the situation 
there and stayed on at Cnossus. There, by a 
Macetan woman, Steropé by name, he begot two 
sons, Lagetas and Stratarchas (the latter of whom 
1 myself saw when he was an extremely old man), 
and also one daughter. Now Euergetes had two 
sons, one of whom, Mithridates, surnamed Eupator, 
succeeded to the rule when he was eleven years old. 
Dorylaiis, the son of Philetaerus, was his foster 
brother; and Philotaerus was a brother of Dorylaiis 
the military expert. And when the king Mithridates 
reached manhood, he was so infatuated with the 
companionship of his foster brother Dorylaiis that 
he not only conferred upon him the greatest honours, 
but also cared for his kinsmen and summoned those 
who lived at Cnossus. These were the household of 
Lagetas and his brother, their father having already 
died, and they themselves having reached manhood ; 
and they quit Cnossus and went home. My mother’s 
mother was the sister of Lagetas. Now when 
Lagetas prospered, these others shared in his pros- 
perity, but when he was ruined (for he was caught 
in the act of trying to cause the kingdom to revolt 



τὴν βασιλείαν, ἐφ᾽ ᾧ αὐτὸς εἰς THY ἀρχὴν κατα- 
στήσεται), συγκατελύθη καὶ τὰ τούτων καὶ éTa- 
πεινώθησαν" ὠλιγωρήθη δὲ καὶ τὰ πρὸς τοὺς 
Κνωσσίους συμβόλαια, καὶ αὐτοὺς μυρίας μετα- 
βολὰς δεξαμένους. ἀλλὰ γὰρ ὁ μὲν περὶ τῆς 
Κνωσσοῦ λόγος τοιοῦτος. 

11. Μετὰ δὲ ταύτην δευτερεῦσαι δοκεῖ κατὰ 
τὴν δύναμιν. ἡ τῶν Ῥορτυνίων πόλις. συμπράτ- 
τουσαί τε γὰρ ἀλλήλαις ἅπαντας ὑπηκόους εἶχον 
αὗται τοὺς ἄλλους, στασιάσασαί τε διέστησαν τὰ 
κατὰ τὴν νῆσον" προσθήκη δ᾽ ἦν ἡ Κυδωνία 
μεγίστη “ὁποτέροις προσγένοιτο. κεῖται δ᾽ ἐν 
πεδίῳ καὶ ἡ τῶν Τ᾽ορτυνίων πόλις, τὸ παλαιὸν 
μὲν ἴσως τετειχισμένη (καθάπερ καὶ “Opnpos 

Γόρτυνά τε τειχήεσσαν) 
ὕστερον δ᾽ ἀποβαλοῦσα τὸ τεῖχος ἐκ θεμελίων 
καὶ πάντα τὸν χρόνον μείνασα ἀτείχιστος" καὶ 
γὰρ ὁ Φιλοπάτωρ Πτολεμαῖος ἀρξάμενος τειχίζειν 
ὅσον ἐπὶ ὀγδοήκοντα σταδίους παρῆλθε μόνον" 
ἀξιόλογον δ᾽ οὖν ἐξεπλήρου ποτὲ κύκλον ἡ 
οἴκησις, ὅσον πεντήκοντα σταδίων' διέχει δὲ τῆς 
Λιβυκῆς θαλάττης κατὰ" Λεβῆνα, τὸ ἐμπόριον 
αὐτῆς, ἐνενήκοντα" ἔχει δέ τι καὶ ἄλλο ἐπίνειον, 
τὸ Μάταλον," διέχει δ᾽ αὐτῆς ἑκατὸν τριάκοντα. 
διαρρεῖ δ᾽ αὐτὴν ὅλην ὁ Ληθαῖος ποταμός. 

12. "Ex δὲ Λεβῆνος ἦν Λευκοκόμας τε καὶ ὁ 

1 For ὀγδοήκοντα (MSS., Eustath. on Jliad 2. 645, 
Phrantzes Chron. 1. 34), Tzschucke and Corais, from conj. 
of Casaubon, read ὀκτώ, following x, which has in the 
margin ἢ ὄκτω. 

2 κατά, Casaubon, for καί; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 4. 10-12 

to the Romans, on the understanding that he was to 
be established at the head of the government), their 
fortunes were also ruined at the same time, and 
they were reduced to humility ; and the bonds which 
connected them with the Cnossians, who themselves 
had undergone countless changes, fell into neglect. 
But enough for my account of Cnossus, 

11. After Cnossus, the city of the Gortynians 
seems to have ranked second in power; for when 
these two co-operated they held in subjection all 
the rest of the inhabitants, and when they had a 
quarrel there was dissension throughout the island. 
But Cydonia was the greatest addition to whichever 
side it attached itself. The city of the Gortynians 
also lies in a plain; and in ancient times, perhaps, 
it was walled, as Homer states, “and well-walled 
Gortyn,’+ but later it lost its walls from their very 
foundations, and has remained unwalled ever since ; 
for although Ptolemy Philopator began to build a 
wall, he proceeded with it only about eighty ? stadia’; 
at any rate, it is worth mentioning that the settle- 
ment once filled out a circuit of about fifty stadia. 
It is ninety stadia distant from the Libyan Sea at 
Leben, which is its trading-centre; it also has 
another seaport, Matalum, from which it is a 
hundred and thirty stadia distant. The Lethaeus 
River flows through the whole of its territory. 

12. From Leben came Leucocomas and his lover 

2 Jliad 2. 646. 
2 εἰ Highty ” seems to be an error for 



8 Μάταλον, Corais and later editors, from conj. of Villebrun, 
for Μέταλλον. 


C 4 


ἐραστὴς αὐτοῦ EvEuvberos,} ods ἱστορεῖ Θθεόφρασ- 
τος ἐν τῷ Περὶ "Epwros λόγῳ' 5 ἄθλων δ᾽," ὧν 
ὁ Λευκοκόμας τῷ Εὐξυνθέτῳ προσέταξεν, ἕνα 
φησὶν εἶναι τοῦτον, τὸν ἐν ράσῳ κύνα ἀναγα- 
γεῖν αὐτῷ. ὅμοροι δ᾽ εἰσὶν αὐτοῖς οἱ ἹΠράσιοι, 
τῆς μὲν θαλάττης ἑβδομήκοντα, Γόρτυνος δὲ 
διέχοντες ἑκατὸν καὶ ὀγδοήκοντα. εἴρηται δέ, 
ὅτι τῶν ᾿Ετεοκρήτων ὑπῆρχεν ἡ Πρᾶσος, καὶ 
διότι ἐνταῦθα τὸ τοῦ Δικταίου Διὸς ἱερόν: καὶ 
γὰρ ἡ Δίκτη πλησίον, οὐχ, ὡς "Ἄρατος, ὄρεος 
σχεδὸν ᾿Ιδαίοιο' καὶ γὰρ χιλίους ἡ Δίκτη τῆς 
Ἴδης ἀπέχει, ee ἀνίσχοντα ἥλιον ἀπ᾽ αὐτῆς 
κειμένη, τοῦ δὲ Σαμωνίου ἑκατόν. μεταξὺ δὲ 
τοῦ Σαμωνίου καὶ τῆς Χερρονήσου ἡ []ρᾶσος 
ἵδρυτο, ὑπὲρ τῆς θαλάττης ἑξήκοντα σταδίοις" 
κατέσκαψαν δ᾽ ἱΙἹεραπύτνιοι. οὐκ εὖ δὲ οὐδὲ τὸν 
Καλλίμαχον λέγειν φασίν, ὡς ἡ Βριτόμαρτις, 
φεύγουσα τὴν Μίνω βίαν, ἀπὸ τῆς Δίκτης ἅλοιτο 
εἰς ἁλιέων δίκτυα, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο αὐτὴ μὲν 
Δίκτυννα ὑπὸ τῶν Κυδωνιατῶν προσαγορευθείη, 
Δίκτη δὲ τὸ ὄρος: οὐδὲ γὰρ ὅλως ἐκ γειτόνων 
ἐστὶ τοῖς τόποις τούτοις ἡ Κυδωνία, πρὸς δὲ 
τοῖς ἑσπερίοις κεῖται τῆς νήσου πέρασι. τῆς 
μέντοι Κυδωνίας ὄρος ἐστὶ Titupos, ἐν ᾧ ἱερόν 
ἐστιν, οὐ Δικταῖον, ἀλλὰ Δικτύνναιον. 

18. Κυδωνία δ᾽ ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ μὲν ἵδρυται, 
βλέπουσα πρὸς τὴν Λακωνικήν. διέχει δ᾽ ἑκατέρας 

1 Εὐξύνθεος k, Εὐσύνθεος i, Εὐξύνθεος other MSS.; emended 
by all editors. 

2 hi add εἶναι before ἄθλων. 

8 δ᾽, after ἄθλων, Jones inserts, from conj. of Kramer. 

* Πράσκῳ k, Πραίσῳ Tzschucke and Corais. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 4. 12-13 

EKuxynthetus, the story of whom is told by Theo- 
phrastus in his treatise On Love. Of the tasks 
which Leucocomas assigned to Euxynthetus, one, 
he says, was this—to bring back his dog from 
Prasus. The country of the Prasians borders on 
that of the Lebenians, being seventy stadia distant 
from the sea and a hundred and eighty from 
Gortyn. As 1 have said,! Prasus belonged to the 
Eteo-Cretans ; and the temple of the Dictaean Zeus 
was there; for Dicté is near it, not “close to the 
Idaean Mountain,” as Aratus says,? for Dicté is a 
thousand stadia distant from Ida, being situated at 
that distance from it towards the rising sun, and 
a hundred from Samonium. Prasus was situated 
between Samonium and the Cherronesus, sixty stadia 
above the sea; it was rased to the ground by the 
Hierapytnians. And neither is Callimachus right, 
they say, when he says that Britomartis, in her 
flight from the violence of Minos, leaped from Dicté 
into fishermen’s “nets,” ? and that because of this 
she herself was called Dictynna by the Cydoniatae, 
and the mountain Dicté ; for Cydonia is not in the 
neighbourhood of these places at all, but lies near 
the western limits of the island. However, there 
is a mountain called Tityrus in Cydonia, on which is 
a temple, not the “ Dictaean” temple, but the 
** Dictynnaean.”’ 

13. Cydonia is situated on the sea, facing Laconia, 
and is equidistant, about eight hundred stadia, from 

1. 17ῃ..4. 6. 2 Phaenomena 33. 5. ΠΟΤ Οὐ δ. 

5 On ἑβδομήκοντα (o’), see Kramer (ad Joc.) and C. Miiller, 
Ind. Var. Lect. p. 1011. Dh have ο΄, h has διακοσίους (σῇ), 
added above, i has διακοσίους and the other MSS. 6. 



τὸ ἴσον, τῆς Te Κνωσσοῦ καὶ τῆς Γόρτυνος,1 οἷον 
ὀκτακοσίους σταδίους, ᾿Απτέρας δὲ ὀγδοήκοντα, 
τῆς ταύτῃ δὲ θαλάττης τετταράκοντα. ᾿Απτέρας 
δ᾽ ἐπίνειόν ἐστι Κίσαμος: πρὸς ἑσπέραν δ᾽ ὅμοροι 
τοῖς Κυδωνιάταις Πολυρρήνιοι, παρ᾽ οἷς ἐστὶ 
τὸ τῆς Δικτύννης ἱερόν" ἀπέχουσι δὲ τῆς θαλάττης 
ὡς τριάκοντα σταδίους, Φαλασάρνης δὲ ἑξήκοντα. 
κωμηδὸν δ᾽ ὠκουν πρότερον: eit ᾿Α χαιοὶ καὶ 
Λάκωνες cuvaknoav, τειχίσαντες ἐρυμνὸν χωρίον 
βλέπον πρὸς μεσημβρίαν. 

14. Τῶν δ᾽ ὑπὸ Μίνω συνῳκισμένων τριῶν 
τὴν λοιπὴν (Φαιστὸς. δ᾽ ἦν αὕτη) 3 κατέσκαψαν 
Γορτύνιοι, τῆς μὲν ΓΠόρτυνος 3 διέχουσαν ἑξήκοντα, 
τῆς δὲ θαλάττης εἴκοσι, τοῦ δὲ Ματάλου * τοῦ 
ἐπινείου τετταράκοντα' τὴν δὲ χώραν. ἔχουσιν 
οἱ κατασκάψαντες. Γορτυνίων δ᾽ ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ 
“Ρύτιον σὺν τῇ Φαιστῷ" 

/ δ / / 
Φαιστὸν te Puvrtiov τε. 

> Ν fol a \ \ \ / 

ἐκ δὲ THs Φαιστοῦ Tov τοὺς καθαρμοὺς ποιήσαντα 
διὰ τῶν ἐπῶν ᾿Επιμενίδην φασὶν εἶναι. καὶ ὁ 
Λισσὴνδ δὲ τῆς Φαιστίας. Λύκτου δέ, ἧς 

Γορτύνης ikx, Corais, 
ἥν, before κατέσκαψαν, Xylander omits; so the later editors. 
Γορτύνης ἴω. 
Ματἄᾶλον B (by corr.) 0, Μαρτάλου BCDghixy, Μετάλου n. 
ὁ Λισσήν (Stephanus 6 Aroons), Corais, for ᾿Ολύσσην; 
so Meineke. 

ὁ Λύκτου Bhiklno, and Τὴ (corr. second hand); Δύτου B 
(first hand)z. Kramer and Meineke avoid the Homeric 
spelling, reading Λύττου. 

ao Fr ON 

1 Strabo refers, respectively, to the distance by land to 
Aptera and by sea, but his estimates are erroneous (see 
Pauly-Wissowa s.v. ‘‘ Aptera’”). 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 4. 13-14 

the two cities Cnossus and Gortyn, and is eighty 
stadia distant from Aptera, and forty from the sea 
in that region.t The seaport of Aptera is Cisamus. 
The territory of the Polyrrhenians borders on that 
of the Cydoniatae towards the west, and the temple 
of Dictynna is in their territory, They are about 
thirty stadia distant from the sea, and sixty from 
Phalasarna. They lived in villages in earlier times ; 
and then Achaeans and Laconians made a common 
settlement, building a wall round a place that was 
naturally strong and faced towards the south, 

14. Of the three cities that were united under 
one metropolis by Minos, the third, which was 
Phaestus, was rased to the ground by the Gor- 
tynians; it is sixty stadia distant from Gortyn, 
twenty from the sea, and forty from the seaport 
Matalum; and the country is held by those who 
rased it. Rhytium, also, together with Phaestus, 
belongs to the Gortynians: “and Phaestus and 
Rhytium.” 5. Epimenides,? who performed the puri- 
fications by means of his verses, is said to have been 
from Phaestus. And Lissen also is in the Phaestian 
territory. Of Lyctus, which I have mentioned 

2 Tliad 2. 648. 

3 Epimenides was a wizard, an ancient ‘‘ Rip Van Winkle,” 
who, according to Suidas, slept for sixty of his one hundred 
and fifty years. According to Diogenes Laertius (1. 110), 
he went to Athens in ‘‘the forty-sixth Olympiad” (596-593 
r.c.) ‘and purified the city, and put a stop to the plague”’ 
(see Plutarch’s account of his visit in Solon’s time, Solon 12). 
According to Plato (Laws 642 D) he went to Athens ‘‘ ten 
years before the Persian War ” (¢.e. 500 B.c.), and uttered the 
prophecy that the Persians would not come for ten years, 
and would get the worst of it when they came. But see 
Pauly-Wissowa s.v. “ Epimenides.” 



ἐμνήσθημεν καὶ πρότερον, ἐπίνειόν ἐστιν ἡ λεγο- 
μένη Χερρόνησος, ἐν % τὸ τῆς Βριτομάρτεως 
ἱερόν: αἱ δὲ συγκαταλεχθεῖσαι πόλεις οὐκέτ᾽ 
3,67 , ΄, \ 7 \ \ , 
εἰσί, Μίλητός τε καὶ Λύκαστος, τὴν δὲ χώραν, 
τὴν μὲν ἐνείμαντο Λύκτιοι, τὴν δὲ Κνώσσιοι, 
κατασκάψαντες τὴν πόλιν. 
n “ , 
15. Tod δὲ ποιητοῦ τὸ μὲν ἑκατόμπολιν λέ- 
\ ΄ \ > ἵν ΄ ” 
γοντος τὴν Κρήτην, τὸ δὲ ἐνενηκοντάπολιν, "φο- 
ρος μὲν ὕστερον ἐπικτισθῆναι τὰς δέκα φησὶ 
μετὰ τὰ Τρωικὰ ὑπὸ τῶν ᾿Αλθαιμένει τῷ ᾿Αργείῳ 
συνακολουθησάντων Δωριέων' τὸν μὲν οὖν 
᾿ὈΟὈδυσσέα λέγει ἐνενηκοντάπολιν ὀνομάσαι" οὗτος 
μὴ Φ , DJ ¢e ΄ A > ΄ A 
μὲν οὖν πιθανός ἐστιν ὁ λόγος: ἄλλοι δ᾽ ὑπὸ 
τῶν ᾿Ιδομενέως ἐχθρῶν κατασκαφῆναί φασι τὰς 
δέκα. ἀλλ᾽ οὔτε κατὰ τὰ Τρωικά φησιν ὁ ποιητὴς 
ἑκατοντάπολιν ὑπάρξαι τὴν Κρήτην, ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον 
κατ᾽ αὐτόν (ἐκ γὰρ τοῦ ἰδίου προσώπου λέγει" εἰ 
σ 480 δ᾽ ᾽ - / » Ν > x, , fa] ΄ 
) ἐκ τῶν τότε ὄντων τινὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος, καθάπερ 
᾽ ΤΑ Δὲ , ς« ἡ > , ΄ 
ἐν τῇ Οδυσσείᾳ, ἡνίκα ἐνενηκοντάπολιεν φράζξει, 
καλῶς εἶχεν. ἂν ὃ οὕτω δέχεσθαι), οὔτ᾽ εἰ 8 " συγχω- 
ρήσαιμεν τοῦτό γε, ὁ ἑξῆς λόγος σώζοιτ᾽ ἄν. οὔτε 
γὰρ κατὰ τὴν στρατείαν οὔτε μετὰ τὴν ἐπάνοδον 
τὴν ἐκεῖθεν τοῦ ᾿Ιδομενέως * εἰκός ἐστιν ὑπὸ τῶν 
lal lal ΄ A « 
ἐχθρῶν αὐτοῦ τὰς πόλεις ἠφανίσθαι ταύτας" ὁ 
\ \ tf 
yap ποιητὴς φήσας," 

1 Δύκτιοι Dhikin, and B (first hand); Λύτιοι kx; Kramer 
and Meineke Λύττιοι. 

2 ἄν is omitted by all MSS. except z. 

3 For οὔτ᾽ ef BCDhis have ὅτι, x ὅτι εἰ, Tzschucke and 
Corais, from conj. of Tyrwhitt, ἀλλ᾽ οὐδ᾽ εἰ. 

4 Tzchucke, Corais, Meineke, and others omit ὡς, after 

5 φήσας, Meineke, from conj. of Kramer, for φησι. 


GEOGRAPHY, to. 4. 14-15 

before, the seaport is Chersonesus, as it is called, 
where is the temple of Britomartis. But the cities 
Miletus and Lycastus, which are catalogued along 
with Lyctus,2 no longer exist; and as for their 
territory, the Lyctians took one portion of it and 
the Cnossians the other, after they had rased the 
city to the ground. 

15. Since the poet speaks of Crete at one time 
as “possessing a hundred cities,’? and also at 
another as “ possessing ninety cities,’ 4 Ephorus says 
that the ten were founded later than the others, 
after the Trojan War, by the Dorians who accom- 
panied Althaemenes the Argive; he adds that it 
was Odysseus, however, who called it “ Crete of the 
ninety cities.” Now this statement is plausible, but 
others say that the ten cities were rased to the 
ground by the enemies of Idomeneus.® However, 
in the first place, the poet does not say that Crete 
had one hundred cities at the time of the Trojan 
War, but rather in his own time (for he is speaking 
in his own person, although, if the statement was 
made by some person who was living at the time 
of the Trojan War, as is the case in the Odyssey, 
when Odysseus says “of the ninety cities,’ then 
it would be well to interpret it accordingly). In 
the second place, if we should concede this,® the 
next statement? could not be maintained; for it 
is not likely that these cities were wiped out by 
the enemies of Idomeneus either during the ex- 
pedition or after his return from Troy; for when 

1 ΠΕ 7 4 Iliad 2. 647. 3 Iliad 2. 649. 
4 Od. 19. 174. δ᾽ The grandson of Minos. 
6 2,6. that Homer was speaking of his own time. 
7 i.e. that ten were rased by the enemies of Idomeneus. 



πάντας δ᾽ ᾿Ιδομενεὺς Κρήτην εἰσήγαγ᾽ ἑταί- 

/ ’ / ΄ / ¢ vv ᾽ 
φύγον ἐκ πολέμου, πόντος δέ οἱ οὔτιν 
\1 / ~ 4 ’ / 3 oe 
καὶ τούτου τοῦ πάθους ἐμέμνητ᾽ ἄν" " οὐ γὰρ 

δήπου ᾽Οδυσσεὺς μὲν ἔγνω τὸν ἀφανισμὸν τῶν 
πόλεων ὁ μηδενὶ συμμίξας τῶν ᾿ὥῶοωλωολήνων μήτε 
κατὰ τὴν πλάνην μήθ᾽ ὕστερον. ὁ δὲ καὶ συστρα- 
τεύσας τῷ ᾿Ιδομενεῖ καὶ συνανασωθεὶς οὐκ ἔγνω 
τὰ συμβάντα οἴκοι αὐτῷ οὔτε κατὰ τὴν στρα- 
τείαν οὔτε τὴν ἐπάνοδον τὴν ἐκεῖθεν: ἀλλὰ μὴν 
οὐδὲ μετὰ τὴν ἐπάνοδον: εἰ γὰρ μετὰ πάντων 
ἐσώθη τῶν ἑταίρων, ἰσχυρὸς ἐπανῆλθεν, ὥστ᾽ 
οὐκ ἔμελλον ἰσχύσειν οἱ ἐχθροὶ τοσοῦτον, ὅσον 
δέκα ἀφαιρεῖσθαι πόλεις αὐτόν τῆς μὲν οὖν 
χώρας τῶν Κρητῶν τοιαύτη τις ἡ περιοδεία. 

10. Τῆς δὲ πολιτείας, ἧς "Edopos ἀνέγραψε, τὰ 
κυριώτατα ἐπιδραμεῖν ἀποχρώντως ἂν ἔχοι. δοκεῖ 
δέ, φησίν, ὁ νομοθέτης μέγιστον ὑποθέσθαι ταῖς 
πόλεσιν ἀγαθὸν τὴν ἐλε υθερίαν" “μόνην γὰρ ταύτην 
ἴδια ποιεῖν τῶν κτησαμένων τὰ ἀγαθά, τὰ δ᾽ ἐν 
δουλείᾳ τῶν ἀρχόντων, ἀλλ᾽ οὐχὶ τῶν ἀρχομένων 
εἶναι" τοῖς δ᾽ ἔχουσι ταύτην sede oe δεῖν" τὴν 
μὲν οὖν ὁμόνοιαν διχοστασίας αἰρομένης ὃ ἀπαντᾷν, 
ἣ γίνεται διὰ πλεονεξίαν καὶ τρυφὴν" σωφρόνως 
γὰρ καὶ λιτῶς ζῶσιν ἅπασιν οὔτε φθόνον οὔθ᾽ 
ὕβριν οὔτε μῖσος ἀπαντᾷν πρὸς τοὺς ὁμοίους" 

1 Before καὶ τούτου B(by corr. )kno and the earlier editors 
insert ὥστε. 

2 ἐμέμνητ᾽ ἄν Bno, ἐμέμνητο other MSS. 

3 οὔτε, after αὐτῷ, Corais inserts: so Miiller-Diibner and 
others. Meineke ejects κατὰ, . . ἐκεῖθεν, 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 4. 15-16 

the poet said, “and all his companions Idomeneus 
brought to Crete, all who escaped from the war, and 
the sea robbed him of none,’ ! he would also have 
mentioned this disaster; for of course Odysseus 
could not have known of the obliteration of the 
cities, since he came in contact with no Greeks 
either during his wanderings or later. And he? 
who accompanied Idomeneus on the expedition to 
Troy and returned safely home at the same time 
could not have known what occurred in the home- 
land of Idomeneus either during the expedition 
or the return from Troy, nor yet even after the 
return; for if [domeneus escaped with all his 
companions, he returned home strong, and therefore 
his enemies were not likely to be strong enough 
to take ten cities away from him. Such, then, is 
my description of the country of the Cretans. 

16. As for their constitution, which is described 
by Ephorus, it might suffice to tell in a cursory 
way its most important provisions. The lawgiver, 
he says, seems to take it for granted that liberty 
is a state’s greatest good, for this alone makes 
property belong specifically to those who have 
acquired it, whereas in a condition of slavery 
everything belongs to the rulers and not to the 
ruled ; but those who have liberty must guard it; 
now harmony ensues when dissension, which is the 
result of greed and luxury, is removed; for when 
all citizens live a self-restrained and simple life 
there arises neither envy nor arrogance nor hatred 
towards those who are like them; and this is 

1 Od. 3. 191 (Nestor speaking). 2 Nestor. 

4 αὐτόν, Corais, for αὐτῶν ; so the later editors. 
> αἰρομένης C3 αἱρουμένης other MSS. 



διόπερ τοὺς μὲν παῖδας εἰς τὰς ὀνομαζομένας 
ἀγέλας κελεῦσαι φοιτᾶν, τοὺς δὲ τελείους ἐν τοῖς 
συσσιτίοις, ἃ καλοῦσιν ἀνδρεῖα, συσσιτεῖν' ὃ ὅπως 
τῶν ἴσων μετάσχοιεν τοῖς εὐπόροις. οἱ πενέστεροι, 
δημοσίᾳ τρεφόμενοι" πρὸς δὲ τὸ μὴ δειλίαν ἀλλ᾽ 
ἀνδρείαν κρατεῖν ἐκ παίδων ὅπλοις καὶ πόνοις 
συντρέφειν, ὥστε “καταφρονεῖν. καύματος καὶ 
ψύχους καὶ τραχείας ὁδοῦ καὶ ἀνάντους καὶ 
πληγῶν τῶν ἐν γυμνασίοις καὶ thE. ταῖς κατὰ 
σύνταγμα" ἀσκεῖν δὲ καὶ τοξικῇ καὶ ἐνοπλίῳ 
ὀρχήσει, ἣν “καταδεῖξαι Κουρῆτας * πρῶτον, 
ὕστερον δὲ καὶ τὸν 5 συντάξαντα τὴν κληθεῖσαν 
ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ πυρρίχην, ὥστε μηδὲ τὴν παιδιὰν 
ἄμοιρον εἶναι, τῶν πρὸς πόλεμον χρησίμων" ὡς 
δ᾽ αὕτως καὶ τοῖς ῥυθμοῖς Κρητικοῖς χρῆσθαι 
κατὰ TAS ὠδὰς συντονωτάτοις οὗσιν, ods Θάλητα 
ἀνευρεῖν, ἃ καὶ τοὺς παιᾶνας καὶ τὰς ἄλλας τὰς 
ἐπιχωρίους ὡδὰς ἀνατιθέασι καὶ πολλὰ τῶν 
νομίμων, καὶ ἐσθῆτι δὲ καὶ ὑποδέσει πολεμικῇ 
χρῆσθαι, καὶ τῶν δώρων τιμιώτατα αὐτοῖς εἶναι 
τὰ ὅπλα. 

17. Λέγεσθαι δ᾽ ὑπό τινων, ὡς Λακωνικὰ εἴη τὰ 
πολλὰ τῶν ψΨομιξζομένων Κρητικῶν, τὸ δ᾽ ἀληθές, 
εὑρῆσθαι μὲν ὑπ᾽ ἐκείνων, ἠκριβωκέναι δὲ τοὺς 
Σπαρτιάτας, τοὺς δὲ Κρῆτας ὀλιγωρῆσαι, κακω- 
θεισῶν τῶν πόλεων, καὶ μάλιστα͵ τῆς Κνωσσίων, 
τῶν πολεμικῶν: μεῖναι δέ τινα τῶν νομίμων παρὰ 

1 συσσιτεῖν, Meineke, for συσσίτια. 
Κουρῆτας, Groskurd, for Κουρῆτα, Kramer approving. 

3 σόν, before συντάξαντα, Corais inserts; so Jones inde- 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 4. 16-17 

why the lawgiver commanded the boys to attend 
the ‘Troops,’ 1! as they are called, and the full- 
grown men to eat together at the public messes 
which they call the “ Andreia,” so that the poorer, 
being fed at public expense, might be on an equality 
with the well-to-do; and in order that courage, - 
and not cowardice, might prevail, he commanded — 
that from boyhood they should grow up accustomed 
to arms and toils, so as to scorn heat, cold, marches 
over rugged and steep roads, and blows received 
in gymnasiums or regular battles; and that they 
should practise, not only archery, but also the 
war-dance, which was invented and made known 
by the Curetes at first, and later, also, by the 
man” who arranged the dance that was named 
after him, I mean the Pyrrhic dance, so that not 
even their sports were without a share in activities 
that were useful for warfare ; and likewise that they 
should use in their songs the Cretic rhythms, which 
were very high-pitched, and were invented by 
Thales, to whom they ascribe, not only their Paeans 
and other local songs, but also many of their 
institutions ; and that they should use military dress 
and shoes; and that arms should be to them the 
most valuable of gifts. 

17. It is said by some writers, Ephorus continues, 
that most of the Cretan institutions are Laconian, 
but the truth is that they were invented by the 
Cretans and only perfected by the Spartans ; and 
the Cretans, when their cities, and particularly that 
of the Cnossians, were devastated, neglected military 
affairs; but some of the institutions continued in 

' Literally, ‘‘ Herds” (cf. the Boy Scout ‘‘ Troops ”). 
2 Pyrrhicus (see 10. 3. 8). 



Λυκτίοις καὶ Γορτυνίοις καὶ ἄλλοις τισὶ πολι- 
χνίοις μᾶλλον, ἢ παρ᾽ ἐκείνοις" καὶ δὴ καὶ τὰ 
Δυκτίων νόμιμα ποιεῖσθαι μαρτύρια τοὺς τὰ 
Λακωνικὰ πρεσβύτερα ἀποφαίνοντας: ἀποίκους 
γὰρ ὄντας φυλάττειν τὰ τῆς μητροπόλεως ἔθη, 
ἐπεὶ ἄλλως γε εὔηθες εἶναι τὸ τοὺς βέλτιον συνεσ- 
τῶτας καὶ πολιτευομένους τῶν χειρόνων ζηλωτὰς 
ἀποφαίνειν" οὐκ εὖ δὲ ταῦτα λέγεσθαι: οὔτε γὰρ 
ἐκ τῶν νῦν καθεστηκότων τὰ παλαιὰ τεκμηριοῦσ- 
θαι δεῖν, εἰς τἀναντία ἑκατέρων μεταπεπτωκότων' 
καὶ γὰρ ναυκρατεῖν πρότερον τοὺς Κρῆτας, ὥ ὥστε 
καὶ παροιμιάζεσθαι πρὸς τοὺς προσποιουμένους 
μὴ εἰδέναι ἃ ἴσασιν: .Ὃ Κρὴς ἀγνοεῖ τὴν θάλατταν, 
νῦν 6 ἀποβεβληκέναι τὸ ναυτικόν οὔτε ὅτι 
ἄποικοί τινες τῶν πόλεων γεγόνασι τῶν ἐν Κρήτῃ 
Σπαρτιατῶν, ἐν τοῖς ἐκείνων νομίμοις ἐπηναγ- 
κάσθαι: πολλὰς γοῦν τῶν ἀποικίδων μὴ φυλάτ- 
τειν τὰ πάτρια, πολλὰς δὲ καὶ τῶν μὴ ἀποικίδων 
ἐν Κρήτῃ τὰ αὐτὰ ἔχειν τοῖς ἀποίκοις ἔθη. 

. Τῶν τε Σπαρτιατῶν τὸν νομοθέτην Λυκοῦρ- 
αἰαὶ πέντε γενεαῖς νεώτερον ᾿Αλθαιμένους εἶναι τοῦ 
στείλαντος τὴν εἰς Κρήτην a ἀποικίαν" τὸν μὲν γὰρ 
ἱστορεῖσθαι Κίσσου παῖδα τοῦ τὸ Apyos κτίσαν- 
τος περὶ τὸν αὐτὸν χρόνον ἡνίκα Τ]ροκλῆς τὴν 
Σπάρτην συνῴκιξε, Λυκοῦργον δ᾽ ὁμολογεῖσθαι 
παρὰ πάντων ἕκτον ἀπὸ Π Ιροκλέους γεγονέναι" 
τὰ δὲ μιμήματα μὴ εἶναι πρότερα τῶν παραδειγ- 

1 This Althaemenes, therefore, is not to be confused with 
the Althaemenes who was the grandson of Minos. 
2 2.6. of Laconia (see 8. 5. 4). 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 4. 17-18 

use among the Lyctians, Gortynians, and certain 
other small cities to a greater extent than among 
the Cnossians; in fact, the institutions of the 
Lyctians are cited as evidence by those who re- 
present the Laconian as older; for, they argue, 
being colonists, they preserve the customs of the 
mother-city, since even on general grounds it is 
absurd to represent those who are better organised 
and governed as emulators of their inferiors; but 
this is not correct, Ephorus says, for, in the first 
place, one should not draw evidence as to antiquity 
from the present state of things, for both peoples 
have undergone a complete reversal; for instance, 
the Cretans in earlier times were masters of the 
sea, and hence the proverb, “The Cretan does 
not know the sea,” is applied to those who pretend 
not to know what they do know, although now the 
Cretans have lost their fleet; and, in the second 
place, it does not follow that, because some of 
the cities in Crete were Spartan colonies, they 
were under compulsion to keep to the Spartan 
institutions ; at any rate, many colonial cities do not 
observe their ancestral customs, and many, also, of 
those in Crete that are not colonial have the same 
customs as the colonists. 

18. Lycurgus the Spartan law-giver, Ephorus 
continues, was five generations later than the Al- 
thaemenes who conducted the colony to Crete ;1 
for historians say that Althaemenes was son of the 
Cissus who founded Argos about the same time 
when Procles was establishing Sparta as metropolis ; 3 
and Lycurgus, as is agreed by all, was sixth in 
descent from Procles; and copies are not earlier 
than their models, nor more recent things earlier 



μάτων μηδὲ τὰ νεώτερα τῶν πρεσβυτέρων' τήν τε 
ὄρχησιν τὴν παρὰ τοῖς Λακεδαιμονίοις ἐπιχωριά- 
ζουσαν καὶ τοὺς ῥυθμοὺς καὶ παιᾶνας τοὺς κατὰ 
νόμον ᾳδομένους καὶ ἄλλα πολλὰ τῶν νομίμων 
Κρητικὰ καλεῖσθαι παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς, ὡς ἂν ἐκεῖθεν 
ὁρμώμενα" τῶν δ᾽ “ἀρχείων τὰ μὲν καὶ τὰς διοική- 
σεις ἔχειν τὰς αὐτὰς καὶ τὰς ἐπωνυμίας, ὥσπερ 
καὶ τὴν τῶν γερόντων ἀρχὴν καὶ τὴν τῶν ἱππέων 
Ο 482 (πλὴν ὅτι τοὺς ἐν Κρήτῃ ἱππέας καὶ ἵππους 
κεκτῆσθαι. συμβέβηκεν" ἐξ οὗ τεκμαίρονται πρεσ- 
βυτέραν εἶναι τῶν ἐν Κρήτῃ ἱππέων τὴν ἀρχήν' 
σώ εἰν γὰρ τὴν ἐτυμότητα τῆς προσηγορίας" τοὺς 
δὲ μὴ ἱπποτροφεῖν), τοὺς ἐφόρους δὲ τὰ αὐτὰ τοῖς 
ἐν Κρήτῃ κόσμοις διοικοῦντας ἑτέρως ὠνομάσθαι: 
τὰ δὲ συσσίτια ἀνδρεῖα παρὰ μὲν τοῖς Κρησὶν 
καὶ νῦν ἔτι καλεῖσθαι, παρὰ δὲ τοῖς Σπαρτιάταις 
μὴ διαμεῖναι καλούμενα ὁμοίως ws} πρότερον" 
παρ᾽ ᾿Αλκμᾶνι γοῦν οὕτω κεῖσθαι" 
φοίναις δὲ καὶ ἐν θιάσοισιν 
ἀνδρείων ξ παρὰ δαιτυμόνεσσι πρέπει 3 παιᾶνα 

19. Λέγεσθαι δ᾽ ὑπὸ τῶν Κρητῶν, ὡς καὶ παρ᾽ 
αὐτοὺς ἀφίκοιτο Λυκοῦργος κατὰ τοιαύτην αἰτίαν" 
ἀδελφὸς ἦν πρεσβύτερος τοῦ Λυκούργου Πολυ- 
δέκτης" οὗτος τελευτῶν ἔγκυον κατέλιπε τὴν 
γυναῖκα τέως μὲν οὖν ἐβασίλευεν ὁ Λυκοῦργος 
ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ, γενομένου δὲ παιδός, ἐπετρό- 

1 ὡς only πο; ὁμοίως ὡς B (by corr.), and so Tzschucke and 
Corais ; ὁμοίως only, other MSS. (except 4, which has neither 
word), and so Miiller-Diibner and Meineke. 

2 ἀνδρίων BCDAz. 

3 πρέπει, Kramer, from conj. of Ursinus, for πρέπε, 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 4. 18-19 

than older things; not only the dancing which is 
customary among the Lacedaemonians, but also the 
rhythms and paeans that are sung according to 
law, and many other Spartan institutions, are called 
“Cretan”? among the Lacedaemonians, as though 
they originated in Crete; and some of the public 
offices are not only administered in the same way as 
in Crete, but also have the same names, as, for 
instance, the office of the “ Gerontes,”! and that 
of the ‘“‘ Hippeis’’? (except that the “ Hippeis” 
in Crete actually possessed horses, and from this 
fact it is inferred that the office of the “ Hippeis” 
in Crete is older, for they preserve the true meaning 
of the appellation, whereas the Lacedaemonian 
“ Hippeis”” do not keep horses); but though the 
Ephors have the same functions as the Cretan 
Cosmi, they have been named differently ; and the 
public messes are, even to-day, still called “ Andreia” 
among the Cretans, but among the Spartans they 
ceased to be called by the same name as in earlier 
times;? at any rate, the following is found in 
Aleman: “In feasts and festive gatherings, amongst 
the guests who partake of the Andreia, ’tis meet to 
begin the paean.” 4 

19. It is said by the Cretans, Ephorus continues, 
that Lycurgus came to them for the following 
reason: Polydectes was the elder brother of Lycur- 
gus; when he died he left his wife pregnant ; now 
for a time Lycurgus reigned in his brother's place, 
but when a child was born he became the child’s 

1 “© Old Men,” #.e. ‘‘ Senators.” 

2 «* Horsemen,” 1.6. ““ Knights.” 

3 The later Spartan name was ‘‘ Syssitia” or ‘‘ Philitia” 

(sometimes ‘‘ Phiditia”). 
4 Frag. 22 (Bergk). 



πευεν ἐκεῖνον, εἰς ὃν ἡ ἀρχὴ καθήκουσα ἐτύγχανε'" 
λοιδορούμενος δή τις αὐτῷ σαφῶς εἶπεν εἰδέναι, 
/ ΄ a e 
διότι Bacidrevoor’ λαβὼν δ᾽ ὑπόνοιαν ἐκεῖνος, ὡς 
lal , ΄ 
ἐκ τοῦ λόγου τούτου διαβάλλοιτο ἐπιβουλὴ ἐξ 
αὐτοῦ τοῦ παιδός, δείσας, μὴ ἐκ τύχης ἀποθανόν- 
’ fal lal lel 
TOS αἰτίαν αὐτὸς ἔχοι Tapa τῶν ἐχθρῶν, ἀπῆρεν 
εἰς Κρήτην. ταύτην μὲν δὴ λέγεσθαι τῆς ἀπο- 
δημίας αἰτίαν, ἐλθόντα δὲ πλησιάσαι Θάλητι 
μελοποιῷ ἀνδρὶ καὶ νομοθετικῷ, ἱστορήσαντα δὲ 
A is 
Tap αὐτοῦ τὸν τρόπον, ὃν Ῥαδάμανθύς τε πρό- 
τερον καὶ ὕστερον Μίνως, ὡς παρὰ τοῦ Διὸς τοὺς 
νόμους ἐκφέροι eis ἀνθρώπους, γενόμενον δὲ Kal ἐν 
Αὐγύπτῳ καὶ καταμαθόντα καὶ τὰ ἐκεῖ νόμιμα, 
5 / > ef / \ «ς / 
ἐντυχόντα δ᾽, ὥς φασί τινες, καὶ Ὁμήρῳ δια- 
“-“ ΄ \ / 
τρίβοντι ἐν Χίῳ, κατᾶραι πάλιν εἰς THY οἰκείαν, 
“- lal na / 
καταλαβεῖν δὲ τὸν τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ υἱόν, Tov IloAv- 
y ΕΣ ε = 
δέκτου Χαρίλαον, βασιλεύοντα' εἶθ᾽ ὁρμῆσαι 
lal , lal ¢ \ 
διαθεῖναι τοὺς νόμους, φοιτῶντα ws τὸν θεὸν τὸν 
a > an \ 
ἐν Δελφοῖς, κἀκεῖθεν κομίζοντα Ta προστάγματα, 
καθάπερ οἱ περὶ Μίνω ἐκ τοῦ ἄντρου τοῦ Διός, 
παραπλήσια ἐκείνοις τὰ πλείω. 
n ΄ a \ , A 
20. Τῶν Κρητικῶν τὰ κυριώτατα τῶν καθ᾽ 
ἕκαστα τοιαῦτα εἴρηκε. γαμεῖν μὲν ἅμα πάντες 
-“ < ἈΝ Ν 
ἀναγκάζονται Tap αὐτοῖς οἱ κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν 
χρόνον ἐκ τῆς τῶν παίδων ἀγέλης ἐκκριθέντες, 
οὐκ εὐθὺς δ᾽ ἄγονται Tap’ ἑαυτοὺς τὰς γαμηθείσας 
a > ) > ‘ » lal e \ > \ 
παῖδας, GAN ἐπὰν ἤδη διοικεῖν ἱκαναὶ wot τὰ 
\ \ » as \ hye) p x > Nowe 
περὶ τοὺς οἴκους" φερνὴ δ᾽ ἐστίν, ἂν ἀδελφοὶ ὦσι, 
\ ee a a Lo nr (ὃ Ὄ al δὲ 
τὸ ἥμισυν τῆς τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ μερίδος" παῖδας δὲ 

GEOGRAPHY, το. 4. 19-20 

guardian, since the office of king descended to the 
child, but some man, railing at Lycurgus, said that 
he knew for sure that Lycurgus would be king ; 
and Lycurgus, suspecting that in consequence of 
such talk he himself might be falsely accused of 
plotting against the child, and fearing that, if by 
any chance the child should die, he himself might 
be blamed for it by his enemies, sailed away to 
Crete; this, then, is said to be the cause of his 
sojourn in Crete; and when he arrived he associated 
with Thales, a melic poet and an expert in lawgiving ; 
and after learning from him the manner in which 
both Rhadamanthys in earlier times and Minos in 
later times published their laws to men as from 
Zeus, and after sojourning in Egypt also and learning 
among other things their institutions, and, according 
to some writers, after meeting Homer, who was 
living in Chios, he sailed back to his homeland, 
and found his brother’s son, Charilaiis the son of 
Polydectes, reigning as king; and then he set out to 
frame the laws, making visits to the god at Delphi, 
and bringing thence the god’s decrees, just as Minos 
and his house had brought their ordinances from the 
cave of Zeus, most of his being similar to theirs. 

20. The following are the most important pro- 
visions in the Cretan institutions as stated by 
Ephorus. In Crete all those who are selected out 
of the “ Troop” of boys at the same time are forced 
to marry at the same time, although they do not 
take the girls whom they have married to their 
own homes immediately, but as soon as the girls 
are qualified to manage the affairs of the house. 
A girl’s dower, if she has brothers, is half of the 
brother’s portion. The children must learn, not only 



C 483 γράμματά τε μανθάνειν καὶ τὰς ἐκ τῶν νόμων 
ὠδὰς καί τινα εἴδη τῆς μουσικῆς" τοὺς μὲν οὖν 
ἔτι νεωτέρους εἰς τὰ συσσίτια ἄγουσι τὰ ἀνδρεῖα" 
χαμαὶ δὲ καθήμενοι διαιτῶνται μετ᾽ ἀλλήλων ἐν 
φαύλοις τριβωνίοις καὶ χειμῶνος καὶ θέρους τὰ 
αὐτά, διακονοῦσί τε καὶ ἑαυτοῖς καὶ τοῖς ἀνδράσι" 
συμβάλλουσι 61 εἰς μάχην καὶ οἱ ἐκ τοῦ αὐτοῦ 
συσσιτίου πρὸς ἀλλήλους, καὶ πρὸς ἕτερα συσ- 
σίτια' καθ᾽ ἕκαστον δὲ ἀνδρεῖον ἐφέστηκε παι- 
δονόμος" οἱ δὲ μείζους εἰς τὰς ἀγέλας ἄγονται" 
τὰς δ᾽ ἀγέλας συνάγουσιν οἱ ἐπιφανέστατοι τῶν 
παίδων καὶ δυνατώτατοι, ἕκαστος ὅσους πλείσ- 
Tous οἷός τέ ἐστιν ἀθροίζων. ἑκάστης δὲ τῆς 
ἀγέλης ἄρχων ἐστὶν ὡς τὸ πολὺ ὁ πατὴρ τοῦ 
συναγαγόντος, κύριος ὧν ἐξάγειν ἐπὶ θήραν καὶ 
δρόμους, τὸν δ᾽ ἀπειθοῦντα κολάζειν" τρέφονται 
δὲ “δημοσίᾳ τακταῖς δέ τισιν ἡμέραις ἀγέλη 
πρὸς ἀγέλην συμβάλλει μετὰ αὐλοῦ καὶ λύρας 
εἰς μάχην ἐν ῥυθμῷ. ὥσπερ καὶ ἐν τοῖς πολε- 
μικοῖς εἰώθασιν, ἐκφέρουσι δὲ καὶ τὰς πληγάς, 
τὰς μὲν διὰ χειρός, τὰς δὲ καὶ δι᾿ ὅπλων σιδηρῶν. 

Ἤδιον δ᾽ αὐτοῖς τὸ περὶ τοὺς ἔρωτας 
νόμιμον᾽ οὐ γὰρ πειθοῖ κατεργάξονται τοὺς 
ἐρωμένους, ἀλλ᾽ ἁρπαγῇ" προλέγει τοῖς φίλοις 
πρὸ TPL, ἢ πλειόνων ἡμερῶν ὁ ἐραστής, ὅτι 
μέλλει" τὴν ἁρπαγὴν ποιεῖσθαι" τοῖς δ᾽ ἀπο- 
κρύπτειν μὲν τὸν παῖδα ἢ μὴ ἐᾷν πορεύεσθαι 
τὴν τεταγμένην ὁδὸν τῶν αἰσχίστων ἐστίν, ὡς 

1 δ᾽, Casaubon inserts; so the later editors. 
2 μέλλοι BClno. 

1 Others translate ἐκφέρουσι in the sense of delivering blows. 


GEOGRAPHY, to. 4. 20-21 

their letters, but also the songs prescribed in the 
laws and certain forms of music. Now those who 
are still younger are taken to the public messes, 
the “Andreia”; and they sit together on the 
ground as they eat their food, clad in shabby 
garments, the same both winter and summer, and 
they also wait on the men as well as on themselves. 
And those who eat together at the same mess join 
battle both with one another and with those from 
different messes. A boy-director presides over each 
mess. But the older boys are taken to the “Troops”’; 
and the most conspicuous and influential of the boys 
assemble the “ Troops,” each collecting as many boys 
as he possibly can; the leader of each “ Troop” is 
generally the father of the assembler, and he has 
authority to lead them forth to hunt and to run 
races, and to punish anyone who is disobedient ; 
and they are fed at public expense ; and on certain 
appointed days “Troop” contends with “ Troop,” 
marching rhythmically into battle, to the tune 
of flute and lyre, as is their custom in actual war ; 
and they actually bear marks of! the blows re- 
ceived, some inflicted by the hand, others by iron? 

21. They have a peculiar custom in regard to love 
affairs,? for they win the objects of their love, not 
by persuasion, but by abduction ; the lover tells the 
friends of the boy three or four days beforehand that 
he is going to make the abduction ; but for the friends 
to conceal the boy, or not to let him go forth by the 
appointed road, is indeed a most disgraceful thing, 

2 Possibly an error for ‘* wooden.” 
3. The discussion of ‘‘love affairs” is strangely limited to 

VOL. V. F 

C 484 


eFouoNoyoupevols,! ὅτι ἀνάξιος ὁ παῖς εἴη τοιού- 
του ἐραστοῦ τυγχάνειν. συνιόντες δ᾽, ἂν μὲν 
τῶν ἴσων ἢ τῶν ὑπερεχόντων τις ἢ τοῦ παιδὸς 
τιμῇ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ὁ ἁρπάζων, ἐπιδιώκοντες 
ἀνθήψαντο μόνον μετρίως, τὸ νόμιμον ἐκπλη- 
βούχτέν τάλλα δ᾽ ἐπιτρέπουσιν ἄγειν χαίροντες" 

ν δ᾽ ἀνάξιος, ἀφαιροῦνται: πέρας δὲ τῆς ἐπι- 
Bidkebe” ἐστιν, ἕως ἂν ἀχθῇ ὁ παῖς εἰς τὸ τοῦ 
ἁρπάσαντος ἀνδρεῖον. ἐράσμιον δὲ νομίζουσιν 
οὐ τὸν κάλλει διαφέροντα, ἀλλὰ τὸν “ἀνδρείᾳ 
καὶ κοσμιότητι"ἢ καὶ δωρησάμενος ἀπάγει τὸν 
παῖδα τῆς χώρας εἰς ὃν βούλεται τόπον" ἐπα- 
κολουθοῦσι δὲ τῇ ἁρπαγῇ οἱ παραγενόμενοι, 
ἑστιαθέντες δὲ καὶ συνθηρεύσαντες δίμηνον (οὐ 
γὰρ ἔξεστι πλείω χρόνον κατέχειν τὸν παῖδα) 
εἰς τὴν πόλιν καταβαίνουσιν. ἀφίεται δ᾽ ὁ παῖς, 
δῶρα λαβὼν στολὴν πολεμικὴν καὶ βοῦν καὶ 
ποτήριον (ταῦτα μὲν τὰ κατὰ τὸν νόμον δῶρα) 4 
καὶ ἄλλα πλείω καὶ πολυτελῆ, ὥστε συνερανίζειν 
τοὺς φίλους διὰ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ἀναλωμάτων. 
τὸν μὲν οὖν βοῦν θύει τῷ Διὶ καὶ ἑστιᾷ τοὺς 
συγκαταβαίνοντας: εἶτ᾽ ἀποφαίνεται περὶ τῆς 
πρὸς τὸν ἐραστὴν ὁμιλίας, εἴτ᾽ ἀσμενίξων τετύ- 
χῆκεν, εἴτε μή, τοῦ νόμου τοῦτ᾽ ἐπιτρέψαντος, 
ἵν, εἴ τις αὐτῷ βία προσενήνεκται κατὰ τὴν 
ἁρπαγήν, ἐνταῦθα παρῇ τιμωρεῖν ἑαυτῷ καὶ 

Re pe Og ρον the editors, for ἐξομολογουμένους. 
2 ἐπιδιώξεως no, ἐπιδείξεως other MSS. 

3 Before καὶ δωρησάμενος Meineke, following Groskurd’s 
conj. , indicates a Jacuna, suspecting that something like 
ὃ δὶ ἐραστὴς ἀσπασάμενος has fallen out of the MSS. 

4 After δῶρα Meineke indicates a lacuna. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 4. 21 

a confession, as it were, that the boy 15. unworthy 
to obtain such a lover; and when they meet, if the 
abductor is the boy’s equal or superior in rank or 
other respects, the friends pursue him and lay hold 
of him, though only in a very gentle way, thus 
satisfying the custom ; and after that they cheerfully 
turn the boy over to him to lead away ; if, however, 
the abductor is unworthy, they take the boy away 
from him. And the pursuit does not end until the 
boy is taken to the “ Andreium” of his abductor. 
They regard as a worthy object of love, not the boy 
who is exceptionally handsome, but the boy who 
is exceptionally manly and decorous. After giving 
the boy presents, the abductor takes him away to 
any place in the country he wishes; and those who 
were present at the abduction follow after them, 
and after feasting and hunting with them for two 
months (for it is not permitted to detain the boy for 
a longer time), they return to the city. The boy is 
released after receiving as presents a military habit, 
an ox, and a drinking-cup (these are the gifts re- 
quired by law), and other things so numerous and 
costly that the friends, on account of the number of 
the expenses, make contributions thereto. Now the 
boy sacrifices the ox to Zeus and feasts those who 
returned with him; and then he makes known the 
facts about his intimacy with his lover, whether, 
perchance, it has pleased him or not, the law 
allowing him this privilege in order that, if any 
force was applied to him at the time of the abduc- 
tion, he might be able at this feast to avenge 
himself and be rid of the lover. It is disgraceful 

5 παρῇ τιμωρεῖν, Corals, for παρατιμωρεῖν ; so the later editors. 



ἀπαλλάττεσθαι. τοῖς δὲ καλοῖς τὴν ἰδέαν καὶ 
προγόνων ἐπιφανῶν ἐραστῶν μὴ τυχεῖν αἰσχρόν,} 
ὡς διὰ τὸν τρόπον τοῦτο παθοῦσιν. ἔχουσι δὲ 
τιμὰς οἱ παρασταθέντες (οὕτω γὰρ καλοῦσι τοὺς 
ἁρπαγέντας)" ἔν τε γὰρ τοῖς χοροῖς * καὶ τοῖς 
δρόμοις ἔχουσι τὰς ἐντιμοτάτας χώρας, τῇ τε 
στολῇ κοσμεῖσθαι διαφερόντως τῶν ἄλλων ἐφίεται 
τῇ δοθείσῃ παρὰ τῶν ἐραστῶν, καὶ οὐ τότε μόνον, 
ἀλλὰ καὶ τέλειοι γενόμενοι διάσημον ἐσθῆτα 
φέρουσιν, ἀφ᾽ ἧς γνωσθήσεται ἕκαστος κλεινὸς 
γενόμενος" τὸν μὲν γὰρ ἐρώμενον. καλοῦσι κλεινόν, 
τὸν δ᾽ ἐραστὴν φιλήτορα. ταῦτα μὲν τὰ περὶ 
τοὺς ἔρωτας νόμιμα. 

22. “Apxovtas δὲ δέκα αἱροῦνται: περὶ δὲ 
τῶν μεγίστων συμβούλοις χρῶνται τοῖς γέρουσι 
καλουμένοις: καθίστανται δ᾽ εἰς τοῦτο τὸ συνέ- 
ὃριον οἱ τῆς τῶν κόσμων ἀρχῆς ἠξιωμένοι καὶ 
τἄλλα δόκιμοι κρινόμενοι. ἀξίαν δ᾽ ἀναγραφῆς 
τὴν τῶν Κρητῶν πολιτείαν ὑπέλαβον διά τε τὴν 
ἰδιότητα καὶ διὰϑϑ τὴν δόξαν: οὐ πολλὰ δὲ δια- 
μένει τούτων τῶν νομίμων, ἀλλὰ τοῖς Ῥωμαίων 
διατάγμασι τὰ πλεῖστα διοικεῖται, καθάπερ καὶ 

ἐν ταῖς ἄλλαις ἐπαρχίαις συμβαίνει. 

1 αἰσχρόν, Casaubon inserts ; so the later editors. 
3 χρόνοις BCDAil, θρόνοις hnox and by corr. in B. 
3 διά is omitted by Dhik, and the later editors. 

GEOGRAPHY, το. 4. 21-22 

for those who are handsome in appearance or 
descendants of illustrious ancestors to fail to obtain 
lovers, the presumption being that their character is 
responsible for such a fate. But the parastathentes? 
(for thus they call those who have been abducted) 
receive honours; for in both the dances and the 
races they have the positions of highest honour, 
and are allowed to dress in better clothes than the 
rest, that is, in the habit given them by their 
lovers; and not then only, but even after they have 
grown to manhood, they wear a distinctive dress, 
which is intended to make known the fact that each 
wearer has become “kleinos,’? for they call the 
loved one “ ΚΙ εἴποβ ᾿᾿ and the lover “ philetor.” * So 
much for their customs in regard to love affairs. 

22. The Cretans choose ten Archons, Concerning 
the matters of greatest importance they use as 
counsellors the “Gerontes,’ as they are called. 
Those who have been thought worthy to hold the 
office of the ““ Cosmi’”’ and are otherwise adjudged 
men of approved worth are appointed members of 
this Council. I have assumed that the constitution 
of the Cretans is worthy of description both on 
account of its peculiar character and on account of 
its fame. Not many, however, of these institutions 
endure, but the administration of affairs is carried on 
mostly by means of the decrees of the Romans, as 
is also the case in the other provinces. 

1 The literal meaning of the word seems to be ‘‘ those who 
were chosen as stand-bys’’ by lovers. 

2 Famous. 

3 7.e. “lover” or ‘‘ sweetheart.” 




i Περὶ δὲ τὴν Κρήτην εἰσὶ νῆσοι, Θήρα μέν, 
ἡ τῶν Κυρηναίων μητρόπολις, ἄποικος Λακε- 
δαιμονίων, καὶ πλησίον ταύτης ᾿Ανάφη, ἐν ἧ τὸ 
τοῦ Αὐγλήτου ᾿Απόλλωνος ἱερόν. λέγει δὲ καὶ 
Καλλίμαχος τοτὲ μὲν οὕτως" 

Αἰγλήτην ᾿Ανάφην τε, Λακωνίδι γείτονα Onpa- 
τοτὲ δὲ τῆς Θήρας μνησθείς: 
μήτηρ εὐίππου πατρίδος ἡμετέρης, 

ἔστι δὲ μακρὰ ἡ Θήρα, διακοσίων οὖσα τὴν 
περίμετρον σταδίων, κειμένη δὲ κατὰ Δίαν νῆσον 
τὴν πρὸς Ἡρακλείῳ τῷ Κνωσσίῳ, διέχει δὲ τῆς 
Κρήτης εἰς ἑπτακοσίους" πλησίον δ᾽ αὐτῆς ἥ τε 
᾿Ανάφη καὶ Θηρασία. ταύτης δ᾽ εἰς ἑκατὸν ᾿ 
ἀπέχει νησίδιον Ἴος, ἐν ᾧ κεκηδεῦσθαί τινές 
φασι τὸν ποιητὴν “Ὅμηρον: ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς Ἴου 
πρὸς ἐσπέραν ἰόντι Σίκινος " καὶ Λάγουσα καὶ 
Φολέγανδρος, ἣ ἣν “A paros σιδηρείην ὀνομάζει διὰ 
τὴν τραχύτητα: ἐγγὺς δὲ τούτων Κίμωλος, ὅθεν 
ἡ γῆ ἧ Κιμωλία: ἔνθεν ἡ Σίφνος ἐν ὄψει ἐστίν, 
ἐφ’ ἡἣ λέγουσι Σίφνιον ἀστράγαλον διὰ τὴν 
εὐτέλειαν. ἔτε δ᾽ ἐγγυτέρω καὶ τῆς Κιμώλον 
καὶ τῆς Κρήτης ἡ Μῆλος, ἀξιολογωτέρα τούτων, 
διέχουσα τοῦ “Ἑρμιονικοῦ ἀκρωτηρίου, τοῦ Seok 
λαίου, σταδίους ἑπτακοσίους." τοσούτους δὲ 

1 ταύτης δ᾽ εἰς ἑκατόν, Tzschucke, from conj. of Casaubon, 
for τούτων δ᾽ ἴσον ἑκάστῃ Bkno, ἑκαστόν CDghilsry; so the 
later editors. 

2 Sixwos, Tzschucke, for Σίκηνος ; so the later editors, 


GEOGRAPHY,» το. 5. 1 


1. Tue islands near Crete are Thera, the metro- 
polis of the Cyrenaeans, a colony of the Lacedaemo- 
nians, and, near Thera, Anaphé, where is the temple 
of the Aegletan Apollo. Callimachus speaks in one 
place as follows, ‘‘Aegletan Anaphé, neighbour to 
Laconian Thera,’ ! and in another, mentioning only 
Thera, “mother of my fatherland, famed for its 
horses,” 2. ‘Thera is a long island, being two hundred 
stadia in perimeter; it lies opposite Dia,® an island 
near the Cnossian Heracleium,4 but it is seven 
hundred stadia distant from Crete, Near it are 
both Anaphé and Therasia. One hundred stadia 
distant from the latter is the little island Ios, where, 
according to some writers, the poet Homer was 
buried. From Ios towards the west one comes to 
Sicines and Lagusa and Pholegandros, which last 
Aratus calls “Iron”’ Island, because of its rugged- 
ness. Near these is Cimolos, whence comes the 
Cimolian earth.6 From Cimolos Siphnos is visible, 
in reference to which island, because of its worth- 
lessness, people say ‘“Siphnian knuckle-bone.’’ & 
And still nearer both to Cimolos and to Crete is 
Melos, which is more notable than these and _ is 
seven hundred stadia from the Hermionic promon- 
tory, the Scyllaeum, and almost the same distance 

1 Frag. 113 (Schneider). 

2 Frag. 112 (Schneider). 

3. i.e. almost due north of Dia. 

4 Heracleium was the seaport of Cnossus (10. 4. 7). 

5 A hydrous silicate of aluminium, now called “ cimolite.” 

ὁ i.e. the phrase is a proverb applied to worthless people 
or things. 


C 485 


σχεδόν τι Kal τοῦ Δικτυνναίου. ᾿Αθηναῖοι δέ 
ποτε πέμψαντες στρατείαν, ἡβηδὸν κατέσφαξαν 
τοὺς πλείους. αὗται μὲν οὖν ἐν τῷ “Κρητικῷ 
πελάγει, ἐν δὲ τῷ Alyaio μᾶλλον αὐτή τε ἡ 
Δῆλος καὶ αἱ περὶ αὐτὴν Κυκλάδες καὶ αἱ 
ταύταις T poo Keipevat » Σποράδες, ὧν εἰσὶ Kal 
αἱ λεχθεῖσαι περὶ τὴν Κρήτην. 

2. Ἧ pev οὖν Δῆλος ἐν πεδίῳ κειμένην ἔχει 
τὴν πόλιν καὶ τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ ᾿Απόλλωνος καὶ τὸ 
Λητῷον, ὑπέρκειται δὲ τῆς πόλεως ὄρος ψιλὸν " 
ὁ Κύνθος καὶ τραχύ, ποταμὸς δὲ διαρρεῖ τὴν 
νῆσον Ἰνωπὸς οὐ μέγας" καὶ γὰρ ἡ νῆσος μικρά. 
τετίμηται δὲ ἐκ παλαιοῦ διὰ τοὺς θεοὺς ἀπὸ 
τῶν ἡρωικῶν χρόνων ἀρξαμένη: μυθεύεται yap 
ἐνταῦθα ἡ Λητὼ τὰς ὠδῖνας ἀποθέσθαι τοῦ τε 
᾿Απόλλωνος καὶ τῆς ᾿Αρτέμιδος" 

ἣν γὰρ τοπάροιθε 3 φορητά, 
φησὶν ὁ Πίνδαρος, 

κυμάώτεσσι παντοδαπῶν ᾿ ἀνέμων 

ῥιπαῖσιν' ἀλλ᾽ a Κοιογενὴς ὅ ὁπότ᾽ ὠδίνεσσι 
θύοισ᾽ ἴ 

ἀγχιτόκοις ἐπέβα ὃ νιν, δὴ τότε τέσσαρες ὀρθαί 

πρέμνων ὃ ἀπώρουσαν χθονίων, 


1 προκείμεναι lino. 2 ψιλόν CD, ὑψηλόν other MSS. 

8 τρπάροιθε, Casaubon and later editors, instead of πάροιθεν 
ov (all MSS.). Eustathius omits the οὐ (note on Od. 10, 3). 

4 Before ἀνέμων Tzschucke and later editors insert 7’. 

5 ἀλλ᾽ ἃ Κοιογενής, Kramer and Meineke, from conj. of 
Porson, for ἀλλὰ Καιογενης D, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὁ γένης Cs, GAN 
ἀκαιογένης Bk, ἀλλὰ καινογενής hi, ἀλλὰ καὶ 6 γένος ἰ, ἀλλὰ 
Κοίον γένος Schneider, Hermann, Tzschucke, Corais. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 5. 1-2 

from the Dictynnaeum. The Athenians once sent 
an expedition to Melos and slaughtered most of 
the inhabitants from youth upwards,t Now these 
islands are indeed in the Cretan Sea, but Delos 
itself and the Cyclades in its neighbourhood and 
the Sporades which lie close to these, to which 
belong the aforesaid islands in the neighbourhood 
of Crete, are rather in the Aegaean Sea. 

2. Now the city which belongs to Delos, as also 
the temple of Apollo, and the Letéum,? are situated 
in a plain; and above the city lies Cynthus, a bare 
and rugged mountain; and a river named Inopus 
flows through the island—not a large river, for the 
island itself is small. From olden times, beginning 
with the times of the heroes, Delos has been re- 
vered because of its gods, for the myth is told that 
there Leto was delivered of her travail by the birth 
of Apollo and Artemis: “for aforetime,’ says 
Pindar,® “it 4 was tossed by the billows, by the blasts 
of all manner of winds,> but when the daughter of 
Coeiis ® in the frenzied pangs of childbirth set foot 
upon it, then did four pillars, resting on adamant, 
rise perpendicular from the roots of the earth, and 

1 416 B.c. (see, Thucydides 5, 115-116). 

2 Temple of Leto. 3’ Frag. 58 (Bergk). 4 Delos. 

5 There was a tradition that Delos was a floating isle until 
Leto set foot on it. 

ὁ Leto. 

wdiveot BDhios, ὠδύναισι k, 655 ator editors before 
before Kramer. 

7 θύοισ᾽, Bergk, for θύοις CDA, θείαις Bknos and editors 
before Kramer. 

8 ἐπέβα νιν, Wilamowitz, for ἐπιβαίνειν. 

® πρέμνων, Hermann, for πρύμνων CDhilos, πρεμνῶν Be. 



C 486 


a , ’ 4 / / > 
ἂν δ᾽ ἐπικράνοις σχέθον πέτραν ἀδαμαντο- 

, Μ a » », 2,9 , ΄ 

κίονες" ἔνθα τεκοῖσ᾽ εὐδαίμον᾽ ἐπόψατο γένναν. 
» >] 5» , > % e ‘ fol 
ἔνδοξον δ᾽ ἐποίησαν αὐτὴν αἱ περιοικίδες νῆσοι, 
καλούμεναι Κυκλάδες, κατὰ τιμὴν πέμπουσαι 
δημοσίᾳ θεωρούς τε καὶ θυσίας καὶ χοροὺς παρ- 
θένων πανηγύρεις τε ἐν αὐτῇ συνάγουσαι 

3. Kar’ ἀρχὰς μὲν οὖν δώδεκα λέγονται" 
προσεγένοντο δὲ καὶ πλείους. ᾿Αρτεμίδωρος 
γοῦν] πεντεκαίδεκα " διαριθμεῖται περὶ τῆς 
Ἑλένης εἰπών, ὅτι ἀπὸ Θορίκου μέχρι Σουνίου 
παράκειται, μακρά, σταδίων ὅσον ἑξήκοντα τὸ 
μῆκος: ἀπὸ ταύτης γάρ, φησίν, αἱ καλούμεναι 
Κυκλάδες εἰσίν: ὀνομάζει δὲ Κέω, τὴν ἐγγυτάτω 
τῇ EXévy, καὶ μετὰ ταύτην Κύθνον καὶ Σέριφον 
καὶ Μῆλον καὶ Σίφνον καὶ Κίμωλον καὶ [Πρε- 
πέσινθον καὶ ᾿Ὡλίαρον 3 καὶ πρὸς ταύταις Ilapov, 

Νάξον, Σῦρον, Μύκονον, Τῆνον, Ανδρον, Dvapov. 
τὰς μὲν οὖν ἄλλας τῶν δώδεκα νομίζω, THY δὲ 
Πρεπέσινθον καὶ ᾿᾽λίαρον 3 καὶ Εύαρον ἧττον 
ὧν τῇ Γυάρῳ προσορμισθεὶς ἔγνων κώμιον ὑπὸ 
ἁλιέων συνοικούμενον" ἀπαίροντες δ᾽ ἐδεξάμεθα 
πρεσβευτὴν ἐνθένδε ὡς Καίσαρα προκεχειρισμέ- 

an ¢€ / ’ὔ ᾿ Qo) ’ γ΄ A ΄“ 
νον, τῶν ἁλιέων τινά (ἣν δ᾽ ἐν Κορίνθῳ Καῖσαρ, 

΄ a" \ , \ » 18 

βαδίζων ἐπὶ τὸν θρίαμβον τὸν ᾿Ακτιακόν)" 
συμπλέων δὴ ἔλεγε πρὸς τοὺς πυθομένους, ὅτι 
πρεσβεύοι περὶ κουφισμοῦ τοῦ φόρου" τελοῖεν 
γὰρ δραχμὰς ἑκατὸν πεντήκοντα, καὶ τὰς ἑκατὸν 

1 γοῦν, Meineke, for δ᾽ οὖν. 

2 πεντεκαίδεκα (ιε4), Corais inserts; so Meineke, 

5 »Αλίαρον Dhil. 4 ᾿Αλίαρον BCDhiz. 

GEOGRAPHY, το. 5. 2-3 
on their capitals sustain the rock. And there she 
gave birth to, and beheld, her blessed offspring.” 
The neighbouring islands, called the Cyclades, made 
it famous, since in its honour they would send at 
public expense sacred envoys, sacrifices, and choruses 
composed of virgins, and would celebrate great 
general festivals there.} 

3. Now at first the Cyclades are said to have been 
only twelve in number, but later several others 
were added. At any rate, Artemidorus enumerates 
fifteen, after saying of Helena that it stretches 
parallel to the coast from Thoricus to Sunium and 
is a long island, about sixty stadia in length; for it 
is from "Heleva, he says, that the Cy clades. as they 
are called, begin ; ; and he names Ceos, the island 
nearest to Helena, and, after this island, Cythnos 
and Seriphos and Melos and Siphnos and Cimolos 
and Prepesinthos and Oliaros, and, in addition to 
these, Paros, Naxos, Syros, Myconos, Tenos, Andros, 
and Gyaros. Now I eeeiicn all of these among 
the twelve except Prepesinthos, Oliaros, and Gy- 
aros. When our ship anchored at one of these, 
Gyaros, 1 saw a small village that was settled by 
fishermen; and when we sailed away we took on 
board one of the fishermen, who had been chosen to 
go from there to Caesar as ambassador (Caesar was 
at Corinth, on his way? to celebrate the Triumph 
after the victory at Actium %). While on the voyage 
he told enquirers that he had been sent as ambas- 
sador to request a reduction in their tribute; for, 
he said, they were paying one hundred and fifty 
drachmas when they could only with difficulty pay 

1 {.c. in honour of Apollo and. Leto (see Thucydides 3, 104). 
* i.e. back to Rome. Ls SilaeG} 



“ A ’, 
χαλεπῶς ἂν τελοῦντες. δηλοῖ δὲ τὰς ἀπορίας 
αὐτῶν καὶ “Apatos ἐν τοῖς κατὰ λεπτόν' 

ὦ Λητοῖ, σὺ μὲν ἤ με σιδηρείη Φολεγάνδρῳ, 
δειλῇ 1 ἢ Γυάρῳ παρελεύσεαι αὐτίχ᾽ ὁμοίην. 

4, Τὴν μὲν οὖν Δῆλον ἔνδοξον γενομένην οὕτως 
ἔτει μᾶλλον ηὔξησε κατασκαφεῖσα ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίων 
Κόρινθος. ἐκεῖσε γὰρ μετεχώρησαν οἱ ἔμποροι, 
καὶ τῆς ἀτελείας τοῦ ἱεροῦ προκαλουμένης αὐτοὺς 
καὶ τῆς εὐκαιρίας τοῦ λιμένος" ἐν καλῷ γὰρ κεῖ- 
ται τοῖς ἐκ τῆς Ἰταλίας καὶ τῆς “Ελλάδος εἰς τὴν 
᾿Ασίαν πλέουσιν: ἥ τε πανήγυρις ἐμπορικόν τι 
πρᾶγμά ἐστι, καὶ συνήθεις ἦσαν αὐτῇ καὶ Ῥω- 
μαῖοι τῶν ἄλλων μάλιστα, καὶ ὅτε συνειστήκει 
ἡ Κόρινθος: ᾿Αθηναῖοί τε λαβόντες τὴν νῆσον καὶ 
τῶν ἱερῶν ἅμα καὶ τῶν ἐμπόρων ἐπεμελοῦντο 
ἱκανῶς" ἐπελθόντες δ᾽ οἱ τοῦ Μιθριδάτου στρα- 
τηγοὶ καὶ ὁ ἀποστήσας τύραννος αὐτὴν διελυ- 
μήναντο. πάντα, καὶ παρέλαβον ἐ ἐρήμην οἱ Ρωμαῖοι 
πάλιν τὴν νῆσον, ἀναχωρήσαντος εἰς τὴν οἰκείαν 
τοῦ βασιλέως, καὶ διετέλεσε “μέχρι νῦν ἐνδεῶς 
πράττουσα. ἔχουσι δ᾽ αὐτὴν ᾿Αθηναῖοι. 

5. “Ῥήνεια 5 δ᾽ ἔρημον νησίδιόν ἐ ἐστιν ἐν τέτρασι 
τῆς Δήλου σταδίοις, ὅ ὅπου τὰ μνήματα τοῖς Δη- 
λίοις ἐστίν. οὐ “γὰρ ἔξεστιν ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ Δήλῳ 
θάπτειν οὐδὲ καίειν νεκρόν, οὐκ ἔξεστι δὲ οὐδὲ 
κύνα ἐν Δήλῳ τρέφειν. ὠνομάζετο δὲ καὶ ᾽ρ- 
τυγία πρότερον. 

1 δειλῇ, Miiller-Diibner, for δειλήν 8 (and Meineke), δειλή 
other MSS. 
2 Ῥήνεια Bkno, Ῥήναια other MSS. 

1 χε. Trifles. * 146 B.c. 

GEOGRAPHY, το. 5. 3-5 

one hundred. Aratus also points out the poverty 
of the island in his Catalepton:1 “O Leto, shortly 
thou wilt pass by me, who am like either iron 
Pholegandros or worthless Gyaros.” 

4. Now although Delos had become so famous, 
yet the rasing of Corinth to the ground by the 
Romans? increased its fame still more; for the 
importers changed their business to Delos because 
they were attracted both by the immunity which 
the temple enjoyed and by the convenient situation 
of the harbour; for it is happily situated for those 
who are sailing from Italy and Greece to Asia. The 
general festival is a kind of commercial affair, and it 
was frequented by Romans more than by any other 
people, even when Corinth was still in existence.3 
And when the Athenians took the island they at the 
same time took good care of the importers as well as 
of the religious rites. But when the generals of 
Mithridates, and the tyrant 4 who caused it to revolt, 
visited Delos, they completely ruined it, and when 
the Romans again got the island, after the king 
withdrew to his homeland, it was desolate; and it 
has remained in an impoverished condition until the 
present time. It is now held by the Athenians. 

5. Rheneia is a desert isle within four stadia from 
Delos, and there the Delians bury their dead ; ὃ for 
it is unlawful to bury, or even burn, a corpse in 
Delos itself, and it is unlawful even to keep a dog 
there. In earlier times it was called Ortygia. 

3 As many as ten thousand slaves were sold there in one 
day (14. 5. 2). 

4 Aristion, through the aid of Mithridates, made himself 
tyrant of Athens in 88 B.c. (cf. 9. 1. 20). 

5 This began in 426 B.c., when ‘‘all the sepulchres of the 
dead in Delos were removed ” to Rheneia (Thucydides 3. 104). 


C 487 


6. Kéws δὲ τετρώπολις μὲν ὑπῆρξε, λείπονται 
\ ΄ “ ’ \ \ e , ᾽ A 
δὲ δύο, 7 τε ᾿Ιουλὶς καὶ ἡ Καρθαία, εἰς as cuve- 
»Ἅ e / id \ / ’ \ 
πολίσθησαν ai λοιπαί, ἡ μὲν Ποιήεσσα εἰς τὴν 
Καρθαίαν, ἡ δὲ Κορησσία εἰς τὴν ᾿Ιουλίδα. ἐκ 
δὲ “ "ἢ "ὃ “ Ss ἊΣ FF. e \ 
ε τῆς lovAloos ὃ TE YLpwWVYLONS ἣν ὁ μελοποιὸς 
καὶ Βακχυλίδης, ἀδελφιδοῦς ἐκείνου, καὶ μετὰ 
ταῦτα ᾿Ερασίστρατος ὁ ἰατρὸς καὶ τῶν ἐκ τοῦ 
περιπάτου φιλοσόφων ᾿Αρίστων, ὁ τοῦ Βορυσ- 
θενίτου Βίωνος ζηλωτής. παρὰ τούτοις δὲ δοκεῖ 
τεθῆναί ποτε νόμος, οὗ μέμνηται καὶ Μένανδρος" 

καλὸν τὸ Ketwy νόμιμόν ἐστι, Pavia’ 
ὁ μὴ δυνάμενος ζῇν καλῶς οὐ ζῆ κακῶς. 

προσέταττε γάρ, ὡς ἔοικεν, ὁ νόμος τοὺς ὑπὲρ 
ἑξήκοντα ἔτη γεγονότας κωνειάζεσθαι,; 5 τοῦ διαρ- 
κεῖν τοῖς ἄλλοις τὴν τροφήν" καὶ πολιορκουμένους 
δέ ποτε ὑπ᾽ ᾿Αθηναίων ψηφίσασθαί φασι τοὺς 
πρεσβυτάτους ἐξ αὐτῶν ἀποθανεῖν, ὁρισθέντος 
πλήθους ἐτῶν, τοὺς δὲ παύσασθαι πολιορκοῦντας. 
κεῖται δ᾽ ἐν ὄρει τῆς θαλάττης διέχουσα ἡ πόλις 
ὅσον πέντε καὶ εἴκοσι σταδίους, ἐπίνειον δ᾽ ἐστὶν 
αὐτῆς τὸ χωρίον, ἐν ᾧ ἵδρυτο ἡ ΚΚορησσία, κατοι- 
κίαν οὐδὲ LOU ἔχουσα. ἔστι δὲ καὶ πρὸς τῇ 
Kopnocia Σμινθέου ᾿Απόλλωνος ἱερὸν καὶ πρὸς 
Ποιηέσσῃ, μεταξὺ δὲ τοῦ ἱεροῦ καὶ τῶν τῆς 
ΠΟοιηέσσης ἐρειπίων τὸ τῆς Νεδουσίας ᾿Αθηνᾶς 
ἱερόν, ἱδρυσαμένου Νέστορος κατὰ τὴν ἐκ 'Γροίας 
ἐπάνοδον. ἔστι δὲ καὶ "λιξος ποταμὸς περὶ τὴν 

i Mera δὲ ταύτην Νάξος καὶ “Ανδρος ἀξιό- 
λογοι καὶ Πάρος" ἐντεῦθεν ἣν ᾿Αρχίλοχος ὁ ποιη- 
τής. ὑπὸ δὲ Παρίων ἐκτίσθη Θάσος καὶ [Πάριον 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 5. 6-7 

6. Ceos was at first a Tetrapolis, but only two 
cities are left, Iulis and Carthaea, into which the 
remaining two were incorporated, Poeéessa into 
Carthaea and Coressia into lulis. Both Simonides 
the melic poet and his nephew Bacchylides were 
natives of [ulis, and also after their time Erasistratus 
the physician, and Ariston the peripatetic philo- 
sopher and emulator of Bion the Borysthenite. It is 
reputed that there was once a law among these 
people (it is mentioned by Menander, “ Phanias, the 
law of the Ceians is good, that he who is unable to 
live well should not live wretchedly ᾽), which appears 
to have ordered those who were over sixty years of 
age to drink hemlock, in order that the food might 
be sufficient for the rest. And it is said that once, 
when they were being besieged by the Athenians, 
they voted, setting a definite age, that the oldest 
among them should be put to death, but the 
Athenians raised the siege. The city lies on a 
mountain, about twenty-five stadia distant from the 
sea; and its seaport is the place on which Coressia 
was situated, which has not as great a population 
as even a village. Near Coressia, and also near 
Poeéessa, is a temple of Sminthian Apollo; and 
between the temple and the ruins of Poeéessa is the 
temple of Nedusian Athena, founded by Nestor when 
he was on his return from Troy. There is also a 
River Elixus in the neighbourhood of Coressia. 

7. After Ceos one comes to Naxos and Andros, 
notable islands, and to Paros. Archilochus the poet 
was a native of Paros. Thasos was founded by the 
Parians, as also Parium, a city on the Propontis. 

1 κωνεάζεσθαι CDghlxy, κονεάζεσθαι Bk, 
5. καί, before τοῦ, omitted by noz. 



ἐν τῇ Προποντίδι πόλις. ἐν ταύτῃ μὲν οὖν ὁ 
βωμὸς λέγεται θέας ἄξιος, σταδιαίας ἔχων τὰς 
πλευράς" ἐν δὲ τῇ Πάρῳ ἡ Παρία λίθος λεγομένη, 
ἀρίστη πρὸς τὴν μαρμαρογλυφίαν. 

8. Σῦρος δ᾽ ἐστί [(μηκύνουσι τὴν πρώτην συλλα- 
βήν), ἐξ ἧς Φερεκύδης ὁ Βάβυος * ἣν: νεώτερος 
δ᾽ ἐστὶν ὁ ᾿Αθηναῖος. ἐκείνου. ταύτης δοκεῖ μνη- 
μονεύειν ὁ ποιητής, Συρίην καλῶν" 

νῆσός τις Συρίη κικλήσκεται 
᾿Ορτυγίης καθύπερθε. 

9. Μύκονος δ᾽ ἐστίν, ὑφ᾽ 7 μυθεύουσι κεῖσθαι 

τῶν γιγάντων τοὺς ὑστάτους 5 ὑφ᾽ Ἡρακλέους 

, » 7 ee e / “f rd \ U 
καταλυθέντας, ad’ ov ἡ παροιμία Lav?’ ὑπὸ μίαν 
Μύκονον ἐπὶ τῶν ὑπὸ μίαν ἐπιγραφὴν ἀγόντων 
καὶ 3 τὰ διηρτημένα τῇ φύσει. καὶ τοὺς ᾿ φαλακροὺς 
δέ τινες Μυκονίους καλοῦσιν ἀπὸ τοῦ τὸ πάθος 
τοῦτο ἐπιχωριάξειν 4 τῇ νήσῳ. 

10. Σέριφος δ᾽ ἐστίν, ἐν ἧ τὰ περὶ τὸν Δίκτυν 
μεμύθευται, τὸν ἀνελκύσαντα τὴν λάρνακα τοῖς 
δικτύοις τὴν περιέχουσαν τὸν Περσέα καὶ τὴν 
μητέρα Δανάην, καταπεποντωμένους ὑπ᾽ ᾿Ακρισίου 
τοῦ πατρὸς τῆς Δανάης" τραφῆναί τε γὰρ ἐνταῦθα 
τὸν iepess φασί, καὶ κομίσαντα τὴν τῆς Γοργό- 
νος ° κεφαλήν, δείξαντα τοῖς Σεριφίοις ἀπολιθῶσαι 
πάντας" τοῦτο δὲ πρᾶξαι τιμωροῦντα τῇ μητρί, 
ὅτε αὐτὴν Πολυδέκτης ὁ βασιλεὺς ἄκουσαν 
ἄγεσθαι προείλετο πρὸς γάμον, συμπραττόντων 

1 Except D the MSS. have Βάβιος. 

2 ὑγιεινοτάτους Stephanus (s.v. Mvxovos) and Eustathius 
(note on Dionysius 525). 

3 καί omitted by Bknoz. 

4 Before τῇ BCD have ἐν. 5 Τοργόνης BCD. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 5. 7-10 

Now the altar in this city is said to be a spectacle 
worth seeing, its sides being a stadium in length; 
and so is the Parian stone, as it is called, in Paros, 
the best for sculpture in marble. 

8. And there is Syros (the first syllable is pro- 
nounced long), where Pherecydes! the son of Babys 
was born, The Athenian Pherecydes is later than 
he.2 The poet seems to mention this island, though 
he calls it Syria: “There is an island called Syria, 
above Ortygia.” 3 

9. And there is Myconos, beneath which, accord- 
ing to the myth, lie the last of the giants that were 
destroyed by Heracles. Whence the proverb, “ all 
beneath Myconos alone,’ applied to those who bring 
under one title even those things which are by nature 
separate. And further, some call bald men Myco- 
nians, from the fact that baldness is prevalent in the 

10. And there is Seriphos, the scene of the 
mythical story of Dictys, who with his net drew to 
land the chest in which were enclosed Perseus and 
his mother Danaé, who had been sunk in the sea by 
Acrisius the father of Danaé ; for Perseus was reared 
there, it is said, and when he brought the Gorgon’s 
head there, he showed it to the Seriphians and 
turned them all into stone. This he did to avenge 
his mother, because Polydectes the king, with their 
co-operation, intended to marry his mother against 

1 Fl. about 560 B.c. 

2 Pherecydes of Leros (fl. in the first half of the fifth 
century B.0.), often called ‘‘the Athenian,” wrote, among 
other things, a work in ten books on the mythology and 
antiquities of Attica. 

3 Od. 15. 403. 



ἐκείνων. οὕτω δ᾽ ἐστὶ πετρώδης ἡ νῆσος, ὥστε 
ὑπὸ τῆς Τοργόνος τοῦτο παθεῖν αὐτήν φασιν οἱ 

11. Τῆνος δὲ πόλιν μὲν οὐ μεγάλην ἔχει, τὸ δ᾽ 
ἱερὸν τοῦ Ποσειδῶνος μέγα ἐν ἄλσει τῆς πόλεως 
ἔξω, θέας ἄξιον" ἐν ᾧ καὶ ἑστιατόρια πεποίηται 
μεγάλα, σημεῖον τοῦ ᾿συνέρχεσθαι πλῆθος ἱ ἱκανὸν 
τῶν συνθυόντων αὐτοῖς ἀστυγειτόνων τὰ Loce- 

12. "ἔστι δὲ καὶ ᾿Αμοργὸς τῶν Σποράδων, ὅθεν 
ἣν Σιμωνίδης ὁ τῶν ἰάμβων ποιητής, καὶ Λέβινθος 
καὶ Aépos't 
καὶ τόδε Φωκυλίδου: Λέριοι κακοί, οὐχ ὁ μέν, 

ὃς δ᾽ οὔ, 

πάντες, πλὴν Προκλέους" καὶ Ἰ]ροκλέης Λέριος. 
' 488 διεβέβληντο γὰρ ὡς κακοήθεις οἱ ἐνθένδε ἄνθρωποι. 

/ ᾽} > \ \ ς / \ 

13. Πλησίον δ᾽ ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ ΤΠ άτμος καὶ Κο- 
wa, πρὸς δύσιν κείμεναι τῇ ᾿Ικαρίᾳ, αὕτη δὲ 
Σάμῳ. ἡ μὲν οὖν ἸΙκαρία ἔρημός ἐστι, νομὰς 
ἔχει, καὶ ᾽χρῶνται͵ αὐταῖς Σάμιοι" τοιαύτη δ᾽ οὖσα 
ἔνδοξος ὅ ὅμως ἐστί, καὶ ἀπ᾽ αὐτῆς Ἰκάριον καλεῖ- 
ται τὸ προκείμενον πέλαγος, ἐν ᾧ καὶ αὐτὴ καὶ 
Σάμος καὶ Kas ἐστί, καὶ αἱ ἄρτι λεχθεῖσαι Ko- 
ρασσίαι καὶ Ἰ]άτμος καὶ Aépos. ἔνδοξον δὲ καὶ τὸ 
ἐν αὐτῇ ὄρος ὁ Κερκετεύς, μᾶλλον τῆς ᾿Αμπέλου᾽" * 
αὕτη δ᾽ ὑπέρκειται τῆς Σαμίων πόλεως. συνάπ- 
ter δὲ τῷ ᾿Ικαρίῳ τὸ Καρπάθιον πέλαγος πρὸς 
νότον, τούτῳ δὲ τὸ Αἰγύπτιον, πρὸς δὲ δύσιν τὸ τε 
Κρητικὸν καὶ τὸ Λιβυκόν. 

1 Λέρος, Groskurd, for Aepia; so Meineke. 
° Meineke ejects the words ἔνδοξον. . . ᾿Αμπέλου. 

GEOGRAPHY, το. 5. 10-13 

her will. The island is so rocky that the comedians 
say that it was made thus by the Gorgon. 

11. Tenos has no large city, but it has the temple 
of Poseidon, a great temple in a sacred precinct 
outside the city, a spectacle worth seeing. In it 
have been built great banquet-halls—an indication 
of the multitude of neighbours who congregate 
there and take part with the inhabitants of Tenos 
in celebrating the Poseidonian festival. 

12, And there is Amorgos, one of the Sporades, 
the home of Simonides the iambic poet; and also 
Lebinthos, and Leros : “ And thus saith Phocylides, 
‘the Lerians are bad, not one, but every one, all 
except Procles; and Procles is a. Lerian.’’’! . For 
the natives of the island were reproached with being 

13. Near by are both Patmos and the Corassiae ; 
these are situated to the west of Icaria, and Icaria to 
the west of Samos, Now Icaria is deserted, though 
it has pastures, which are used by the Samians. 
But although it is such an isle as it is, still it is 
famous, and after it is named the sea that lies in 
front of it, in which are itself and Samos and Cos 
and the islands just mentioned—the Corassiae and 
Patmos and Leros. Tamous, also, is the mountain 
in it, Cerceteus, more famous than the Ampelus,? 
which is situated above the city of Samians.? The 
Icarian Sea connects with the Carpathian Sea on 
the south, and the Carpathian with the Aegyptian, 
and on the west with the Cretan and the Libyan. 

1 Frag. 1 (Bergk). 2 See 14. 1. 15. 

3 But both of these mountains are in Samos (Pliny, in 5. 37, 
spells the former ‘‘Cercetius”’). Hence the sentence seems 
to be a gloss that has crept in from the margin of the text. 



\ a > a 

14. Kai ἐν τῷ Καρπαθίῳ δ᾽ εἰσὶ πολλαὶ τῶν 
be (ὃ \ fol n 4 εν Ῥ 46 \ 
Σποράδων μεταξὺ τῆς Κῶ μάλιστα καὶ Ῥόδου καὶ 
Κρήτης" ὧν εἰσὶν ᾿Αστυπάλαιά τε καὶ Τῆλος καὶ 
rT / \ a A 2 s > aA 
Χαλκία, καὶ ἃς “Ὅμηρος ὀνομάζει ἐν τῷ Κατα- 

of δ᾽ apa Νίσυρόν τ᾽ εἶχον Κράπαθόν te Κάσον 

καὶ Κῶν, Εὐρυπύλοιο πόλιν, νήσους τε Ka- 

ἔξω γὰρ τῆς Κῶ καὶ τῆς “Ρόδου, περὶ ὧν ἐροῦμεν 
ὕστερον, τάς τε ἄλλας ἐν ταῖς Σποράσι τίθεμεν, 
καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐνταῦθα μεμνήμεθα αὐτῶν, καίπερ τῆς 
᾿Ασίας, οὐ τῆς Εὐρώπης, ἐγγὺς οὐσῶν, ἐπειδὴ τῇ 
Κρήτῃ καὶ ταῖς Κυκλάσι καὶ τὰς Σποράδας 
συμπεριλαβεῖν ἠπείγετό" πως ὁ λόγος" ἐν δὲ τῇ 
τῆς ᾿Ασίας περιοδείᾳ τὰς προσεχεῖς αὐτῇ τῶν 
ἀξιολόγων νήσων προσπεριοδεύσομεν, Κύπρον 
καὶ Ρόδον καὶ Κῶν καὶ τὰς ἐν τῇ ἐφεξῆς παραλίᾳ 
κειμένας, Σάμον, Χίον, Λέσβον, Τένεδον" νῦν δὲ 
τὰς Σποράδας, ὧν ἄξιον μνησθῆναι λοιπόν, ἔπιμεν. 

15. Ἢ μὲν οὖν ᾿Αστυπάλαια ἱκανῶς ἐστὶ πε- 
λαγία, πόλιν ἔχουσα. ἡ δὲ Tiros. ἐκτέταται παρὰ 
τὴν Κνιδίαν, μακρά, ὑ ὑψηλή, στενή, τὴν περίμετρον 
ὅσον ἑκατὸν καὶ τετταράκοντα σταδίων, ἔχουσα 
ὕφορμον. ἡ δὲ Χαλκία 3 τῆς Τήλου διέχει στα- 
δίους ὀγδοήκοντα, Καρπάθου δὲ τετρακοσίους, 
᾿Αστυπαλαίας δὲ περὶ διπλασίους, ἔχει δὲ καὶ 
κατοικίαν ὁμώνυμον καὶ ἱερὸν ᾿Απόλλωνος καὶ 

1 ἠπείγετο, Kramer, for ἐπείγετο BCDhikl, ἐπείγεται nox; 
so Miiller-Diibner and Meineke. 


GEOGRAPHY, το. 5. 14-15 

14, In the Carpathian Sea, also, are many of the 
Sporades, and in particular between Cos and Rhodes 
and Crete. Among these are Astypalaea, Telos, 
Chaleia, and those which Homer names in the 
Catalogue : ‘ And those who held the islands Nisyros 
and Crapathos and Casos and Cos, the city of Eury- 
pylus, and the Calydnian Islands”’ ;1 for, excepting 
Cos and Rhodes, which I shall discuss later,” I place 
them all among the Sporades, and in fact, even 
though they are near Asia and not Europe, I make 
mention of them here because my argument has 
somehow impelled me to include the Sporades with 
Crete and the Cyclades. But in my geographical 
description of Asia I shall add a description of 
such islands that lie close to it as are worthy 
of note, Cyprus, Rhodes, Cos, and those that 
lie on the seaboard next thereafter, Samos, Chios, 
Lesbos, and Tenedos. But now I shall traverse the 
remainder of the Sporades that are worth 

15. Now Astypalaea lies far out in the high sea, 
and has a city. Telos extends alongside Cnidia, is 
long, high, narrow, has a perimeter of about one 
hundred and forty stadia, and has ananchoring-place. 
Chalcia is eighty stadia distant from Telos, four 
hundred from Carpathos, about twice as far from 
Astypalaea, and has also a settlement of the same 
name and a temple of Apollo and a harbour. 

1 Iliad 2. 676. Cf. the interpretation of this passage in 
10. 5. 19. 
2 14. 2. 5-13, 19. 

2 χαλκεία BChsz. 


C 489 


16. Nioupos 6€ πρὸς ἄρκτον μέν ἐστι Τήλου, 
διέχουσα αὐτῆς ὅσον ἑξήκοντα σταδίους, ὅσους 
καὶ Κῶ διέχει, στρογγύλη δὲ καὶ ὑψηλὴ καὶ 
πετρώδης τοῦ μυλίου λίθου: τοῖς γοῦν ἀστυγείτο- 
σιν ἐκεῖθέν ἐστιν ἡ τῶν μύλων εὐπορία. ἔχει δὲ 
καὶ πόλιν ὁμώνυμον καὶ λιμένα καὶ θερμὰ καὶ 
Ποσειδῶνος ἱ ἱερόν" περίμετρον δὲ αὐτῆς ὀγδοήκοντα 
στάδιοι. ἔστι δὲ καὶ νησία πρὸς αὐτῇ Νισυρίων 
λεγόμενα. φασὶ δὲ τὴν Νίσυρον ἀπόθραυσμα 
εἶναι τῆς Ka, προσθέντες καὶ μῦθον, ὅτι Ποσειδῶν 
διώκων ἕνα τῶν Γιγάντων, Πολυβώτην, ἀπο- 
θραύσας τῇ πριαίνῃ τρύφος τῆς Κῶ ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν 
βάλοι, καὶ γέν OLTO νῆσος το βληθὲν ἡ Νίσυρος, 
ὑποκείμενον ἔχουσα ἐν αὐτῇ τὸν Τίγαντα" τινὲς 
δὲ αὐτὸν ὑποκεῖσθαι τῇ K@ φασίν. 

17. ἜΡτιδὲ Κάρπαθος, ἣν Κράπαθον εἶπεν ὁ 
ποιητής, ὑψηλή ἐστι, κύκλον ἔχουσα σταδίων 
διακοσίων. τετράπολις δ᾽ ὑπῆρξε καὶ ὄνομα 
εἶχεν ἀξιόλογον" ἀφ᾽ οὗ καὶ τῷ πελάγει τοὔνομα 
ἐγένετο. μία δὲ τῶν πόλεων ἐκαλεῖτο Νίσυρος, 
ὁμώνυμος τῇ τῶν Νισυρίων1 νήσῳ. κεῖται δὲ 
τῆς Λιβύης κατὰ Λευκὴν ἀκτήν, ἣ τῆς μὲν 
᾿Αλεξανδρείας περὶ χιλίους διέχει σταδίους, τῆς 
δὲ Καρπάθου περὶ τετρακισχιλίους. 

18. Κάσος Σ δὲ ταύτης μὲν ἀπὸ ἑβδομήκοντά 
ἐστι σταδίων, τοῦ δὲ Σαμωνίου 3 τοῦ ἄκρου τῆς 
Κρήτης διακοσίων πεντήκοντα: κύκλον δὲ ἔχει 
σταδίων ὀγδοήκοντα. ἔστι δ᾽ ἐν αὐτῆ καὶ πόλις 
ὁμώνυμος, καὶ Κασίων νῆσοι καλούμεναι πλείους 
περὶ αὐτήν. 

19. Νήσους δὲ Καλύδνας τὰς Σποράδας λέγειν 
φασὶ τὸν ποιητήν, ὧν μίαν εἶναι Κάλυμναν': εἰκὸς 

GEOGRAPHY, το. 5. 16-19 

16. Nisyros lies to the north of Telos, and is about 
sixty stadia distant both from it and from Cos.  Itis 
round and high and rocky, the rock being that of 
which millstones are made; at any rate, the neigh- 
bouring peoples are well supplied with millstones 
from there. It has also a city of the same name and 
a harbour and hot springs and a temple of Poseidon. 
Its perimeter is eighty stadia. Close to it are also 
isles called Isles of the Nisyrians. They say that 
Nisyros is a fragment of Cos, and they add the myth 
that Poseidon, when he was pursuing one of the 
giants, Polybotes, broke off a fragment of Cos with 
his trident and hurled it upon him, and the missile 
became an island, Nisyros, with the giant lying 
beneath it. But some say that he lies beneath Cos. 

17. Carpathos, which the poet calls Crapathos, is 
high, and has a circuit of two hundred stadia. At 
first it was a Tetrapolis, and it had a renown which 
is worth noting; and it was from this fact that the sea 
got the name Carpathian. One of the cities was 
called Nisvros, the same name as that of the island of 
the Nisyrians. It lies opposite Leucé Acté in Libya, 
which is about one thousand stadia distant from 
Alexandreia and about four thousand from Carpathos. 

18. Casos is seventy stadia from Carpathos, and 
two hundred and fifty from Cape Samonium in 
Crete. It hasa circuit of eighty stadia. In it there 
is also a city of the same name, and round it are 
several islands called Islands of the Casians. 

19. They say that the poet calls the Sporades 
“Calydnian Islands,’ one of which, they say, is 
Calymna. But it is reasonable to suppose that, as 

1 Νισυρίων, Corais, for Νισύρων ; so the later editors. 
> νῆσος BCDkiszx. 3 Σαλμωνίου BChkno. 



δ᾽ id 3 cal ld / \ ἣν 1 4 
, ὡς ἐκ τῶν Νισυρίων λέγονται καὶ Kaciwv! αἱ 
\ lol 4 
ἐγγὺς Kal ὑπήκοοι, οὕτως Kal τὰς TH Καλύμνῃ 

΄ 4 
περικειμένας, ἴσως τότε λεγομένῃ Καλύδνῃ" 
τινὲς δὲ δύο εἶναι Καλύδνας φασί, Λέρον καὶ 


Κάλυμναν, ἅσπερ καὶ λέγειν τὸν ποιητήν. ὁ δὲ 
Σκήψιος πληθυντικῶς ὠνομάσθαι τὴν νῆσον 
Καλύμνας φησίν, ὡς ᾿Αθήνας καὶ Θήβας, δεῖν δὲ 
ὑπερβατῶς δέξασθαι τὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ: οὐ γὰρ 
νήσους Καλύδνας λέγειν, ἀλλ᾽ οἱ 5 & ἄρα νήσους 

΄ ᾽ a 
Νίσυρόν τ᾿ εἶχον Κράπαθόν te Κάσον τε καὶ 
Κῶν, Εὐρυπύλοιο πόλιν, Καλύδνας τε. ἅπαν μὲν 

‘ al 
οὖν TO νησιωτικὸν μέλι ὡς ἐπὶ TO TOAD ἀστεῖόν 
? \ > / an? lol \ ? Σ ral 
ἐστι Kal ἐνάμιλλον τῷ ᾿Αττικῷ, TO δ᾽ ἐν ταῖσδε 

-“ ΄ / ΄ \ \ 

ταῖς νήσοις διαφερόντως, μάλιστα δὲ τὸ Ka- 

1 Κασσίων BDhkino. 2 ἀλλ᾽ οἵ, the editors, for ἄλλοι. 

GEOGRAPHY, to. 5. τὸ 

the islands which are near, and subject to, Nisyros 
and Casos are called “ Islands of the Nisyrians ” and 
“Tslands of the Casians,”’ so also those which lie 
round Calymna were called “ Islands of the Calym- 
nians ’—Calymna at that time, perhaps, being called 
Calydna. But some say that there are only two 
Calydnian islands, Leros and Calymna, the two 
mentioned by the poet. The Scepsian! says that 
the name of the island was used in the plural, 
“ Calymnae,” like “ Athenae”’ and “ Thebae’”’; but, 
he adds, the words of the poet should be interpreted 
as a case of hyperbaton, for he does not say, 
“Calydnian Islands,” but “those who held the 
islands Nisyros and Crapathos and Casos and Cos, the 
city of Eurypylus, and Calydnae.”’ Now all the 
honey produced in the islands is, for the most part, 
good, and rivals that of Attica, but the honey 
produced in the islands in question is exceptionally 
good, and in particular the Calymnian, 

1 Demetrius of Scepsis, 


01 ἢ οὐρῇ 

Soft” 2 
- at Fie THe gist 
pus Sie mia ΜΘ Ral P OH Reg Sete 
‘UTE EE? παρ BSE er? πάθη. Spout 
Mail Lapin rer ιὰ ἀνα ϑιμα λα rendib τς 
ΣΎΝ sh Bld dd sod ails hy ehidusiglt, 
CRAY LE OS cy ed iL "τ έτεην tte pe 
die flor) caster αϑου δοῦν, tay) “herddak otcdite ” 
drat hee 35 wad ἐπ κεν). Symes 
σήν δύ ὁποῦ ‘easily bin HA Bee πές 
ἀμ Seon adi rot 8ὲ eboalel. 4:33 oe 
sanod odd dud ΡΥ to dat εἶδε bas (boos 
1 |inttoliqas 28-2 soit ap ot ἐδ πίε ϑνδὰν οὐρᾷ By 7 
ita tounge) siti raluotstagy: ai baw ᾿ς hog, 

svaj00s to eoiriomotl εν 



C490 1. Τῇ δ᾽ Εὐρώπῃ συνεχής ἐστιν ἡ ᾿Ασία, κατὰ 
τὸν Τάναϊν συνάπτουσα αὐτῇ" περὶ ταύτης οὖν 
ἐφεξῆς ῥητέον, διελόντας φυσικοῖς τισὶν ὅροις. τοῦ 
σαφοῦς χάριν. ὅπερ οὖν ᾿Ερατοσθένης ἐφ᾿ ὅλης 
τῆς οἰκουμένης ἐποίησε, τοῦθ᾽ ἡμῖν ἐπὶ τῆς ᾿Δσίας 

2. Ὁ γὰρ Ταῦρος μέσην πως διέξωκε ταύτην 
τὴν ἤπειρον, ἀπὸ τῆς ἑσπέρας ἐπὶ τὴν ἕω τετα- 
μένος, τὸ μὲν αὐτῆς ἀπολείπων πρὸς βορρᾶν, τὸ 
δὲ μεσημβρινόν. καλοῦσι δὲ αὐτῶν οἱ “Ελληνες 
τὸ μὲν ἐντὸς τοῦ 0 Ταύρου, τὸ δὲ ἐκτός. εἴρηται δὲ 
ταῦθ᾽ ἡμῖν καὶ πρότερον, adr εἰρήσθω καὶ νῦν 
ὑπομνήσεως χάριν. 

3. Πλάτος μὲν οὖν ἔχει τὸ ὄρος πολλαχοῦ 
καὶ τρισχιλίων σταδίων, μῆκος δ᾽ ὅσον καὶ τὸ 
τῆς ᾿Ασίας, τεττάρων που μυριάδων καὶ πεντα- 
κισχιλίων, ἀπὸ τῆς Ῥοδίων περαίας ἐπὶ τὰ ἄκρα 
τῆς ᾿Ινδικῆς καὶ Σκυθίας πρὸς τὰς ἀνατολάς. 

4. Διήρηται δ᾽ εἰς μέρη πολλὰ καὶ ὀνόματα 
περιγραφαῖς καὶ μείξοσι καὶ ἐλάττοσιν ἀφωρισ- 
μένα. ἐπεὶ δ᾽ ἐν τῷ τοσούτῳ πλάτει τοῦ ὄρους 

1 τετμημένος Cglouxwz, τετραμένος Eustath. (note on Dionys. 

1 The Don. 2 See 2. 1.1. 


1. Asta is adjacent to Europe, bordering thereon 
along the Tanais! River. I must therefore describe 
this country next, first dividing it, for the sake of 
clearness, by means of certain natural boundaries. 
That 15,1 must do for Asia precisely what Eratos- 
thenes did for the inhabited world as a whole.” 

2. The Taurus forms a partition approximately 
through the middle of this continent, extending 
from the west towards the east, leaving one portion 
of it on the north and the other on the south. Of 
these portions, the Greeks call the one the “ Cis- 
Tauran”’ Asia and the other “Trans-Tauran.” 1 
have said this before,? but let me repeat it by way 
of reminder. 

3. Now the mountain has in many places as great 
a breadth as three thousand stadia, and a length as 
great as that of Asia itself, that is, about forty-five 
thousand stadia, reckoning from the coast opposite 
Rhodes to the eastern extremities of India and 

4. It has been divided into many parts with many 
names, determined by boundaries that circumscribe 
areas both large and small. But since certain tribes 
are comprised within the vast width of the mountain, 

3 2.6. ‘* Asia this side Taurus and Asia outside Taurus.” 
(Cpe 2155 3k) 

C 491 


ἀπολαμβανεταί τίνα ἔθνη, τὰ μὲν ἀσημότερα, 
τὰ δὲ καὶ παντελῶς γνώριμα (καθάπερ ἡ Ilap- 
θυαία καὶ Μηδία καὶ ᾿Αρμενία καὶ Καππαδοκῶν 
τινὲς καὶ Κίλικες καὶ Πισίδαι), τὰ μὲν πλεονά- 
ἕοντα ἐν" τοῖς προσβόροις μέρεσιν ἐνταῦθα 
τακτέον, τὰ δ᾽ ἐν τοῖς νοτίοις εἰς τὰ νότια, καὶ 
τὰ ἐν μέσῳ δὲ τῶν ὀρῶν κείμενα διὰ τὰς τῶν 
ἀέρων ὁμοιότητας πρὸς βορρᾶν πὼς θετέον' 
ψυχροὶ γάρ εἰσιν, οἱ δὲ νότιοι θερμοί. καὶ τῶν 
ποταμῶν δὲ αἱ ῥύσεις ἐνθένδε οὖσαι πᾶσαι 
σχεδόν τι εἰς τἀναντία, αἱ μὲν εἰς τὰ βόρεια, αἱ 
δ᾽ εἰς τὰ νότια μέρη (τά ye*® πρῶτα, κἂν ὕστερόν 
τίνες ἐπιστρέφωσι πρὸς ἀνατολὰς ἢ δύσεις), 
ἔχουσί τι εὐφυὲς πρὸς τὸ τοῖς ὄρεσιν ὁρίοις 
χρῆσθαι κατὰ τὴν εἰς δύο μέρη διαίρεσιν τῆς 
᾿Ασίας" καθάπερ καὶ ἡ θάλαττα ἡ ἡ ἐντὸς Στηλῶν, 
ἐπ᾿ εὐθείας πως οὖσα ἡ πλείστη τοῖς ὄρεσι 
τούτοις, ἐπιτηδεία γεγένηται πρὸς τὸ δύο ποιεῖν 
ἠπείρους, τήν τε Εὐρώπην καὶ τὴν Λιβύην, ὅριον 
ἀμφοῖν οὖσα ἀξιόλογον. 

5. Τοῖς δὲ μεταβαίνουσιν ἀπὸ TIS “Εὐρώπης 
ἐπὶ τὴν ᾿Ασίαν ἐν τῇ γεωγραφίᾳ τὰ πρὸς βορρᾶν 
ἐστὶ πρῶτα τῆς εἰς, δύο διαιρέσεως" ὥστε ἀπὸ 
τούτων ἀρκτέον. αὐτῶν δὲ τούτων πρῶτά ἐστι 
τὰ περὶ τὸν Τάναϊν, ὅνπερ τῆς ᾿ὐρώπης καὶ 
τῆς ᾿Ασίας ὅριον ὑπεθέμεθα. ἔστι δὲ ταῦτα 
τρόπον τινὰ χερρονησίξζοντα, περιέχεται γὰρ ἐκ 
μὲν τῆς ἑσπέρας τῷ ποταμῷ τῷ Tavaids καὶ 

1 πλησιάζοντα hi and Xylander, instead οὗ πλεονάζοντα. 
® ἐν, before τοῖς, Groskurd inserts ; so C. Miiller. 
3 ye D, τε other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 1. 4-5 

some rather insignificant, but others extremely well 
known (as, for instance, the Parthians, the Medes, 
the Armenians, a part of the Cappadocians, the 
Cilicians, and the Pisidians), those which lie for the 
most part in its northerly parts must be assigned 
there, and those in its southern parts to the 
southern,? while those which are situated in the 
middle of the mountains should, because of the 
likeness of their climate, be assigned to the north, 
for the climate in the middle is cold, whereas that 
in the south is hot. Further, almost all the rivers 
that rise in the Taurus flow in contrary directions, 
that is, some into the northern region and others 
into the southern (they do so at first, at least, 
although later some of them bend towards the east 
or west), and they therefore are naturally helpful in 
our use of these mountains as boundaries in the 
two-fold division of Asia—just as the sea inside the 
Pillars,? which for the most part is approximately in 
a straight line with these mountains, has proved con- 
venient in the forming of two continents, Europe 
and Libya, it being the noteworthy boundary between 
the two. 

5. As we pass from Europe to Asia in our 
geography, the northern division is the first of the 
two divisions to which we come; and therefore we 
must begin with this. Of this division the first 
portion is that in the region of the Tanais River, 
which I have taken as the boundary between Europe 
and Asia. This portion forms, in a way, a peninsula, 
for it is surrounded on the west by the Tanais River 

1 j.e, to the Cis-Tauran Asia. 2 i.e. Trans-Tauran. 
3 ic. the Mediterranean (see 2, 1. 1). 


C 492” 


τῇ Μαιώτιδι μέχρι τοῦ Βοσπόρου καὶ τῆς τοῦ 
Εὐξείνου παραλίας τῆς τελευτώσης εἰς τὴν 
Κολχίδα: ἐκ δὲ τῶν ἄρκτων τῷ ᾿Ωκεανῴ μέχρι 
τοῦ στόματος τῆς Κασπίας θαλάττης" ἕωθεν δὲ 
αὐτῇ ταύτῃ τῇ θαλαττῃ μέχρι τῶν μεθορίων τῆς 
τε ᾿Αλβανίας καὶ τῆς ᾿Δρμενίας, καθ᾽ ἃ ὁ Κῦρος 
καὶ ὁ ᾿Άραξης ἐκδιδοῦσι ποταμοί, ῥέοντες ὁ μὲν 
διὰ τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας, Κῦρος δὲ διὰ τῆς ᾿Ιβηρίας 

A -“ ᾽ / , 2 \ at > Χ fol 
καὶ τῆς ᾿Αλβανίας" ἐκ νότου δὲ TH! ἀπὸ τῆς 
> “ r ἊΜ / ΄“ ’ a 
ἐκβολῆς τοῦ Κύρου μέχρι τῆς Κολχίδος, ὅσον 
τρισχιλίων οὔσῃ σταδίων ἀπὸ θαλάττης ἐπὶ 
θάλατταν, δι’ ᾿Αλβανῶν καὶ ᾿Ιβήρων, ὥστε 
ἰσθμοῦ λόγον ἔχειν. οἱ δ᾽ ἐπὶ τοσοῦτον συνα- 
γαγόντες τὸν ἰσθμόν, ἐφ᾽ ὅσον Κλείταρχος, ἐπί- 
κλυστον φήσας ἐξ ἑκατέρου τοῦ πελάγους, οὐδ᾽ 
x ΄ » r ΄ \ /, A 
ἂν λόγου ἀξιοῖντο. Ποσειδώνιος δὲ χιλίων καὶ 
πεντακοσίων εἴρηκε τὸν ἰσθμόν, ὅσον καὶ τὸν 
> \ / > \ > \ >] 4 ‘a r 
ἀπὸ Τ]ηλουσίου ἰσθμὸν ἐς τὴν Ἐρυθράν δοκῶ 
δέ, φησί, μὴ πολὺ “διαφέρειν μηδὲ τὸν ἀπὸ τῆς 
Μαιώτιδος εἰς τὸν ᾿Ὥκεανό». 

6. Οὐκ οἶδα δέ, πῶς ἄν τις περὶ τῶν ἀδήλων 
αὐτῷ πιστεύσειε, μηδὲν εἰκὸς ἔχοντι εἰπεῖν περὶ 
αὐτῶν, ὅταν περὶ τῶν φανερῶν οὕτω παραλόγως 
λέγῃ, καὶ ταῦτα φίλος ἸΙομπηίῳ γεγονὼς τῷ 
στρατεύσαντι ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἴβηρας καὶ τοὺς 
Αλβανοὺς μέχρι τῆς ἐφ᾽ ἑκάτερα θαλάττης, 
τῆς τε Κασπίας καὶ τῆς Κολχικῆς. φασὶ γοῦν 

1 τῇ, Corais, for 7; so the later editors. 
2 οὔσῃ, Corais, for οὖσα; so the later editors. 

1 The Cimmerian Bosporus. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 1. 5-6 

and Lake Maeotis as far as the Bosporus? and that 
part of the coast of the Euxine Sea which terminates 
at Colchis; and then on the north by the Ocean as 
far as the mouth of the Caspian Sea;? and then on 
the east by this same sea as far as the boundary 
between Albania and Armenia, where empty the 
rivers Cyrus and Araxes, the Araxes flowing through 
Armenia and the Cyrus through Iberia and Albania ; 
and lastly, on the south by the tract of country which 
extends from the outlet of the Cyrus River to Colchis, 
which is about three thousand stadia from sea to sea, 
across the territory of the Albanians and the Iberians, 
and therefore is described as an isthmus. But those 
writers who have reduced the width of the isthmus 
as much as Cleitarchus* has, who says that it is 
subject to inundation from either sea, should not be 
considered even worthy of mention. Poseidonius 
states that the isthmus is fifteen hundred stadia 
across, as wide as the isthmus from Pelusium to the 
Red Sea.4. “And in my opinion,” he says, ‘the 
isthmus from Lake Maeotis to the Ocean does not 
differ much therefrom.” 

6. But I do not know how anyone can trust him 
concerning things that are uncertain if he has 
nothing plausible to say about them, when he 
reasons so illogically about things that are obvious ; 
and this too, although he was a friend of Pompey, 
who made an expedition against the Iberians and the 
Albanians, from sea to sea on either side, both the 
Caspian and the Colchian® Seas. At any rate, it is 

2 Strabo thought that the Caspian (Hyrcanian) Sea was an 
inlet of the Northern Sea (2. 5. 14). 
3 See Dictionary in Vol. II. 
STC ialiinel cle 5 The Kuxine. 

VOL. V. G 


Ῥόδῳ γενόμενον τὸν Πομπήϊον, ἡνίκα ἐπὶ 
τὸν λῃστρικὸν πόλεμον ἐξῆλθεν (εὐθὺς δ᾽ ἔμελλε 
καὶ ἐπὶ Μιθριδάτην ὁρμήσειν καὶ τὰ μέχρι τῆς 
Κασπίας ἔθνη), παρατυχεῖν διαλεγομένῳ τῷ 
Ποσειδωνίῳ, ἀπιόντα δ᾽ ἐρέσθαι, εἴ τι προστάτ- 
τει, τὸν δ᾽ εἰπεῖν" 

IN Ἃ ΄, Note , ” ” 
QLEV APLOTEVELY Και υπειροχον εμμεναΐι ἄλλων. 

προστίθει * δὲ τούτοις, ὅτι καὶ τὴν ἱστορίαν 
συνέγραψε τὴν περὶ αὐτόν. διὰ δὴ ταῦτα 
ἐχρῆν φροντίσαι τἀληθοῦς πλέον τι. 

1. Δεύτερον δ᾽ ἂν εἴη μέρος τὸ ὑπὲρ τῆς 
Ὑρκανίας θαλάττης, ἣν Κασπίαν καλοῦμεν, 
μέχρι τῶν κατ᾽ ᾿Ινδοὺς Σκυθῶν. τρίτον δὲ μέρος 
τὸ συνεχὲς τῷ λεχθέντι ἰσθμῷ καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς 
τούτῳ καὶ ταῖς Κασπίαις πύλαις, τῶν ἐντὸς τοῦ 
Ταύρου καὶ τῆς Ἰυὐρώπης ἐγγυτάτω" ταῦτα δ᾽ 
ἐστὶ Μηδία καὶ ᾿Αρμενία, καὶ Καππαδοκία καὶ 
τὰ μεταξύ. τέταρτον δ᾽ ἡ ἐντὸς “Ahvos γῆ καὶ 
τὰ ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ Ταύρῳ καὶ ἐκτὸς ὅσα εἰς τὴν 
χερρόνησον ἐμπίπτει ἣν ποιεῖ ὁ διείργων ἰσθμὸς 
τήν τε Ποντικὴν καὶ τὴν Κιλικίαν θάλασσαν. 
τῶν δὲ ἄλλων, τῶν ἔξω τοῦ Ταύρου, τήν τε 
᾿Ινδικὴν τίθεμεν καὶ τὴν "Apiary, nv μέχρι τῶν 
ἐθνῶν τῶν καθηκόντων πρός τε τὴν κατὰ Πέρσας 
θάλατταν καὶ τὸν ᾿Αράβιον κόλπον καὶ τὸν 
Νεῖλον καὶ πρὸς τὸ Αἰγύπτιον πέλαγος καὶ τὸ 

1 προστίθει, Corais, for προσετίθει ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. τ. 6-7 

said that Pompey, upon arriving at Rhodes on his 
expedition against the pirates (immediately there- 
after he was to set out against both Mithridates and 
the tribes which extended as far as the Caspian Sea), 
happened to attend one of the lectures of Posei- 
donius, and that when he went out he asked Posei- 
donius whether he had any orders to give, and that 
Poseidonius replied: ‘“ Ever bravest be, and_pre- 
eminent o’er others.” Add to this that ameng 
other works he wrote also the history of Pompey. 
So for this reason he should have been more regardful 
of the truth. 

7. The second portion would be that beyond the 
Hyrcanian Sea, which we call the Caspian Sea, as 
far as the Scythians near India. The third portion 
would consist of the part which is adjacent to the 
isthmus above mentioned and of those parts of the 
region inside Taurus! and nearest Europe which 
come next after this isthmus and the Caspian Gates, 
I mean Media and Armenia and Cappadocia and the 
intervening regions. The fourth portion is the land 
inside® the HalysRiver, and all the region in the 
Taurus itself and outside thereof which falls within 
the limits of the peninsula which is formed by the 
isthmus that separates the Pontie and the Cilician 
Seas. As for the other countries, I mean the Trans- 
Tauran, 1 place among them not only India, but 
also Ariana as far as the tribes that extend to the 
Persian Sea and the Arabian Gulf and the Nile and 
the Egyptian and Issic Seas. 

1 Cis-Tauran. 2 4.¢..°*:west, of.” 


C 493 



1: Οὕτω δὲ διακειμένων, τὸ πρῶτον μέρος 
οἰκοῦσιν ἐκ μὲν τῶν πρὸς ἄρκτον μερῶν καὶ τὸν 
᾽Ωκεανὸν Σκυθῶν Loe νομάδες καὶ ἁμάξοικοι,1 
ἐνδοτέρω δὲ τούτων Σαρμάται, καὶ οὗτοι Σκύθαι, 
"Ἄορσοι καὶ Σιρακοί, μέχρι τῶν Καυκασίων 
ὀρῶν ἐπὶ μεσημβρίαν τείνοντες, οἱ μὲν νομάδες, 
οἱ δὲ καὶ σκηνῖται καὶ γεωργοί: περὶ δὲ τὴν 
λίμνην Μαιῶται: πρὸς δὲ τῇ θαλάττῃ τοῦ 
Βοσπόρου τὰ κατὰ τὴν ᾿Ασίαν ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ 
Σινδική" μετὰ δὲ ταύτην ᾿Αχαιοὶ καὶ Ζυγοὶ καὶ 
Ἡνίοχοι, Κερκέται τε καὶ Μακροπώγωνες. 
ὑπέρκεινται δὲ τούτων καὶ τὰ τῶν Φθειροφάγων 
στενά: μετὰ δὲ τοὺς Ἡνιόχους ἡ Κολχίς, 
ὑπὸ τοῖς Καυκασίοις ὄρεσι κειμένη καὶ τοῖς 
Μοσχικοῖς. ἐπεὶ δ᾽ ὅριον ὑπόκειται τῆς Ev- 
ρώπης καὶ τῆς ᾿Ασίας ὁ Tavais ποταμός, ἐν- 
τεῦθεν ἀρξάμενοι τὰ καθ' ἕκαστα ὑπογράψομεν. 

2. Φέρεται μὲν οὖν ἀπὸ τῶν ἀρκτικῶν με- 
ρῶν, οὐ μὴν ὡς ἂν κατὰ διάμετρον ἀντίρρους 
τῷ Νείλῳ, καθάπερ νομίζουσιν οἱ πολλοί, ἀλλὰ 
ἑωθινώτερος ἐκείνου, παραπλησίως ἐκείνῳ τὰς 
ἀρχὰς ἀδήλους ἔχων: ἀλλὰ τοῦ μὲν πολὺ τὸ 
φανερόν, χώραν διεξιόντος πᾶσαν εὐεπίμικτον 
καὶ μακροὺς ἀνάπλους ἔχοντος" τοῦ δὲ Τανάϊδος 
τὰς μὲν ἐκβολὰς ἴσμεν (δύο δ᾽ εἰσὶν εἰς τὰ 
ἀρκτικώτατα μέρη τῆς Μαιώτιδος, ἑξήκοντα 

1 ἁμάξοικοι, Corais, for ἁμάξικοι; so the later editors. 

' Also spelled ‘‘Siraces.” See 11. 5. 8. 

GEOGRAPHY, τι. 2. 1~2 

. II 

1. Or the ‘portions thus divided, the first is in- 
habited, in the region toward the north and the 
ocean, by Scythian nomads and waggon-dwellers, 
and south of these, by Sarmatians, these too being 
Scythians, and by Aorsi and Siraci,) who extend 
towards the south as far as the Caucasian Mountains, 
some being nomads and others tent-dwellers and 
farmers. About Lake Maeotis live the Maeotae. 
And on the sea lies the Asiatic side of the Bos- 
porus, or the Sindic territory. After this latter, 
one comes to the Achaei and the Zygi and the 
Heniochi, and also the Cercetae and the Macro- 
pogones.”_ And above these are situated the narrow 
passes of the Phtheirophagi;* and after the 
Heniochi the Colchian country, which lies at the 
foot of the Caucasian, or Moschian, Mountains. But 
since I have taken the Tanais River as the boundary 
between Europe and Asia, I shall begin my detailed 
description therewith. 

2. Now the Tanais flows from the northerly 
region,—not, however, as most people think, in a 
course diametrically opposite to that of the Nile, 
but more to the east than the Nile—and like the 
Nile its sources are unknown. Yet a considerable 
part of the Nile is well known, since it traverses 
a country which is everywhere easily accessible and 
since it is navigable for a great distance inland. 
But as for the Tanais, although we know its outlets 
(they are two in number and are in the most 
northerly region of Lake Maeotis, being sixty stadia 

2 « Long-beards.” 3 ** Lice-eaters.” 



σταδίους ἀλλήλων διέχουσαι), τοῦ 1 δ᾽ ὑπὲρ τῶν 
ἐκβολῶν ὀλίγον τὸ γνώριμόν ἐστι διὰ τὰ ψύχη 
καὶ τὰς ἀπορίας τῆς χώρας, ἃς οἱ μὲν αὐτόχθονες 
δύνανται φέρειν, σαρξὶ καὶ γάλακτι τρεφόμενοι 
ΤΟ τι ΟΥΙΣΟ Ss οἱ δ᾽ ἀλλοεθνεῖς οὐχ ὑπομένουσιν. 
ἄλλως τε" οἱ νομάδες δυσεπίμικτοι τοῖς ἄλλοις 
ὄντες καὶ πλήθει καὶ βίᾳ διαφέροντες ἀποκε- 
κλείκασιν, εἰ καί τι πορεύσιμον τῆς χώρας ἐστὶν 
ἢ εἴ τινας τετύχηκεν ἀνάπλους “ἔχων ὁ ποταμός. 
ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς αἰτίας ταύτης οἱ μὲν ὑπέλαβον τὰς 
πηγὰς ἔχειν αὐτὸν ἐν τοῖς Καυκασίοις ὄρεσι, 
πολὺν δ᾽ ἐνεχθέντα ἐ ἐπὶ τὰς ἄρκτους, εἶτ᾽ ἀναστρέ- 

αντα ἐκβάλλειν εἰς τὴν Μαιῶτιν" τούτοις δὲ 
ὁμοδοξεῖ καὶ Θεοφάνης ὁ Μιτυληναῖος" οἱ δ᾽ ἀπὸ 
τῶν ἄνω μερῶν τοῦ “latpou φέρεσθαι, σημεῖον δὲ 
φέρουσιν οὐδὲν τῆς πόρρωθεν οὕτω ῥύσεως καὶ 
ἀπ᾿ ἄλλων κλιμάτων, ὥσπερ οὐ δυνατὸν ὃν καὶ 
ἐγγύθεν καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν ἄρκτων. 

8. Ἐπὶ δὲ τῷ ποταμῷ καὶ τῇ λίμνῃ πόλις 
ὁμώνυμος. οἰκεῖται Τάναϊς, κτίσμα τῶν τὸν Βόσπο- 
ρον ἐχόντων ᾿Ἑλλήνων' νεωστὶ μὲν οὖν ἐξεπόρθησεν 
αὐτὴν Πολέμων ὁ βασιλεὺς ἀπειθοῦσαν. ἦν δ᾽ 
ἐμπόριον κοινὸν τῶν τε ᾿Ασιανῶν καὶ τῶν Evpo- 
παίων νομάδων καὶ τῶν ἐκ τοῦ Βοσπόρου τὴν 
λίμνην πλεόντων, τῶν μὲν ἀνδράποδα ἀγόντων 
καὶ δέρματα καὶ εἴ τι ἄλλο τῶν νομαδικῶν, τῶν 

1 zov, Corais, for τό; so the later editors. 
2 +e, Corais, for δέ; so the later editors. 

1 Intimate friend of Pompey; wrote a history of his 

2 See Vol. I, p. 22, foot-note 2. 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 2. 2-3 

distant from one another), yet but little of the 
part that is beyond its outlets is known to us, 
because of the coldness and the poverty of the 
country. This poverty can indeed be endured by 
the indigenous peoples, who, in nomadic fashion, 
live on flesh and milk, but people from other tribes 
cannot stand it. And besides, the nomads, being 
disinclined to intercourse with any other people 
and being superior both in numbers and in might, 
have blocked off whatever parts of the country are 
passable, or whatever parts of the river happen 
to be navigable. This is what has caused some 
to assume that the Tanais has its sources in the 
Caucasian Mountains, flows in great volume towards 
the north, and then, making a bend, empties into 
Lake Maeotis (Theophanes of Mitylené+ has the 
same opinion as these), and others to assume that it 
flows from the upper region of the Ister, although 
they produce no evidence of its flowing from so 
great a distance or from other “climata,’? as 
though it were impossible for the river to flow 
both from a near-by source and from the north. 

3. On the river and the lake is an inhabited 
city bearing the same name, Tanais ; it was founded 
by the Greeks who held the Bosporus. Recently, 
however, it was sacked by King Polemon 3 because 
it would not obey him. It was a common emporium, 
partly of the Asiatic and the European nomads, 
and partly of those who navigated the lake from 
the Bosporus, the former bringing slaves, hides, and 
such other things as nomads possess, and the latter 

3 Polemon I. He became king of the Bosporus about 
16 b.c. (Dio Cassius 54, 24). 


C 494 


δ᾽ ἐσθῆτα Kal οἷνον καὶ τἄλλα, ὅσα τῆς ἡμέρου 
διαίτης. οἰκεῖα, ἀντιφορτιζομένων. πρόκειται 
ἐν ἑκατὸν σταδίοις τοῦ ἐμπορίου νῆσος ᾿Αλωπεκία, 
κατοικία μιγάδων ἀνθρώπων" ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἄλλα 
νησίδια πλησίον ἐν τῇ λίμνῃ. διέχει δὲ τοῦ 
στόματος τῆς Μαιώτιδος εὐθυπλοοῦσι ἐπὶ τὰ 
βόρεια δισχιλίους καὶ διακοσίους σταδίους ὁ 
Τάναϊς, οὐ πολὺ δὲ πλείους εἰσὶ παραλεγομένῳ 
τὴν γῆν. 

4. Ev δὲ τῷ παράπλῳ τῷ παρὰ γῆν πρῶτον 
μέν ἐστιν ἀπὸ τοῦ Τανάϊδος προϊοῦσιν ἐν ὀκτα- 
κοσίοις ὁ μέγας καλούμενος. Ῥομβίτης, ἐν ᾧ τὰ 
πλεῖστα ἁλιεύματα τῶν εἰς ταριχείας ἰχθύων: 
ἔπειτα, ἐν ἄλλοις ὀκτακοσίοις ὁ ἐλάσσων ἡ Ρομβίτης 
καὶ ἄκρα, ἔχουσα, καὶ αὐτὴ ἁλιείας ἐλάττους" 
ἔχουσι δὲ οἱ μὲν περὶ Tov? πρότερον νησία ὁρμη- 
τήρια, οἱ δ᾽ ἐν τῷ μικρῷ ἹῬομβίτῃ αὐτοί εἰσιν οἱ 
Μαιῶται ἐργαζόμενοι" οἰκοῦσι γὰρ ἐν τῷ παράπλῳ 
τούτῳ παντὶ οἱ Μαιῶται, γεωργοὶ μέν, οὐχ ἧττον 
δὲ τῶν νομάδων πολεμισταί. διήρηνται δὲ εἰς 
ἔθνη πλείω, τὰ μὲν πλησίον. τοῦ Τανάϊδος ἀγριώ- 
τερα, τὰ δὲ συνώπτοντα τῷ Βοσπόρῳ χειροήθη 
μᾶλλον. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ μικροῦ Ῥομβίτου στάδιοί 
εἰσιν ἑξακόσιοι ἐπὶ Τυράμβην καὶ τὸν ᾿Αντικείτην 
ποταμόν: εἶθ᾽ ἑκατὸν καὶ εἴκοσιν ἐπὶ τὴν κώμην 
τὴν Κιμμερικήν,"Σ ἥτις ἐστὶν ἀφετήριον τοῖς τὴν 
λίμνην πλέουσιν: ἐν δὲ τῷ παράπλῳ τούτῳ καὶ 
σκοπαί τινες λέγονται Κλαζομενίων. 

1 καί, before ἄκρα, Corais inserts ; so the later editors. 
2 περὶ τόν, before πρότερον, Groskurd inserts; so Miiller- 
Diibner, but Meineke merely indicates a lacuna. 
3K Ud ae aes “ 
Κιμμερικήν, Xylander, for Κιμβρικήν ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 2. 3-4 

giving in exchange clothing, wine, and the other 
things that belong to civilised life. At a distance 
of one hundred stadia off the emporium lies an 
island called Alopecia, a settlement of promiscuous 
people. There are also other small islands near by 
in the lake. The Tanais! is two thousand two 
hundred stadia distant from the mouth of Lake 
Maeotis by a direct voyage towards the north; but 
it is not much farther by a voyage along the coast. 

4. In the voyage along the coast, one comes first, at 
a distance of eight hundred stadia from the Tanais, 
to the Greater Rhombites River, as it is called, 
where are made the greatest catches of the fish 
that are suitable for salting. Then, at a distance 
of eight hundred more, to the Lesser Rhombites 
and a cape, which latter also has fisheries, although 
they are smaller. The people who live about the 
Greater Rhombites have small islands as bases for 
their fishing; but the people who carry on the 
business at the Lesser Rhombites are the Maeotae 
themselves, for the Maeotae live along the whole 
of this coast; and though farmers, they are no less 
warlike than the nomads. They are divided into 
several tribes, those who live near the Tanais being 
rather ferocious, but those whose territory borders 
on the Bosporus being more tractable. It is six 
hundred stadia from the Lesser Rhombites to 
Tyrambé and the Anticeites River; then a hundred 
and twenty to the Cimmerian village, which is a 
place of departure for those who navigate the lake ; 
and on this coast are said to be some look-out 
places ® belonging to the Clazomenians. 

1 6. the mouth of the Tanais. 
2 7.e. for the observation of fish. 



. To δὲ Κιμμερικὸν πόλις ἣν πρότερον ἐπὶ 

πε τεῦ ἱδρυμένη, τὸν ἰσθμὸν τάφρῳ καὶ 

χώματι κλείουσα" “ἐκέκτηντο δ᾽ οἱ Κιμμέριοι 
μεγάλην ποτὲ ἐν τῷ Βοσπόρῳ δύναμιν, διόπερ 
καὶ Κιμμερικὸς Βόσπορος ὠνομάσθη. οὗτοι δ᾽ 
εἰσὶν οἱ τοὺς τὴν μεσόγαιαν οἰκοῦντας ἐν τοῖς 
δεξιοῖς μέρεσι τοῦ ἸΠόντου μέχρι ᾿Ιωνίας ἐπιδρα- 
μόντες. τούτους μὲν οὖν ἐξήλασαν ἐ ἐκ τῶν τόπων 
Σκύθαι, τοὺς δὲ Σκύθας “ἔλληνες οἱ Παντικάπαιον 

\ \ ΝΜ 5» , \ > , 
Kal τὰς ἄλλας οἰκίσαντες πόλεις Tas ἐν Βοσπόρῳ. 

Sas ee ee \ ay I ΄ yy 2 

6. Kir ἐπὶ τὴν ᾿Αχίλλειον κώμην εἴκοσιν, ἐν 
e we) / id fe 5] 00 Os > \ G , 
7 τὸ AxXiAXrEws ἱερόν" ἐνταῦθα ὃ ἐστὶν ὁ στενώ- 

\ na , “-“ ’ ¢i 
τατος πορθμὸς τοῦ στόματος τῆς Μαιώτιδος, ὅσον 
εἴκοσι σταδίων ἢ πλειόνων, ἔχων ἐν τῇ “περαίᾳ 
κώμην τὸ Μυρμήκιον' πλησίον δ᾽ ἐστὶ τὸ Ἥρα- 
κλεῖον + καὶ τὸ Ἰ]αρθένιον. 

7. Ἐντεῦθεν & ἐπὶ τὸ Σατύρου μνῆμα ἐνενήκοντα 
στάδιοι. τοῦτο δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἐπ᾽ ἄκρας τινὸς χωστὸν 
ἀνδρὸς τῶν ἐπιφανῶς δυναστευσάντων τοῦ Βοσ- 

,ὔ ᾽ 

8. Πλησίον δὲ κώμη Πατραεύς, ἀφ᾽ ἧς ἐπὶ 
κώμην Κοροκονδάμην ἑκατὸν τριάκοντα" αὕτη δ᾽ 
ἐστὶ τοῦ Rimpepucoy, καλουμένου Βοσπόρου πέρας. 
καλεῖται δὲ οὕτως * ὁ στενωπὸς ἐπὶ 3 τοῦ στόματος 
τῆς Μαιώτιδος ἀπὸ τῶν κατὰ τὸ ᾿Αχίλλειον καὶ 

ὃ Μυρμήκιον στενῶν διατείνων μέχρι πρὸς τὴν 
Κοροκονδάμην καὶ τὸ ἀντικείμενον αὐτῇ κώμιον 

a ΄, a v wv A ut ὃ / 
τῆς Lavtixataiwy γῆς, ὄνομα “Axpav,* ἑβδομή- 

1 +d Ἡρακλεῖον, Jones, following conj. of Kramer; so C. 

2 οὕτως, Xylander, for οὗτος ; so the later editory. 

3 ἐπί, Xylander, for ἀπό : so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 2. 5-8 

5. Cimmericum was in earlier times a city situated 
on a peninsula, and it closed the isthmus by means 
of a trench and a mound. The Cimmerians once 
possessed great power in the Bosporus, and_ this 
is why it was named Cimmerian Bosporus.. These 
are the people who overran the country of those 
who lived in the interior on the right side of the 
Pontus as far as Ionia. However, these were driven 
out of the region by the Scythians ; and then the 
Scythians were driven out by the Greeks who founded 
Panticapaeum and the other cities on the Bosporus. 

6. Then, twenty stadia distant, one comes to the 

village Achilleium, where is the temple of Achilles. 
Here is the narrowest passage across the mouth 
of Lake Maeotis, about twenty stadia or more; and 
on the opposite shore is a village, Myrmecium; and 
near by are Heracleium and Parthenium.! 
7. Thence ninety stadia to the monument of 
Satyrus, which consists of a mound thrown up on a 
certain cape in memory of one of the illustrious 
potentates of the Bosporus. 

8. Near by is a village, Patraeus, from which the 
distance to a village Corocondamé is one hundred 
and thirty stadia; and this village constitutes the 
limit of the Cimmerian Bosporus, as it is called. 
The Narrows at the mouth of the Maeotis are so 
ealled from the narrow passage at Achilleium and 
Myrmecium ; they extend as far as Corocondamé and 
the small village named Acra, which lies opposite to 
it in the land of the Panticapaeans, this village 

1 Cf. 7. 4. 5. 2 See 7. 4. 4. 

*”Axpav, Meineke, for “Axpa; Corais and others insert @ 
before ὄνομα. 


C 495 


κοντα σταδίων διειργόμενον πορθμῷ" μέχρι γὰρ 
δεῦρο καὶ ὁ κρύσταλλος διατείνει, πηττομένης τῆς 
Μαιώτιδος κατὰ τοὺς κρυμούς, ὥστε “πεζεύεσθαι. 
ἅπας δ᾽ ἐστὶν εὐλίμενος ὁ στενωπὸς οὗτος. 

9. “Ὑπέρκειται δὲ τῆς Κοροκονδάμης εὐμεγέθης 
λίμνη, ἣν καλοῦσιν ἀπ᾽ αὐτῆς Κοροκονδαμῖτιν" 
ἐκδίδωσι δ᾽ ἀπὸ δέκα σταδίων τῆς κώμης εἰς τὴν 
θάλατταν" ἐμβάλλει δὲ εἰς τὴν λίμνην ἀπορρώξ 
τίς τοῦ ᾿Αντικείτου ποταμοῦ, καὶ ποιεῖ νῆσον 
περίκλυστόν τινα ταύτῃ τε τῇ λίμνῃ καὶ τῇ 
Μαιώτιδι καὶ τῷ ποταμῷ. τινὲς δὲ καὶ τοῦτον 
τὸν ποταμὸν “ἵπανιν προσαγορεύουσι, καθάπερ 
καὶ τὸν πρὸς τῷ Βορυσθένει. 

10. Εἰσπλεύσαντι & εἰς τὴν Κοροκονδαμῖτιν ἥ 
τε Φαναγόρειά ἐστι, πόλις ἀξιόλογος, καὶ Κῆποι 
καὶ ἙἙρμώνασσα καὶ τὸ ᾿Απάτουρον, τὸ τῆς 
᾿Αφροδίτης ἱερόν᾽ ὧν ἡ Φαναγόρεια καὶ οἱ Κῆποι 
κατὰ τὴν λεχθεῖσαν νῆσον ἵδρυνται, εἰσπλέοντι 
ἐν ἀριστερᾷ, αἱ δὲ λοιπαὶ πόλεις ἐν δεξιᾷ πέραν 
Ὑπάνιος ἐν τῇ Σινδικῇ. ἔστι δὲ καὶ Γοργιπία 
ἐν τῇ Σινδικῇ, τὸ βασίλειον τῶν Σινδῶν, πλησίον 
θαλάττης, καὶ ᾿Αβοράκη. τοῖς δὲ τοῦ Βοσπόρου 
δυνάσταις ὑπήκοοι ὄντες ἅπαντες Βοσπορανοὶ κα- 
λοῦνται" καὶ ἔστι τῶν μὲν Εὐρωπαίων Βοσπορανῶν 
μητρόπολις τὸ Παντικάπαιον, τῶν δ᾽ ᾿Ασιανῶν τὸ 
Φαναγόρειον (καλεῖται γὰρ καὶ οὕτως ἡ πόλις), 
καὶ δοκεῖ τῶν μὲν ἐκ τῆς Μαιώτιδος καὶ τῆς 
ὑπερκειμένης βαρβάρου κατακομιξομένων ἐμπό- 
ριον εἶναι ἡ Ξ Φαναγόρεια, τῶν δ᾽ ἐκ τῆς θαλάττης 

1 Γοργίπια, Kramer, for Γοργίπτια. 
2 4, xz and Corais (7 @avayopia), ix tead of τά. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 2. 8-10 

being separated from it by a strait seventy stadia 
wide; for the ice, also,! extends as far as this, the 
Maeotis being so frozen at the time of frosts that it 
can be crossed on foot. And these Narrows have 
good harbours everywhere. 

9. Above Corocondamé lies a lake of considerable 
size, which derives its name, Corocondamitis, from 
that of the village. It empties into the sea at a 
distance of ten stadia from the village. A branch 
of the Anticeites empties into the lake and forms 
a kind of island which is surrounded by this lake 
and the Maeotis and the river. Some apply the 
name Hypanis to this river, just as they do to the 
river near the Borysthenes. 

10. Sailing into Lake Corocondamitis one comes 
to Phanagoreia, a noteworthy city, and to Cepi, and 
to Hermonassa, and to Apaturum, the sanctuary of 
Aphrodité. Of these, Phanagoreia and Cepi are ° 
situated on the island above-mentioned, on the left 
as one sails in, but the other cities are on the right, 
across the Hypanis, in the Sindic territory. There 
is also a place called Gorgipia in the Sindic territory, 
the royal residence of the Sindi, near the sea; and 
also a place called Aboracé. All the people who 
are subject to the potentates of the Bosporus are 
called Bosporians ; and Panticapaeum is the metropolis 
of the European Bosporians, while Phanagoreium 
(for the name of the city is also spelled thus) is the 
metropolis of the Asiatic Bosporians. Phanagoreia 
is reputed to be the emporium for the commodities 
that are brought down from the Maeotis and the 
barbarian country that lies above it, and Panti- 

1 2,6. as well as the Narrows. 



ἀναφερομένων ἐκεῖσε τὸ Ιαντικάπαιον. ἔστι δὲ 
καὶ ἐν τῇ Φαναγορείᾳ τῆς ᾿Αφροδίτης ἱ ἱερὸν ἐπίση- 
μον τῆς ᾿Απατούρον" ἐτυμολογοῦσι δὲ τὸ ἐπίθετον 
τῆς θεοῦ μῦθόν τινα προστησάμενοι, ὡς, ἐπιθεμέ- 
νων ἐνταῦθα τῇ θεῷ τῶν Γιγάντων, ἐπικαλεσαμένη 
τὸν Ἡρακλέα κρύψειεν" ἐν κευθμῶνί τινι, εἶτα 
τῶν Τιγάντων ἕκαστον δεχομένη καθ᾽ ἕνα τῷ 
Ἥρακλεϊ παραδιδοίη δολοφονεῖν ἐξ ἀπάτης. 

11. Τῶν Μαιωτῶν δ᾽ εἰσὶν αὐτοί τε οἱ Σινδοὶ 
καὶ Δανδάριοι καὶ Topedtar* καὶ “Aypou καὶ 
᾿Αρρηχοί, ἔτε δὲ Τάρπητες, ᾿᾽Οβιδιακηνοί, Σιττα- 
κηνοί, Δόσκοι, ἄλλοι πλείους" τούτων δ᾽ εἰσὶ καὶ 
οἱ ᾿Ασπουργιανοΐ, μεταξὺ Φαναγορείας * οἰκοῦντες 
καὶ Τοργιπίας ἐν πεντακοσίοις σταδίοις, οἷς ἐπι- 
θέμενος Πολέμων ὁ βασιλεὺς ἐπὶ προσποιήσει 
φιλίας, οὐ λαθὼν ἀντεστρατηγήθη καὶ ζωγρίᾳ 
ληφθεὶς ἀπέθανε. τῶν τε συμπάντων Μαιωτῶν 
τῶν ᾿Ασιανῶν οἱ μὲν ὑπήκουον τῶν τὸ ἐμπόριον 
ἐχύντων τὸ ἐν τῷ Τανάϊδι, οἱ δὲ τῶν Βοσπορανῶν' 
τοτε δ᾽ ἀφίσταντο ἄλλοτ᾽ ἄλλοι. πολλάκις δ᾽ οἱ 
τῶν Βοσπορανῶν ἡγεμόνες καὶ τὰ HEX pe τοῦ 
Τανάϊδος κατεῖχον, καὶ μάλιστα οἱ ὕστατοι, 
Φαρνάκης kai” Acavépos καὶ Πολέμων. Φαρνάκης 
δέ ποτε καὶ τὸν Trav τοῖς Δανδαρίοις ἐπαγαγεῖν 
λέγεται διά τινος παλαιᾶς διώρυγος, ἀνακαθάρας 
αὐτήν, καὶ 3 κατακλύσαι τὴν χώραν. 

12. Μετὰ δὲ τὴν Σινδικὴν καὶ τὴν Τοργιπίαν 

1 κρύψειεν z, instead of κρύψει, κρύψοι, κρύψαι, κρύψι other 

* Topeara is probably an error for Τορέται. 

® @avayopeias, Meineke, for bavayoptas. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 2. 10-12 

capaeum for those which are carried up thither from 
the sea. There is also in Phanagoreia a notable 
temple of Aphrodité Apaturus. Critics derive the 
etymology of the epithet of the goddess by adducing 
a certain myth, according to which the Giants 
attacked the goddess there; but she called upon 
Heracles for help and hid him in a cave, and then, 
admitting the Giants one by one, gave them over to 
Heracles to be murdered through “ treachery.” 4 

11. Among the Maeotae are the Sindi themselves, 
Dandarii, Toreatae, Agri, and Arrechi, and also the 
Tarpetes, Obidiaceni, Sittaceni, Dosci, and several 
others. Among these belong also the Aspurgiani, 
who live between Phanagoreia and Gorgipia, within 
a stretch of five hundred stadia ; these were attacked 
by King Polemon under a pretence of friendship, 
but they discovered his pretence, outgeneralled him, 
and taking him alive killed him. As for the Asiatic 
Maeotae in general, some of them were subjects of 
those who possessed the emporium on the Tanais, 
and the others of the Bosporians ; but in those days 
different peoples at different times were wont to 
revolt. And often the rulers of the Bosporians held 
possession of the region as far as the Tanais, and 
particularly the latest rulers, Pharnaces, Asander, 
and Polemon. Pharnaces is said at one time actually 
to have conducted the Hypanis River over the 
country of the Dandarii through an old canal which 
he cleared out, and to have inundated the country. 

12. After the Sindic territory and Gorgipia, on 

1 In Greek, ‘‘apaté.” 

4 «al, before κατακλύσαι, Casaubon inserts; so the later 


C 496 4 


ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάττῃ 91 τῶν ᾿Αχαιῶν καὶ Ζυγῶν καὶ 
“Ἡνιόχων παραλία, τὸ πλέον ἀλίμενος καὶ ὀρεινή, 
τοῦ Καυκάσου μέρος οὖσα. ζῶσι δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν 
κατὰ θάλατταν λῃστηρίων, ἀκάτια ἔχοντες λεπτά, 
στενὰ καὶ κοῦφα, ὅσον ἀνθρώπους πέντε καὶ 
εἴκοσι δεχόμενα, σπάνιον δὲ τριάκοντα δέξασθαι 
τοὺς πάντας δυνάμενα: καλοῦσι δ᾽ αὐτὰ οἱ 
“λληνες καμάρας. φασὶ δ᾽ ἀπὸ τῆς ᾿Ιάσονος 
στρατιᾶς τοὺς μὲν Φθιώτας ᾿Αχαιοὺς τὴν ἐνθάδε 
᾿Αχαΐαν οἰκίσαι, Λάκωνας δὲ τὴν ᾿Ηνιοχίαν, ὧν 
ἦρχον “Peas? καὶ ᾿Αμφίστρατος, οἱ τῶν Διοσ- 
κούρων ἡνίοχοι, καὶ τοὺς Ἡνιόχους ἀπὸ τούτων 
εἰκὸς ὠνομάσθαι. τῶν δ᾽ οὖν καμαρῶν στόλους 
κατασκευαζόμενοι καὶ shee Acer τοτὲ μὲν ταῖς 
ὁλκάσι, τοτὲ δὲ χώρᾳ τινὶ 3 ἢ καὶ πόλει θαλατ- 
τοκρατοῦσι. προσλαμβάνουσι δ᾽ ἔσθ᾽ ὅτε καὶ οἱ 
τὸν Βόσπορον ἔ ἔχοντες, ὑφόρμους χορηγοῦντες καὶ 
ἀγορὰν καὶ διάθεσιν τῶν ἁρπαζομένων" ἐπανιόν- 
τες δὲ εἰς τὰ οἰκεῖα χωρία, ναυλοχεῖν οὐκ ἔχοντες, 
ἀναθέμενοι τοῖς ὥμοις τὰς καμάρας ἀναφέρουσιν 
ἐπὶ τοὺς δρυμούς, ἐν οἷσπερ καὶ οἰκοῦσι, λυπρὰν 
ἀροῦντες γῆν: καταφέρουσι δὲ πάλιν, ὅταν 7 
καιρὸς τοῦ πλεῖν. τὸ δ᾽ αὐτὸ ποιοῦσι καὶ ἐν τῇ 
ἀλλοτρίᾳ, γνώριμα ἔχοντες ὑλώδη χωρία, ἐν οἷς 
ἀποκρύψαντες τὰς καμάρας αὐτοὶ πλανῶνται 
πεζῇ νύκτωρ καὶ μεθ᾽ ἡμέραν ἀνδραποδισμοῦ 

1 ἡ, after θαλάττῃ, Xylander, for τῇ ; so the later editors. 

2 Meineke emends ‘Péxas to Kpéxas (see critical notes of 
Kramer and C. Miller). 

3 rit is found only in Clowz. 

* lowz have πεζοί instead of πεζῇ. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 2. 12 

the sea, one comes to the coast of the Achaei and the 
Zygi and the Heniochi, which for the most part is 
harbourless and mountainous, being a part of the 
Caucasus. These peoples live by robberies at sea. 
Their boats are slender, narrow, and light, holding 
only about twenty-five people, though in rare cases 
they can hold thirty in all; the Greeks call them 
“camarae.” 1 They say that the Phthiotic Achaei? in 
Jason’s crew settled in this Achaea, but the Laconi- 
ans in Heniochia, the leaders of the latter being 
Rhecas? and Amphistratus, the “ heniochi” 4 of the 
Dioscuri,> and that in all probability the Heniochi 
were named after these. At any rate, by equipping 
fleets of ‘‘camarae”’ and sailing sometimes against 
merchant-vessels and sometimes against a country 
or even a city, they hold the mastery of the sea. 
And they are sometimes assisted even by those who 
hold the Bosporus, the latter supplying them with 
mooring-places, with market-place, and with means 
of disposing of their booty. And since, when they 
return to their own land, they have no anchorage, 
they put the “camarae” on their shoulders and 
carry them to the forests where they live and where 
they till a poor soil. And they bring the “ camarae” 
down to the shore again when the time for naviga- 
tion comes. And they do the same thing in the 
countries of others, for they are well acquainted 
with wooded places; and in these they first hide 
their “camarae” and then themselves wander on 
foot night and day for the sake of kidnapping 

1 2.6. *‘covered boats” (cf. Lat. and English ‘‘ camera’). 
See the description of Tacitus (7st. 3. 47). 

2 Cf. 9. 5. 10. 3 Apparently an error for ‘‘ Crecas.” 

4 ‘‘charioteers.” δ᾽ Castor and Pollux. 



Xapw. ἃ δ᾽ ἂν λάβωσιν ἐπίλυτρα ποιοῦσι ῥᾳδίως, 
μετὰ τοὺς ἀνάπλους μηνύοντες τοῖς ἀπολέσασιν. 
ἐν μὲν οὖν τοῖς δυναστευομένοις τόποις ἐστί τις 
βοήθεια ἐκ τῶν ἡγεμόνων τοῖς ἀδικουμένοις" 
ἀντεπιτίθενται γὰρ πολλάκις καὶ κατάγουσιν 
αὐτάνδρους τὰς καμάρας" ἡ 8 ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίοις 
ἀβοηθητοτέρα ἐστὶ διὰ τὴν ὀλιγωρίαν τῶν 

13; Τοιοῦτος μὲν ὁ τούτων βίος" δυναστεύονται 
δὲ καὶ οὗτοι ὑπὸ τῶν καλουμένων σκηπτούχων' 
καὶ αὐτοὶ δὲ οὗτοι ὑπὸ τυράννοις. ἢ βασιλεῦσίν 
εἰσιν. οἱ γοῦν Ηνίοχοι τέτταρας εἶχον βασιλέας, 
ἡνίκα Μιθριδάτης ὁ Εὐπάτωρ, φεύγων ἐκ τῆς 
προγονικῆς εἰς Βόσπορον, διηει τὴν “χώραν αὐτῶν᾽ 
καὶ αὕτη μὲν ἦν πορεύσιμος αὐτῷ, τῆς δὲ τῶν 
Zuyov! ἀπογνοὺς διά τε δυσχερείας καὶ ἀγριότη- 
τας τῇ παραλίᾳ χαλεπῶς ἤει, TA” πολλὰ ἐμβθαίνων 
ἐπὶ τὴν θάλατταν, ἕως ἐπὶ τὴν τῶν ᾿Αχαιῶν ἧκε: 
καὶ προσλαβόντων τούτων ἐξετέλεσε τὴν ὁδὸν 
τὴν ἐκ Φάσιδος, οὐ πολὺ τῶν τετρακισχιλίων 
λείπουσαν σταδίων. 

14. Εὐθὺς δ᾽ οὖν ἀπὸ τῆς Κοροκονδάμης πρὸς 
ἕω μὲν ὁ πλοῦς ἐστίν. ἐν δὲ σταδίοις ἑκατὸν 
ὀγδοήκοντα ὁ Σινδικός ἐστι λιμὴν καὶ πόλις, εἶτα 
ἐν τετρακοσίοις τὰ καλούμενα Βατά, κώμη καὶ 
λιμήν, καθ᾽ ὃ μάλιστα ἀντικεῖσθαι δοκεῖ πρὸς 
νότον ἡ Σινώπη ταύτῃ τῇ παραλίᾳ, καθάπερ ἡ 
Κάραμβις εἴρηται τοῦ Κριοῦ μετώπῳ ἀπὸ δὲ 

1 Ζυγῶν (as spelled elsewhere by Strabo), Meineke, for 
3. τά should probably be ejected from the text. 


GEOGRAPHY, |11. 2. 12-14 

people. But they readily offer to release their 
captives for ransom, informing their relatives after 
they have put out to sea. Now in those places 
which are ruled by local chieftains the rulers go to 
the aid of those who are wronged, often attacking 
and bringing back the ‘“camarae,’ men and all. 
But the territory that is subject to the Romans 
affords but little aid, because of the negligence of the 
governors who are sent there. 

13. Such is the life of these people. They are 
governed by chieftains called “‘sceptuchi,’+ but the 
*“sceptuchi” themselves are subject to tyrants or kings. 
For instance, the Heniochi had four kings at the time 
when Mithridates Eupator,? in flight from the country 
of his ancestors to the Bosporus, passed through their 
country ; and while he found this country passable, 
yet he despaired of going through that of the Zygi, 
both because of the ruggedness of it and because 
of the ferocity of the inhabitants; and only with 
difficulty could he go along the coast, most of the 
way marching on the edge of the sea, until he 
arrived at the country of the Achaei ; and, welcomed 
by these, he completed his journey from Phasis, a 
journey not far short of four thousand stadia. 

14. Now the voyage from Corocondamé is straight 
towards the east; and at a distance of one hundred 
and eighty stadia is the Sindic harbour and city; 
and then, at a distance of four hundred stadia, one 
comes to Bata, as it is called, a village and harbour, 
at which place Sinopé on the south is thought to 
lie almost directly opposite this coast, just as 
Carambis has been referred to as opposite Criume- 


1 ««Sceptre-bearers” (see note on ‘‘sceptuchies,” § 18 
below). * See Dictionary in Vol. 1. 




τῶν Ῥατῶν ὁ μὲν ᾿Αρτεμίδωρος τὴν Κερκετῶν 
λέγει παραλίαν, ὑφόρμους ἔχουσαν καὶ κώμας, 
ὅσον ἐπὶ σταδίους ὀκτακοσίους καὶ πεντήκοντα" 
εἶτα τὴν τῶν ᾿Αχαιῶν σταδίων πεντακοσίων, εἶτα 
τὴν τῶν Ἡνιόχων χιλίων, εἶτα τὸν Πιτνοῦντα 
τὸν μέγαν τριακοσίων ἑξήκοντα μέχρι Διοσ- 
κουριάδος. οἱ δὲ τὰ Μιθριδατικὰ συγγράψαντες, 
οἷς μᾶλλον προσεκτέον, ᾿Αχαιοὺς λέγουσι πρώ- 
τους, εἶτα Ζυγούς, εἶτα Ἡνιόχους, εἶτα Κερκέτας 
καὶ Μόσχους καὶ borers Kal τοὺς ὑπὲρ τούτων 
Φθειροφάγους καὶ Σοάνας + καὶ ἄλλα μικρὰ ἔθνη 
τὰ περὶ τὸν Καύκασον. κατ᾽ ἀρχὰς μὲν οὗν ἡ 
παραλία, καθάπερ εἶπον, ἐπὶ τὴν ἕω τείνει καὶ 
βλέπει πρὸς νότον, ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν Βατῶν ἐπιστροφὴν 
λαμβάνει κατὰ μικρόν, εἶτ᾽ ἀντιπρόσωπος γίνεται 
τῇ δύσει καὶ τελευτᾷ πρὸς τὸν Tervobvra καὶ 
τὴν Διοσκουριάδα" ταῦτα γὰρ τὰ χωρία τῆς 
Κολχίδος συνάπτει τῇ λεχθείσῃ παραλίᾳ. μετὰ 
δὲ τὴν Διοσκουριάδα ἡ λοιπὴ τῆς Κολχίδος ἐστὶ 
παραλία καὶ ἧ συνεχὴς Τραπεξζοῦς, καμπὴν 
ἀξιόλογον ποιήσασα' εἶτα εἰς εὐθεῖαν ταθεῖσά 
πως πλευρὰν τὴν τὰ δεξιὰ τοῦ Πόντου ποιοῦσαν, 
τὰ βλέποντα πρὸς ἄρκτον. ἅπασα δ᾽ ἡ τῶν 
᾿Αχαιῶν καὶ τῶν ἄλλων παραλία μέχρι Διοσ- 
κουριάδος καὶ τῶν ἐπ᾽ εὐθείας “πρὸς νότον ἐν τῇ 
μεσογαίᾳ τόπων ὑποπέπτωκε τῷ Καυκάσῳ. 

1ὅ. Ἔστι δ᾽ ὄρος τοῦτο ὑπερκείμενον τοῦ 
πελάγους ἑκατέρου, τοῦ τε ΤΠοντικοῦ καὶ τοῦ 
Κασπίου, διατείχιξον τὸν ἰσθμὸν τὸν διείργοντα 
αὐτά. ἀφορίξει. δὲ πρὸς νότον μὲν τήν τε ᾿Αλ- 
βανίαν καὶ τὴν ᾿Ιβηρίαν, πρὸς ἄρκτον δὲ τὰ τῶν 
Σαρματῶν πεδία: εὔδενδρον δ᾽ ἐστὶν ὕλῃ παντο- 

GEOGRAPHY, 11, 2. 14-15 

topon.! After Bata Artemidorus? mentions the 
coast of the Cercetae, with its mooring-places and 
villages, extending thence about eight hundred and 
fifty stadia; and then the coast οἵ the Achaei, five 
hundred stadia; and then that of the Heniochi, one 
thousand; and then Greater Pitvus, extending three 
hundred and sixty stadia to Dioscurias. The more 
trustworthy historians of the Mithridatic wars name 
the Achaei first, then the Zygi, then the Heniochi, 
and then the Cercetae and Moschi and Colchi, and 
the Phtheirophagi who live above these three peoples 
and the Soanes, and other small tribes that live in 
the neighbourhood of the Caucasus. Now at first 
the coast, as I have said, stretches towards the east 
and faces the south, but from Bata it gradually takes 
a turn, and then faces the west and ends at Pityus 
and Dioscurias; for these places border on the above- 
mentioned coast of Colchis. After Dioscurias comes 
the remaining coast of Colchis and the adjacent 
coast of Trapezus, which makes a considerable bend, 
and then, extending approximately in a straight line, 
forms the right-hand side of the Pontus, which faces 
the north. The whole of the coast of the Achaei 
and of the other peoples as far as’ Dioscurias and 
of the places that lie in a straight line towards the 
south in the interior lie at the foot of the Caucasus. 
15. This mountain lies above both seas, both the 
Pontic and the Caspian, and forms a wall across the 
isthmus that separates the two seas. It marks the 
boundary, on the south, of Albania and Iberia, and, 
on the north, of the plains of the Sarmatae. It is 

1 See 2. 5. 22 and 7. 4. 3. 2 See Dictionary in Vol. 11. 

1 Sodvas, T'zschucke from conj. of Casaubon, for Θοάνας ; 
50 the later editors, 

| 498 


δαπῇ, TH TE ἄλλῃ καὶ TH ναυπηγησίμῳ. φησὶ 
δ᾽ ᾿Ερατοσθένης ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων καλεῖσθαι 
Κάσπιον τὸν Καύκασον, ἴσως ἀπὸ τῶν Κασπίων 
παρονομασθέντα. ἀγκῶνες δέ τινες αὐτοῦ προ- 
πίπτουσιν ἐπὶ τὴν μεσημβρίαν, οἱ τήν τε Ἰβηρίαν 
τι περιλαμβάνουσι μέσην καὶ τοῖς ᾿Αρμενίων ὄρεσι 
συνάπτουσι καὶ τοῖς Μοσχικοῖς καλουμένοις, ἔτι 
δὲ τῷ Σκυδίσῃ καὶ τῷ Παρυάδρῃ: ταῦτα δ᾽ ἐστὶ 
μέρη τοῦ Ταύρου πάντα, τοῦ ποιοῦντος τὸ νότιον 
τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας πλευρόν, bind os πως ἐκεῖθεν 
πρὸς ἄρκτον καὶ προπίπτοντα ' μέχρι τοῦ Καυ- 
κάσου καὶ τῆς τοῦ Εὐξείνου παραλίας, τῆς ἐπὶ 
Θεμίσκυραν διατεινούσης ἀπὸ τῆς Κολχίδος. 

16. Ἢ δ᾽ οὖν Διοσκουριὰς ἐν κόλπῳ τοιούτῳ 
κειμένη καὶ τὸ ἑωθινώτατον σημεῖον ἐπέχουσα τοῦ 
σύμπαντος πελάγους, μυχός τε τοῦ Εὐξείνου 
λέγεται καὶ ἔσχατος πλοῦς" τό τε παροιμιακῶς 

εἰς Φᾶσιν, ἔνθα ναυσὶν ἔσχατος δρόμος, 

οὕτω δεῖ δέξασθαι, οὐχ ὡς τὸν ποταμὸν λέγοντος 
τοῦ ποιήσαντος τὸ ἰάμβειον, οὐδὲ δὴ ὡς τὴν 
ὁμώνυμον αὐτῷ πόλιν κειμένην ἐπὶ τῷ ποταμῷ, 
ἀλλ᾽ ὡς τὴν Κολχίδα ἀπὸ μέρους, ἐπεὶ ἀπό γε 
τοῦ ποταμοῦ καὶ τῆς πόλεως οὐκ ἐλάττων ἑξα- 
κοσίων σταδίων λείπεται πλοῦς ἐπ᾽ εὐθείας εἰς 
τὸν μυχόν. ἡ δ᾽ αὐτὴ Διοσκουριάς ἐστι καὶ 
ἀρχὴ τοῦ ἰσθμοῦ τοῦ μεταξὺ τῆς Κασπίας καὶ 
τοῦ Πόντου καὶ ἐμπόριον τ τῶν ὑπερκειμένων καὶ 
σύνεγγυς ἐθνῶν κοινόν" συνέρχεσθαι, γοῦν εἰς 
αὐτὴν ἑβδομήκοντα, οἱ δὲ καὶ τριακόσια ἔθνη 

1 προπίπτοντα, Niese, for προσπίπτοντα ; so Meineke. 

GEOGRAPHY, τι. 2. 15-16 

well wooded with all kinds of timber, and especially 
the kind suitable for ship-building. According to 
Eratosthenes, the Caucasus is called ‘“‘Caspius’’ by 
the natives, the name being derived perhaps from 
the “Caspii.” Branches of it project towards the 
south; and these not only comprise the middle of 
Albania but also join the mountains of Armenia and 
the Moschian Mountains, as they are called, and also 
the Seydises and the Paryadres Mountains, All 
these are parts of the Taurus, which forms the 
southern side of Armenia,—parts broken off, as it 
were, from that mountain on the north and _ pro- 
jecting as far as the Caucasus and that part of the 
coast of the Euxine which stretches from Colchis to 

16. Be this as it may, since Dioscurias is situated 
in such a gulf and occupies the most easterly point 
of the whole sea, it is called not only the recess of 
the Euxine, but also the “ farthermost”’ voyage. And 
the proverbial verse, ‘To Phasis, where for ships is 
the farthermost run,” must be interpreted thus, not 
as though the author! of the iambic verse meant the 
river, much less the city of the same name situated 
on the river, but as meaning by a part of Colchis the 
whole of it, since from the river and the city of that 
name there is left a straight voyage into the recess 
of not less than six hundred stadia. The same 
Dioscurias is the beginning of the isthmus between 
the Caspian Sea and the Euxine, and also the 
common emporium of the tribes who are situated 
above it and in its vicinity; at any rate, seventy 
tribes come together in it, though others, who care 
nothing for the facts, actually say three hundred. 

1 An unknown tragic poet (Adesp. 559, Nauck). 


φασίν, ols οὐδὲν τῶν ὄντων μέλει. πάντα δὲ 
ἑτερόγλωττα διὰ τὸ σποράδην καὶ ἀμίκτως οἰκεῖν 
ὑπὸ αὐθαδείας καὶ ἀγριότητος" Σαρμάται δ᾽ εἰσὶν 
οἱ πλείους, πάντες δὲ Καυκάσιοι. ταῦτα μὲν δὴ 
τὰ περὶ τὴν Διοσκουριάδα. 
11. Καὶ ἡ λοιπὴ δὲ Κολχὶς ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάττῃ 
ἡ πλείων ἐστί: διαρρεῖ δ᾽ αὐτὴν ὁ Φᾶσις, μέγας 
ποταμὸς ἐξ ᾿Δρμενίας Tas ἀρχὰς ἔχων, δεχόμενος 
τόν τε ᾿λαῦκον καὶ τὸν “Ἵππον, ἐκ τῶν πλησίον 
ὀρῶν ἐκπίπτοντας: ἀναπλεῖται δὲ μέχρι Σαρα- 
πανῶν, ἐρύματος δυναμένου δέξασθαι καὶ πόλεως 
συνοικισμόν, ὅθεν με ξεώμεῃε ἐπὶ ἐπὶ τὸν Κῦρον 
ἡμέραις τέτταρσι δι ἁμαξιτοῦ. ἐπίκειται δὲ τῷ 
Φάσιδι ὁμώνυμος πόλις, ἐμπόριον τῶν Κόλχων, 
τῇ μὲν προβεβλημένη τὸν ποταμόν, τῇ δὲ λέμνην, 
τῇ δὲ τὴν θάλατταν. ἐντεῦθεν δὲ πλοῦς ἐπ᾽ 
᾿Αμισοῦ καὶ Σινώπης τριῶν ἡμερῶν ἢ δύο! διὰ 
τὸ τοὺς αἰγιαλοὺς μαλακοὺς εἶναι καὶ τὰς τῶν 
ποταμῶν ἐκβολάς. ἀγαθὴ δ᾽ ἐστὶν 7 χώρα καὶ 
καρποῖς πλὴν τοῦ μέλιτος (πικρίξει γὰρ τὸ πλέον) 
καὶ τοῖς πρὸς ναυπηγίαν πᾶσι πολλήν τε γὰρ 
ὕλην " φύει καὶ ποταμοῖς κατακομίξει, λινόν τε 
ποιεῖ πολὺ καὶ κάνναβιν καὶ κηρὸν καὶ πίτταν. 
ἡ δὲ λινουργία καὶ τεθρύληται" καὶ γὰρ εἰς τοὺς 
ἔξω τόπους ἐπεκόμιξον, καί τινες βουλόμενοι συγ- 
γένειάν τινα τοῖς Κόλχοις πρὸς τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους 
1 τριῶν ἡμερῶν ἢ δύο (‘‘three or two days”) cannot be 
right, since, according to Strabo (12. 3 17) the distance 
from Phasis to Amisus is 3600 stadia. Gosselin, Groskurd, 
and Kramer think that the copyists confused 7 (3) and β΄ 
(2) with η΄ (8) and @(9). C. Miiller thinks that the β΄ has 

been confused with 8’ (4), and would emend ἡμερῶν to 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 2. 16-17 

All speak different languages because of the fact 
that, by reason of their obstinacy and ferocity, they 
live in scattered groups and without intercourse with 
one another. The greater part of them are Sarmatae, 
but they are all Caucasii. So much, then, for the 
region of Dioscurias. 

17. Further, the greater part of the remainder of 
Colchis is on the sea. Through it flows the Phasis, 
a large river having its sources in Armenia and 
receiving the waters of the Glaucus and the Hippus, 
which issue from the neighbouring mountains. It is 
navigated as far as Sarapana, a fortress capable of 
admitting the population even of a city. From 
here people go by land to the Cyrus in four days by 
a wagon-road. On the Phasis is situated a city 
bearing the same name, an emporium of the Colchi, 
which is protected on one side by the river, on another 
by a lake, and on another by the sea. Thence people 
go to Amisus and Sinopé by sea (a voyage of two or 
three days), because the shores are soft and because of 
the outlets of the rivers. The country is excellent 
both in respect to its produce—except its honey, 
which is generally bitter—and in respect to every- 
thing that pertains to ship-building ; for it not only 
produces quantities of timber but also brings it down 
on rivers. And the people make linen in quantities, 
and hemp, wax, and pitch. Their linen industry has 
been famed far and wide; for they used to export 
linen to outside places ; and some writers, wishing to 
show forth a kinship between the Colchians and the 

2 ὕλην, Jones inserts, following conj. of Kramer, and also, 
following x, omits καί before φύει. 


. 499 


ἐμφανίξειν ἀπὸ τούτων πιστοῦνται. ὑπέρκειται δὲ 
τῶν λεχθέντων. ποταμῶν ἐν τῇ Μοσχικῇ τὸ τῆς 
Λευκοθέας ἱερόν, Φρίξου ἵδρυμα, καὶ μαντεῖον 
ἐκείνου, ὅπου κριὸς οὐ θύεται, πλούσιόν ποτε 
ὑπάρξαν, συληθὲν δὲ ὑπὸ Φαρνάκου καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς, 
καὶ μικρὸν ὕστερον ὑπὸ Μιθριδάτου τοῦ Ilepya- 
μηνοῦ: κακωθείσης γὰρ χώρας, 

νοσεῖ τὰ τῶν θεῶν, οὐδὲ τιμᾶσθαι θέλει, 

ΓΗ ἰυὐριπίδης. 

. Τὸ μὲν γὰρ παλαιὸν ὅσην ἐπιφάνειαν 
‘ier ἡ χώρα αὕτη, δηλοῦσιν οἱ μῦθοι, τὴν 
Ἰάσονος στρατείαν αἰνιττόμενοι προελθόντος μέχρι 
καὶ Μηδίας, ἐ ἔτι δὲ πρότερον τὴν Φρίξου. μετὰ 
δὲ ταῦτα διαδεξάμενοι βασιλεῖς εἰς σκηπτουχίας 
διηρημένην ἔχοντες τὴν χώραν μέσως ἔπραττον" 
αὐξηθέντος δὲ ἐπὶ πολὺ Μιθριδάτου τοῦ Εὐπά- 
τορος, εἰς ἐκεῖνον ἡ χώρα περιέστη" ἐπέμπετο 
δ᾽ ἀεί τις τῶν φίλων ὕπαρχος καὶ διοικητὴς τῆς 
χώρας. τούτων δὲ ἣν καὶ Μοαφέρνης, ὁ τῆς 
μητρὸς ἡμῶν θεῖος πρὸς πατρός ἣν δ᾽ ἔνθεν ἡ 
πλείστη τῷ βασιλεῖ πρὸς τὰς ναυτικὰς δυνά- 

΄ / f \ / 
pets ὑπουργία. καταλυθέντος δὲ Μιθριδάτου, 
συγκατελύθη καὶ ἡ ὑπ᾽ αὐτῷ πᾶσα καὶ διενε- 
μήθη πολλοῖς: ὕστατα δὲ Πολέμων ἔσχε τὴν Κολ- 
χίδα, κἀκείνου τελευτήσαντος ἡ γυνὴ Πυθοδωρὶς 
κρατεῖ, βασιλεύουσα καὶ Κόλχων καὶ Τραπε- 
ζοῦντος καὶ Φαρνακίας καὶ τῶν ὑπερκειμένων 
βαρβάρων, περὶ ὧν ἐροῦμεν ἐν τοῖς ὕστερον. ἡ 

1 Troades 26, 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 2. 17-18 

Egyptians, confirm their belief by this. Above the 
aforesaid rivers in the Moschian country lies the 
temple of Leucothea, founded by Phrixus, and the 
oracle of Phrixus, where a ram is never sacrificed ; 
it was once rich, but it was robbed in our time by 
Pharnaces, and a little later by Mithridates of 
Pergamum. For when a country is devastated, 
“things divine are in sickly plight and wont not 
even to be respected,” says Euripides.! 

18. The great fame this country had in early times 
is disclosed by the myths, which refer in an obscure 
way to the expedition of Jason as having proceeded 
as far even as Media, and also, before that time, to 
that of Phrixus. After this, when kings succeeded to 
power, the country being divided into “sceptuchies,”? 
they were only moderately prosperous; but when 
Mithridates Eupator * grew powerful, the country fell 
into his hands; and he would always send one of his 
friends as sub-governor or administrator of the 
country. Among these was Moaphernes, my 
mother’s uncle on her father’s side. And it was 
from this country that the king received most aid in 
the equipment of his naval forces. But when the 
power of Mithridates had been broken up, all the terri- 
tory subject tohim was also broken up and distributed 
among many persons. At last Polemon got Colchis ; 
and since his death his wife Pythodoris has been in 
power, being queen, not only of the Colchians, but 
also of ‘Trapezus and Pharnacia and of the barbarians 
who live above these places, concerning whom I shall 
speak later on.4 Now the Moschian country, in 

* i.e divisions corresponding to the rank of Persian 
“*sceptuchi’’ (“‘ sceptre-bearers ’’). 
3 See Dictionary in Vol. I. lle ΒΓΗ͂: 



δ᾽ οὖν Μοσχική, ἐν ἡ τὸ ἱερόν, τριμερής ἐστι" 
τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἔχουσιν αὐτῆς Κόλχοι, τὸ δὲ Ἴβηρες, 
τὸ δὲ ᾿Αρμένιοι. ἔστι δὲ καὶ πολίχνιον ἐν τῇ 
Ἰβηρίᾳ, Φρίξου πόλις, ἡ νῦν ᾿Ιδήεσσα, εὐερκὲς 

npia, Dp ἡ ή ρ 
χωρίον, ἐν μεθορίοις τῆς Κολχίδος. περὶ de} τὴν 
Διοσκουριάδα ῥεῖ ὁ Χάρης 5 ποταμός. 

19. Τῶν δὲ συνερχομένων ἐθνῶν εἰς τὴν 
Διοσκουριάδα καὶ οἱ Φθειροφάγοι εἰσίν, ἀπὸ 
τοῦ αὐχμοῦ καὶ τοῦ πίνου λαβόντες τοὔνομα. 
πλησίον δὲ καὶ οἱ Σοάνες, οὐδὲν βελτίους τού- 
των τῷ πίνῳ, δυνάμει δὲ βελτίους, σχεδὸν δέ 
τι καὶ κράτιστοι κατὰ ἀλκὴν καὶ δύναμιν: δυνα- 
στεύουσι γοῦν τῶν 3 κύκλῳ, τὰ ἄκρα τοῦ Καυ- 
κάσου κατέχοντες τὰ ὑπὲρ τῆς Διοσκουριάδος. 
βασιλέα δ᾽ ἔχουσι καὶ συνέδριον ἀνδρῶν τρια- 
κοσίων, συνάγουσι δ᾽, ὥς φασι, στρατιὰν καὶ 
εἴκοσι μυριάδων: ἅπαν γάρ ἐστι τὸ πλῆθος 
μάχιμον, οὐ συντεταγμένον: παρὰ τούτοις δὲ 
λέγεται καὶ χρυσὸν καταφέρειν τοὺς χειμάρρους, 
ὑποδέχεσθαι δ᾽ αὐτὸν τοὺς βαρβάρους φάτναις 
κατατετρημέναις καὶ μαλλωταῖς δοραῖς" ἀφ᾽ οὗ δὴ 
μεμυθεῦσθαι καὶ τὸ χρυσόμαλλον δέρος" εἰ μὴ ὃ 
καὶ Ἴβηρας ὁμωνύμως τοῖς ἑσπερίοις καλοῦσιν 
ἀπὸ τῶν ἑκατέρωθι χρυσείων. χρῶνται δ᾽ οἱ 

\ > 

Loaves φαρμάκοις πρὸς τὰς axidas θαυμαστοῖς," 

1 δέ, after περί, Casaubon adds from rw; so the later 
editors in general. 

2 CDhi have ῥιοχάρης instead of ῥεῖ 6 Χάρης; but Meineke 
ejects the whole sentence. 

3 τῶν, Casaubon, for τῷ MSS., except C, which has τά; 
so the later editors. 

4 στρατιάν, Corais, for στρατείαν ; so the later editors. 

5 εἰ μή seems to be corrupt. Kramer proposes ἔνιοι. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 2. 18-19 

which is situated the temple,! is divided into three 
parts : one part is held by the Colchians, another by 
the Iberians, and another by the Armenians. There 
is also a small city in Iberia, the city of Phrixus,? 
the present Ideéssa, well fortified, on the confines of 
Colchis. And near Dioscurias flows the Chares 

19. Among the tribes which come together at 
Dioscurias are the Phtheirophagi,? who have received 
their name from their squalor and their filthiness. 
Near them are the Soanes, who are no less filthy, 
but superior to them in power,—indeed, one might 
almost say that they are foremost in courage and 
power. At any rate, they are masters of the peoples 
around them, and hold possession of the heights of 
the Caucasus above Dioscurias. They have a king 
and a council of three hundred men; and _ they 
assemble, according to report, an army of two hundred 
thousand ; for the whole of the people are a fighting 
force, though unorganised. It is said that in their 
country gold is carried down by the mountain- 
torrents, and that the barbarians obtain it by means 
of perforated troughs and fleecy skins, and that this 
is the origin of the myth of the golden fleece—unless 
they call them Iberians, by the same name as the 
western Iberians, from the gold mines in both 
countries. ‘The Soanes use remarkable poisons for 
the points of their missiles; and even people who 

1 Of Leucothea (§ 17 above). 
2 Phrixopolis. 3 <«Tice-eaters.”’ 

δ θαυμαστοῖς, Casaubon, for θαυμαστῶς; so Kramer and 


C 500 


a} Kal τοὺς pi? φαρμακτοῖς ® τετρωμένους 

βέλεσι λυπεῖ κατὰ τὴν ὀσμήν. τὰ μὲν οὖν 
», v Ν 3, UA 
ἄλλα ἔθνη τὰ πλησίον τὰ περὶ τὸν Καύκασον 
Ν \ / Ν \ a ? a ΒΩ 

λυπρὰ καὶ μικρόχωρα, τὸ δὲ τῶν ᾿Αλβανῶν ἔθνος 
καὶ τὸ τῶν ᾿Ιβήρων, ἃ δὴ πληροῖ μάλιστα τὸν 
λεχθέντα ἰσθμόν, Καυκάσια καὶ αὐτὰ λέγοιτ᾽ 
ἄν, εὐδαίμονα δὲ χώραν ἔχει καὶ σφόδρα καλῶς 
οἰκεῖσθαι δυναμένην. 


1. Καὶ δὴ καὶ ἥ γε Ἰβηρία κατοικεῖται 
καλῶς τὸ πλέον πόλεσί τε καὶ ἐποικίοις, ὥστε 
καὶ κεραμωτὰς εἶναι στέγας καὶ ἀρχιτεκτονικὴν 

Lod \ > \ \ 
τὴν TOV οἰκήσεων κατασκευὴν καὶ ἀγορὰς Kal 
τἄλλα κοινά. 

2. Τῆς δὲ χώρας τὰ μὲν κύκλῳ τοῖς Καυκασίοις 
ὄρεσι περιέχεται. προπεπτώκασι γάρ, ὡς εἶπον, 
ἀγκῶνες ἐπὶ τὴν μεσημβρίαν εὔκαρποι, περι- 
λαμβάνοντες τὴν σύμπασαν ᾿Ιβηρίαν καὶ συνάπ- 
τοντες πρός τε τὴν ᾿Αρμενίαν καὶ τὴν Κολχίδα᾽ 
ἐν μέσῳ δ᾽ ἐστὶ πεδίον ποταμοῖς διάρρυτον, 
μεγίστῳ δὲ τῷ Κύρῳ᾽ ὃς τὴν ἀρχὴν ἔχων ἀπὸ 
τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας, εἰσ βαλὼν εὐθὺς εἰς τὸ πεδίον τὸ 
λεχθέν, παραλαβὼν καὶ τὸν “Apayov, ἐκ ὃ τοῦ 
Καυκάσου ῥέοντα, καὶ ἄλλα ὕδατα, διὰ στενῆς 
ποταμίας εἰς τὴν ᾿Αλβανίαν ἐκπίπτει: μεταξὺ 
δὲ ταύτης τε καὶ τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας ἐνεχθεὶς πολὺς 


1 ἅ, Casaubon inserts; so Kramer and Miiller-Diibner. 

2 μή, Jones inserts, on suggestion of Professor Capps. _ 

3 φαρμακτοῖς, Corais, for ἀφαρμακτοῖς; so Kramer and 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 2. 19-3. 2 

are not wounded by the poisoned missiles suffer from 
their odour. Now in general the tribes in the 
neighbourhood of the Caucasus occupy barren and 
cramped territories, but the tribes of the Albanians 
and the Iberians, which occupy nearly all the isthmus 
above-mentioned, might also be called Caucasian 
tribes ; and they possess territory that is fertile and 
‘capable of affording an exceedingly good livelihood. 


1. Furtrurermorer, the greater part of Iberia is so 
well built up in respect to cities and farmsteads that 
their roofs are tiled, and their houses as well as 
their market-places and other public buildings are 
constructed with architectural skill. 

2. Parts of the country are surrounded by the 
Caucasian Mountains; for branches of these moun- 
tains, as I said before,! project towards the south ; 
they are fruitftl, comprise the whole of Iberia, and 
border on both Armenia and Colchis. In the 
middle is a plain intersected by rivers, the largest 
being the Cyrus. This river has its beginning in 
Armenia, flows immediately into the plain above- 
mentioned, receives both the Aragus, which flows 
from the Caucasus, and other streams, and empties 
through a narrow valley into Albania; and between 
the valley and Armenia it flows in great volume 


4 κατοικεῖται, Meineke, for καὶ οἰκεῖται; earlier editors 
merely omit the καί. 
5 “Apayov (see ὃ 5 following) ἐκ, Corais, for “Apayava κάτω ; 
so Meineke. 


διὰ πεδίων εὐβοτουμένων σφόδοα, δεξώμενος καὶ 
πλείους ποταμούς, ὧν ἐστὶν ὅ τε ᾿Αλαζόνιος καὶ 
ὁ Σανδοβάνης καὶ ὁ Ῥοιτάκης καὶ Χάνης, πλωτοὶ 
πάντες, εἰς τὴν Κασπίαν ἐμβάλλει θάλατταν. 
ἐκαλεῖτο δὲ πρότερον Κόρος. 

3. Lo μὲν οὖν πεδίον τῶν ᾿Ιβήρων οἱ γεώργι- 
κώτεροι καὶ πρὸς εἰρήνην νενευκότες οἰκοῦσιν, 
᾿Αρμενιστί τε καὶ Μηδιστὶ ἐσκευασμένοι, τὴν δ᾽ 
ὀρεινὴν οἱ πλείους καὶ μάχιμοι κατέχουσι, Σκυθῶν 
δίκην ζῶντες καὶ Σαρματῶν, ὧνπερ καὶ ὅμοροι 
καὶ συγγενεῖς εἰσίν: ἅπτονται δ᾽ ὅμως καὶ γεωρ- 
γίας, πολλάς τε μυριάδας συνάγουσιν καὶ ἐξ 
ἑαυτῶν καὶ ἐξ ἐκείνων, ἐπειδάν τι συμπέσῃ 

4. Terrapes δ᾽ εἰσὶν eis τὴν χώραν ela Borat” 
pia μὲν διὰ Σαραπανῶν, φρουρίου Κολχικοῦ, καὶ 
τῶν κατ᾽ αὐτὸ στενῶν, δι’ ὧν ὁ Φᾶσις γεφύραις 
ἑκατὸν καὶ εἴκοσι περατὸς γενόμενος διὰ τὴν 
σκολιότητα καταρρεῖ τραχὺς καὶ βίαιος εἰς τὴν 
Κολχίδα, πολλοῖς χειμάρροις κατὰ τὰς “ἐπομβρίας 
ἐκχαραδρουμένων τῶν τόπων. γεννᾶται δ᾽ ἐκ 
τῶν ὑπερκειμένων ὀρῶν πολλαῖς συμπληρούμενος 
πηγαῖς, ἐν δὲ τοῖς πεδίοις καὶ ἄλλους προσλαμ- 
βάνει ποταμούς, ὧν ἐστὶν ὅ τε ᾿λαῦκος καὶ ὁ 
Ἵππος: πληρωθεὶς δὲ καὶ γενόμενος πλωτὸς 
ἐξίησιν εἰς τὸν Πόντον καὶ ἔχει πόλιν ὁμώνυμον 
ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ καὶ λίμνην πλησίον. ἡ μὲν οὖν ἐκ τῆς 
Κολχίδος εἰς τὴν ᾿Ιβηρίαν ἐμβολὴ τοιαύτη, 
πέτραις καὶ ἐρύμασι καὶ ποταμοῖς χαραδρώδεσι 

1 ἐμβάλλει oz Epit. ; ἐμβάλλουσι other MSS. 

GEOGRAPHY, τι. 3. 2-4 

through plains that have exceedingly good pasture, 
receives still more rivers, among which are the 
Alazonius, Sandobanes, Rhoetaces, and Chanes, all 
navigable, and empties into the Caspian Sea. It 
was formerly called Corus. 

3. Now the plain of the Iberians is inhabited by 
people who are rather inclined to farming and to 
peace, and they dress after both the Armenian and 
the Median fashion; but the major, or warlike, portion 
occupy the mountainous territory, living like the 
Scythians and the Sarmatians, of whom they are 
both neighbours and kinsmen; however, they 
engage also in farming. And they assemble many 
tens of thousands, both from their own people and 
from the Scythians and Sarmatians, whenever any- 
thing alarming occurs. 

4. There are four passes leading into their coun- 
try ; one through Sarapana, a Colchian stronghold, 
and through the narrow defiles there. Through 
these defiles the Phasis, which has been made 
passable by one hundred and twenty bridges be- 
cause of the windings of its course, flows down into 
Colchis with rough and violent stream, the region 
being cut into ravines by many torrents at the time 
of the heavy rains. The Phasis rises in the moun- 
tains that lie above it, where it is supplied by many 
springs; and in the plains it receives still other 
rivers, among which are the Glaucus and the 
Hippus. Thus filled and having by now become navi- 
gable, it issues forth into the Pontus; and it has on 
its banks a city bearing the same name; and near it 
is a lake. Such, then, is the pass that leads from 
Colchis into Iberia, being shut in by rocks, by 
strongholds, and by rivers that run through ravines. 

ViOLoaVe H 

C 501 


5. Ἔκ δὲ τῶν πρὸς ἄρκτον νομάδων ἐπὶ τρεῖς 
ἡμέρας ἀνάβασις χαλεπή, καὶ μετὰ ταύτην 
ποταμία στενὴ ἐπὶ τοῦ ᾿Αράγου ποταμοῦ τεττά- 
ρων ἡμερῶν ὁδὸν ἔ ἔχουσα ἐφ᾽ ἕνα, φρουρεῖ δὲ τὸ 
πέρας τῆς ὁδοῦ “τεῖχος δύσμαχον" ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς 
᾿Αλβανίας διὰ πέτρας πρῶτον λατομητὴ εἴσοδος, 
εἶτα διὰ τέλματος, ὃ ποιεῖ ὁ ποταμὸς ᾿Αλαξόνιος ' 
ἐκ τοῦ Καυκάσου καταπίπτων" ἀπὸ δὲ “τῆς 
“A ppevias Ta ἐπὶ τῷ Κύρῳ στενὰ καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ τῷ 
᾿Αράγῳ. πρὶν “γὰρ εἰς ἀλλήλους συμπεσεῖν, 
ἔχουσιν ἐπικειμένας πόλεις ἐρυμνὰς ἐπὶ πέτραις, 
διεχούσαις ἀλλήλων ὅσον ἑκκαίδεκα σταδίους, 
ἐπὶ μὲν τῷ Κύρῳ τὴν ᾿Ἀρμοξικήν, ἐπὶ δὲ θατέρῳ 
Σευσάμορα. ταύταις δὲ ἐ ἐχρήσατο ταῖς εἰσβολαῖς 
πρότερον Ἰ]ομπήιϊος ἐκ τῶν ᾿Αρμενίων ὁρμηθείς, 
καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα Kavidios. 

6. Τέτταρα δὲ καὶ γένη τῶν ἀνθρώπων οἰκεῖ 
τὴν χώραν' ἕν μὲν καὶ πρῶτον, ἐξ οὗ τοὺς βασι- 
λέας καθιστᾶσι, κατ᾽ ἀγχιστείαν τε καὶ ἡλικίαν 
τὸν πρεσβύτατον, ὁ δὲ δεύτερος δικαιοδοτεῖ καὶ 
στρατηλατεῖ' δεύτερον δὲ τὸ τῶν ἱερέων," οἱ ἐπι- 
μελοῦνται καὶ τῶν πρὸς τοὺς ὁμόρους δικαίων" 
τρίτον δὲ τὸ τῶν στρατευομένων καὶ γεωργούντων" 
τέταρτον δὲ τὸ τῶν λαῶν, οἱ βασιλικοὶ δοῦλοί 
εἰσι καὶ πάντα διακονοῦνται τὰ πρὸς τὸν βίον. 
κοιναὶ δ᾽ εἰσὶν αὐτοῖς αἱ κτήσεις κατὰ συγγένειαν, 
ἄρχει δὲ καὶ παμιεύει ἑκάστην ὁ πρεσβύτατος. 
τοιοῦτοι μὲν οἱ Ἴβηρες καὶ ἡ χώρα αὐτῶν. 

1 ῬΑλαζόνιος, Groskurd inserts ; so the later editors. 
2 ἱερέων, Xylander, for ἱερῶν ; so the later editors. 

1 Crassus the Triumvir. 

2 2.6. as well as four passes leading into the country (see 
§ 4, beginning). 

GEOGRAPHY, 11. 3. 5-6 

5. From the country of the nomads on the north 
there is a difficult ascent into Iberia requiring three 
days’ travel; and after this ascent comes a narrow 
valley on the Aragus River, with a single-file road 
requiring a four days’ journey. The end of the road 
is guarded by a fortress which is hard to capture. 
The pass leading from Albania into Iberia is at first 
hewn through rock, and then leads through a marsh 
formed by the River Alazonius, which falls from the 
Caucasus. The passes from Armenia into Iberia are 
the defiles on the Cyrus and those on the Aragus. 
For, before the two rivers meet, they have on their 
banks fortified cities that are situated upon rocks, 
these being about sixteen stadia distant from each 
other—I mean Harmozicé on the Cyrus and Seus- 
amora on the other river, These passes were 
used first by Pompey when he set out from the 
country of the Armenians, and afterwards by 

6. There are also? four castes among the inhabi- 
tants of Iberia. One, and the first of all, is that 
from which they appoint their kings, the appointee 
being both the nearest of kin to his predecessor and 
the eldest, whereas the second in line administers 
justice and commands the army. ‘The second caste 
is that of the priests, who among other things 
attend to all matters of controversy with the neigh- 
bouring peoples. The third is that of the soldiers 
and the farmers. And the fourth is that of the 
common people, who are slaves of the king and _ per- 
form all the services that pertain to human liveli- 
hood. Their possessions are held in common by them 
according to families, although the eldest is ruler 
and steward of each estate. Such are the Iberians 
and their country. 




1. ᾿Αλβανοὶ δὲ ποιμενικώτεροι καὶ τοῦ νομα- 
δικοῦ γένους ἐγγυτέρω, πλὴν ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἄγριοι 
ταύτῃ δὲ καὶ πολεμικοὶ μετρίως. οἰκοῦσι δὲ 

\ “-“ " ἊΝ A a /, ,ὔ 
μεταξὺ τῶν ᾿Ιβήρων καὶ τῆς Κασπίας θαλάττης, 
, na Ν 

πρὸς ἕω μὲν ἁπτόμενοι τῆς θαλάττης, πρὸς δύσιν 
δὲ ὁμοροῦντες τοῖς ᾿Ιβηρσι' τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν πλευ- 
ρῶν τὸ μὲν βόρειον φρουρεῖται τοῖς Καυκασίοις 
ὄρεσι (ταῦτα yap ὑπέρκειται TOV πεδίων, καλεῖται 
δὲ τὰ πρὸς τῇ θαλάττῃ μάλιστα Κεραύνια), τὸ δὲ 
νότιον ποιεῖ ἡ ᾿Αρμενία. παρήκουσα, πολλὴ μὲν 
πεδιάς, πολλὴ δὲ καὶ ὀρεινή, καθάπερ ἡ Kap- 
βυσηνή, καθ᾽ ἣν ἅμα καὶ τοῖς Ἴβηρσι καὶ τοῖς 
᾿Αλβανοῖς οἱ ᾿Δρμένιοι συνάπτουσιν. 

2. Ὃ δὲ Κῦρος ὁ διαρρέων τὴν ᾿Αλβανίαν καὶ 
΄ “ r \ 
οἱ ἄλλοὶ ποταμοὶ οἱ πληροῦντες ἐκεῖνον ταῖς μὲν 
τῆς γῆς ἀρεταῖς προσλαμβάνουσι, τὴν δὲ θάλατ- 
ταν ἀλλοτριοῦσιν, ἡ “γὰρ “χοῦς προσπίπτουσα 
πολλὴ πληροῖ τὸν πόρον, ὥστε καὶ τὰς ἐπικει- 
μένας νησῖδας ἐξηπειροῦσθαι καὶ τενάγη ποιεῖν 
» , \ 4 \ > > / 
ἀνώμαλα καὶ δυσφύλακτα, THY δ᾽ ἀνωμαλίαν 
ἐπιτείνουσιν αἱ ἐκ τῶν πλημμυρίδων ἀνακοπαί. 
καὶ δὴ καὶ εἰς στόματα δώδεκά φασι μεμερίσθαι 
\ , / \ \ / Ν \ aA 
τᾶς ἐκβολάς, τὰ μὲν TUPAa, τὰ δὲ παντελῶς 

> / ty ” 2 \ δὲ 3 ef > / 
ἐπίπεδα ὄντα “ Kal pndoe* ὕφορμον ἀπολείποντα" 
ἐπὶ πλείους γοῦν ἢ ἑξήκοντα σταδίους ἀμφι- 

1 ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἄγριοι, Meineke from conj. of Kramer, for 

* For ἐπιγελῶντα Meineke and C. Miller conj. ἐπίπεδα 

ὄντα. ἐπίγεια ὄντα conj. Tyrwhitt, ἐπιπόλαια ὄντα Corais, 
ἐπίπλεα ὄντα Kramer. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι, 4. 1-2 


1. THe Albanians are more inclined to the 
shepherd’s life than the Iberians and closer akin to 
the nomadic people, except that they are not fero- 
cious; and for this reason they are only moderately 
warlike. They live between the Iberians and the 
Caspian Sea, their country bordering on the sea 
towards the east and on the country of the Iberians 
towards the west. Of the remaining sides the 
northern is protected by the Caucasian Mountains 
(for these mountains lie above the plains, though 
their parts next to the sea are generally called 
Ceraunian), whereas the southern side is formed by 
Armenia, which stretches alongside it; and much 
of Armenia consists of plains, though much of it is 
mountainous, like Cambysené, where the Armenians 
border on both the Iberians and the Albanians. 

2. The Cyrus, which flows through Albania, and 
the other rivers by which it is supplied, contribute 
to the excellent qualities of the land ; and yet they 
thrust back the sea, for the silt, being carried 
forward in great quantities, fills the channel, and con- 
sequently even the adjacent isles are joined to the 
mainland and form shoals that are uneven and difli- 
cult to avoid; and their unevenness is made worse 
by the back-wash of the flood-tides. Moreover, they 
say that the outlet of the river is divided into twelve 
mouths, of which some are choked with silt, while 
the others are altogether shallow and leave not 
even a mooring-place. At any rate, they add, 
although the shore is washed on all sides by the sea 

3 μηδέ, Kramer, for μηδέν ; so the later editors. 


κλύστου τῆς ἠιόνος οὔσης TH θαλάττῃ καὶ τοῖς 
ποταμοῖς, ἅπαν εἶναι “μέρος αὐτῆς ἀπροσπέλασ- 
τον, τὴν δὲ χοῦν καὶ μέχρι πεντακοσίων παρήκειν 
σταδίων, θινώδη ποιοῦσαν τὸν αἰγιαλόν. πλησίον 
δὲ καὶ ὁ ᾿Αράξης ἐμβάλλει, τραχὺς ἐκ τῆς 
᾿Αρμενίας ἐκπίπτων' ἣν δὲ ἐκεῖνος προωθεῖ χοῦν, 
πορευτὸν ποιῶν τὸ ῥεῖθρον, ταύτην ὁ Κῦρος ἀνα- 

3. Taya μὲν οὖν τῷ τοιούτῳ γένει. τῶν ἀνθρώ- 
πων οὐδὲν δεῖ θαλάττης" οὐδὲ γὰρ τῇ γῆ χρῶνται 
κατ᾽ ἀξίαν, πάντα pev * ἐκφερούσῃ καρπόν, καὶ 
τὸν ἡμερώτατον, πᾶν δὲ φυτόν; καὶ γὰρ τὰ 
ἀειθαλῆ φέρει: τυγχάνει δ᾽ ἐπιμελείας οὐδὲ 
μικρᾶς, ἀλλὰ τἀγαθὰ ἄσπαρτα και ἀνήροτα 
ἅπαντα φύονται, καθάπερ οἱ στρατεύσαντές 
φασι, Κυκλώπειόν τινα διηγούμενοι βίον: πολλα- 
χοῦ γοῦν σπαρεῖσαν ἅπαξ δὶς ἐκφέρειν καρπὸν ἢ 
καὶ τρίς, τὸν δὲ πρῶτον καὶ πεντηκοντάχουν, 
ἀνέαστον καὶ ταῦτα, ὀὐδὲ σιδήρῳ τμηθεῖσαν, ἀλλ᾽ 

ὑτοξύλῳ ἀρότρῳ. ποτίζεται δὲ πᾶν τὸ πεδίον 
τ Βαβυλωνίου καὶ τοῦ Αἰγυπτίου μᾶλλον τοῖς 
ποταμοῖς καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ὕδασιν, ὥστ᾽ ἀεὶ ποώδη 
φυλάττειν τὴν ὄψιν: διὰ δὲ τοῦτο καὶ εὔβοτόν 
ἐστι: πρόσεστι δὲ καὶ τὸ εὐάερον ἐκείνῳ μᾶλλον. 
ἄσκαφοι δὲ ἄμπελοι μένουσαι διὰ τέλους, τεμνό- 
μεναι δὲ διὰ πενταετηρίδος, νέαι μὲν διετεῖς 

1 γάρ, after μέν, is omitted by oxz and the later editors. 
2 δέ, D man. pr. inserts after τεμνόμεναι ; so Meineke. 

1 7.e. the excessive amount of silt deposited by the Cyrus 
compensates for the failure of the Araxes in this respect. 
On these rivers see Tozer, Selections, pp. 262-263. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 4. 2-3 

and the rivers for a distance of more than sixty 
stadia, every part of it is inaccessible; and the silt 
extends even as far as five hundred stadia, making 
the shore sandy. Near by is also the mouth of the 
Araxes, a turbulent stream that flows down from 
Armenia. But the silt which this river pushes 
before it, thus making the channel passable for its 
stream, is compensated for by the Cyrus. 

3. Now perhaps a people of this kind have no 
need of a sea; indeed, they do not make appropriate 
use of their land either, which produces, not only 
every kind of fruit, even the most highly cultivated 
kind, but also every plant, for it bears even the 
evergreens. It receives not even slight attention, 
yet the good things all “ spring up for them without 
sowing and ploughing,” 2 according to those who have 
made expeditions there,? who describe the mode of 
life there as “ Cyclopeian.” In many places, at any 
rate, they say, the land when sown only once pro- 
duces two crops or even three, the first a crop of 
even fifty-fold, and that too without being ploughed 
between crops ; and even when it is ploughed, it is 
not ploughed with an iron share, but with a wooden 
plough shaped by nature. The plain as a whole is 
better watered by its rivers and other waters than 
the Babylonian and the Egyptian plains; conse- 
quently it always keeps a grassy appearance, and 
therefore is also good for pasturage. In addition to 
this, the climate here is better than there. And 
the people never dig about the vines, although they 
prune them every fifth year;4 the new vines begin 

2 Odyssey 9. 109. 
8 In particular Theophanes of Mitylené (already mentioned 
ral IN, ὍΣ Or 4 ἀν. every four years. 



ἐκφέρουσιν ἤδη καρπόν, τέλειαι δ᾽ ἀποδιδόασι το- 
σοῦτον, ὥστ᾽ ἀφιᾶσιν ἐν τοῖς κλήμασι πολὺ μέρος. 
εὐερνῆ δ᾽ ἐστὶ καὶ τὰ βοσκήματα παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς τά 
τε ἥμερα καὶ τὰ ἄγρια. 

4. Καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι κάλλει καὶ μεγέθει δια- 
΄ e “ \ \ ᾽ Ine 29h \ 
φέροντες, ἁπλοῖ δὲ καὶ οὐ καπηλικοί" οὐδὲ γὰρ 
νομίσματι τὰ πολλὰ χρῶνται, οὐδὲ ἀριθμὸν ἴσασι 
74 1 - id ΄ > ἊΝ / A > \ 
μείζω τῶν ἑκατόν, ἀλλὰ φορτίοις Tas ἀμοιβὰς 
ποιοῦνται, καὶ πρὸς τᾶλλα δὲ τὰ τοῦ βίου ῥᾳθύμως 
ἔχουσιν. ἄπειροι δ᾽ εἰσὶ καὶ μέτρων τῶν ἐπ᾽ 
ἀκριβὲς καὶ σταθμῶν, καὶ πολέμου δὲ καὶ πολι- 
τείας καὶ γεωργίας ἀπρονοήτως ἔχουσιν: ὅμως δὲ 
\ A ‘\ > ὌΠ ΟΣ > / / 
καὶ πεζοὶ καὶ ad ἵππων ἀγωνίζονται, ψιλοὶ τε 

καὶ κατάφρακτοι, καθάπερ Ἀρμένιοι. 

5. Στέλλουσι δὲ μείζω τῆς ᾿Ιβήρων στρατιάν" 
¢ / \ A (ὃ fal 3 € / δὲ 
ὁπλίζουσι γὰρ ἕξ μυριάδας πεζῶν," ἱππέας δὲ 

δισμυρίους καὶ δισχιλίους, ὅσοις πρὸς 1]ομ- 
πήιον διεκινδύνευσαν. καὶ τούτοις δὲ συμπο- 

rf \ 

λεμοῦσιν οἱ νομάδες πρὸς τοὺς ἔξωθεν, ὥσπερ 

al ΕΝ \ \ TIEN 4. δ» A ᾽ 
τοῖς Ἴβηρσι κατὰ τὰς αὐτὰς αἰτίας: ἄλλως ὃ 
ἐπιχειροῦσι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις πολλάκις, ὥστε καὶ 
γεωργεῖν κωλύουσιν. ἀκοντισταὶ δέ εἰσι καὶ το- 
ξόται, θώρακας ἔ ἔχοντες καὶ θυρεούς, περίκρανα δὲ 
θήρεια παραπλησίως τοῖς Ἴβηρσιν. ἔστι δὲ τῆς 
᾿Αλβανῶν χώρας καὶ ἡ Κασπιανή, τοῦ Κασπίου 


1 EK, and Eustath. (ad Dion. 730), have πλείω instead of 

2 στρατιάν, Meineke, foll. conj. of Villebrun, for στρατιᾶς. 

° πεζῶν Eg, ἀνδρῶν other MSS. 

4 Plutarch has μυρίους (Pomp. 35). 

1 See ὃ 8 following. 

GEOGRAPHY, τι. 4. 3-5 

to produce fruit the second year, and when mature 
they yield so much that the people leave a large 
part of the fruit on the branches. Also the cattle 
in their country thrive, both the tame and the wild. 

4, The inhabitants of this country are unusually 
handsome and large. And they are frank in their 
dealings, and not mercenary ;1 for they do not in 
general use coined money, nor do they know any 
number greater than one hundred, but carry on 
business by means of barter, and otherwise live an 
easy-going life. They are also unacquainted with 
accurate measures and weights, and they take no 
forethought for war or government or farming. But 
still they fight both on foot and on horseback, both 
in light armour and in full armour,? like the 

5. They send forth a greater army than that of 
the Iberians; for they equip sixty thousand infantry 
and twenty-two thousand? horsemen, the number 
with which they risked their all against Pompey. 
Against outsiders the nomads join with the Alba- 
nians in war, just as they do with the Iberians, and 
for the same reasons; and besides, they often attack 
the people, and consequently prevent them from 
farming. The Albanians use javelins and bows ; 
and they wear breastplates and large oblong shields, 
and helmets made of the skins of wild animals, 
similar to those worn by the Iberians. To the 
country of the Albanians belongs also the territory 
called Caspiané, which was named after the Caspian 

2 For a description of this heavy armour, see Tacitus, 
Hist. 1. 79. 
ΠΡ ins Wee eh 
‘ Plutarch, Pompey 35, says twelve thousand. 


εθνους ἐπώνυμος, οὗπερ Kal ἡ θάλαττα, apuvods 
ὄντος νυνί. ἡ δ᾽ ἐκ τῆς ᾿Ιβηρίας εἰς τὴν ᾿Αλβανίαν 
εἰσβολὴ διὰ τῆς Καμβυσηνῆς ἀνύδρου τε καὶ 
τραχείας ἐπὶ τὸν ᾿Αλαζόνιον ποταμόν. θηρευτι- 
κοὶ δὲ καὶ αὐτοὶ καὶ οἱ κύνες αὐτῶν εἰς ὑπερβολήν, 
οὐ τέχνῃ μᾶλλον ἢ σπουδῇ τῇ περὶ τοῦτο. 

"509. 6. Διαφέρουσι δὲ καὶ οἱ βασιλεῖς" νυνὶ μὲν οὖν 
εἷς ἁπάντων ἄρχει, πρότερον δὲ καὶ καθ᾽ ἑκάστην 
γλῶτταν ἰδίᾳ ἐβασιλεύοντο ἕ ἕκαστοι. γλῶτται δ᾽ 
εἰσὶν ἐξ καὶ εἴκοσι αὐτοῖς διὰ τὸ μὴ εὐεπίμικτον 
πρὸς ἀλλήλους. φέρει δ᾽ ἡ γῆ καὶ τῶν ἑρπετῶν 
ἔνια τῶν θανασίμων καὶ σκορπίους καὶ φαλάγγια" 
τῶν δὲ φαλαγγίων τὰ μὲν ποιεῖ γελῶντας ἀπο- 
θνήσκειν, τὰ δὲ κλαίοντας πόθῳ τῶν οἰκείων. 

7. Θεοὺς δὲ τιμῶσιν Ἥλιον καὶ Δία καὶ 
Σελήνην, διαφερόντως δὲ τὴν Σελήνην. ἔστι δ᾽ 
αὐτῆς τὸ ἱερὸν τῆς ᾿Ιβηρίας πλησίον' ἱερᾶται 
δ᾽ ἀνὴρ ἐντιμότατος μετά γε τὸν βασιλέα, προε- 
στὼς τῆς ἱερᾶς χώρας, πολλῆς καὶ εὐάνδρου, καὶ 
αὐτῆς καὶ τῶν ἱεροδούλων, ὧν ἐνθουσιῶσι πολλοὶ 
καὶ προφητεύουσιν: ὃς δ᾽ ἂν αὐτῶν ἐπὶ πλέον 
κατάσχετος γενόμενος πλανᾶται κατὰ τὰς ὕλας 
μόνος, τοῦτον συλλαβὼν ὁ ἱερεὺς ἁλύσει δήσας 
ἱερᾷ τρέφει πολυτελῶς τὸν ἐνιαυτὸν ἐκεῖνον, 
ἔπειτα προαχθεὶς εἰς τὴν θυσίαν τῆς θεοῦ, σὺν 
ἄλλοις ἱερείοις θύεται μυρισθείς. τῆς δὲ θυσίας 
ὁ τρόπος οὗτος" ἔχων τις ἱερὰν λόγχην, ἧπέρ 

1 Members of the spider family; but here, apparently, 
tarantulas (see Tozer, op, cit., Ρ. 265). 

2 The Sun. ὁ The Mocn, 

* Cf. 12. 3. 3L. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 4. 5-7 

tribe, as was also the sea; but the tribe has now 
disappeared. The pass from Iberia into Albania 
leads through Cambysené, a waterless and rugged 
country, to “the Alazonius River. Both the people 
and their dogs are surpassingly fond of hunting, 
engaging in it not so much because of their skill in 
it as because of their love for it. 

6. Their kings, also, are excellent. At the present 
time, indeed, one king rules all the tribes, but 
formerly the several tribes were ruled separately 
by kings of their own according to their several 
languages. They have twenty-six lang guages, because 
of the fact that they have no easy means of inter- 
course with one another. The country produces 
also certain of the deadly reptiles, and scorpions and 
phalangia.t Some of the phalangia cause people to 
die laughing, while others cause people to die 
weeping over the loss of their deceased kindred. 

7. As for gods, they honour Helius,? Zeus, and 
Selené,? but especially Selené;* her temple is near 
Iberia. The office of priest is held by the man who, 
after the king, is held in highest honour; he has 
charge of the ‘sacred land, w hich is extensive and 
well-populated, and also of the temple slaves, many 
of whom are subject to religious frenzy and utter 
prophecies. And any one of those who, becoming 
violently possessed, wanders alone in the forests, is 
by the priest arrested, bound with sacred ΠΕ" 
and sumptuously maintained during that year, and 
then led forth to the sacrifice that is performed in 
honour of the goddess, and, being anointed, is sacri- 
ficed along with other victims. The sacrifice is per- 
formed as follows: Some person holding a sacred 
lance, with which it is the custom to sacrifice human 



’ 2 -“ é \ >’ a“ 
ἐστε νομὸς ἀνθρωποθυτεῖν, παρελθὼ"» ἐκ τοῦ 
lol cal , 
πλήθους, παίει διὰ τῆς πλευρᾶς εἰς τὴν καρδίαν, 
οὐκ ἄπειρος τοιούτου πεσόντος δὲ σημειοῦνται 
μαντεῖά τινα ἐκ τοῦ πτώματος καὶ εἰς τὸ κοινὸν 
’,ὕ fal 
ἀποφαίνουσι; κομισθέντος δὲ τοῦ σώματος εἴς 
TL χωρίον, ἐπιβαίνουσιν ἅπαντες καθαρσίῳ χρώ- 
« ΄, “ a 
8. Ὑπερβαλλόντως δὲ kai! τὸ γῆρας τιμῶσιν 
᾽ , \ \ lal ” > n , 
Αλβανοί, καὶ τὸ τῶν ἄλλων, οὐ τῶν γονέων 
μόνον" τεθνηκότων δὲ οὐχ ὅσιον φροντίζειν οὐδὲ 
μεμνῆσθαι. συγκατορύττουσι μέντοι τὰ χρήματα 
αὐτοῖς, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο πένητες ζῶσιν, οὐδὲν 
πατρῷον ἔχοντες. ταῦτα μὲν περὶ ᾿Αλβανῶν. 
λέγεται. δ᾽ ᾿Ιάσονα μετὰ ᾿Αρμένου 5 τοῦ Θετταλοῦ 
κατὰ τὸν πλοῦν τὸν ἐπὶ τοὺς Κόλχους ὁρμῆσαι 
μέχρι τῆς Κασπίας θαλάττης, καὶ τήν τε᾿]βηρίαν 
καὶ τὴν Αλβανίαν ἐπελθεῖν καὶ πολλὰ τῆς ᾿Α ρμε- 
vias καὶ τῆς Μηδίας, ὡς μαρτυρεῖ τά Te lacovia καὶ 
ΕΣ € 4 ᾿ \ be v 3 3 
ἀλλα ὑπομνήματα πλείω. Tov de” Appevov ® evar 
> ) , 4 Lal \ \ , 
ἐξ Ἀρμενίου πόλεως, τῶν περὶ τὴν Βοιβηίδα 
λίμνην μεταξὺ Φερῶν καὶ Λαρίσης" τοὺς σὺν 
αὐτῷ τε οἰκίσαι τήν τε ᾿Ακιλισηνὴν καὶ τὴν 
Συσπιρῖτιν ἕως Καλαχανῆς καὶ ᾿Αδιαβηνῆς, καὶ 
δὴ καὶ τὴν ᾿Αρμενίαν ἐπώνυμον καταλιπεῖν. 

1 Corais and Meineke eject the καί before τὸ γῆρας. 

* *Apuevou, the editors, for ᾿Αρμενίου (cp. 11. 14. 12), and so 
five lines below. 

3 *Apuévov, Tzschucke and later editors (Eustath. on liad 
2. 734 reads ᾽Ορμένου), for ᾿Αρμενίου. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 4. 7-8 

victims, comes forward out of the crowd and strikes 
the victim through the side into the heart, he being 
not without experience in such a task; and when 
the victim falls, they draw auguries from his fall? 
and declare them before the public ; and when the 
body is carried to a certain place, they all trample 
upon it, thus using it as a means of purification. 

8. The Albanians are surpassingly respectful to 
old age, not merely to their parents, but to all other 
old people. And when people die it is impious to 
be concerned about them or even to mention them. 
Indeed, they bury their money with them, and 
therefore live in poverty, having no patrimony. So 
much for the Albanians. It is said that Jason, 
together with Armenus the Thessalian, on his voyage 
to the country of the Colchians, pressed on from 
there as far as the Caspian Sea, and visited, not only 
Iberia and Albania, but also many parts of Armenia 
and Media, as both the Jasonia* and several other 
memorials testify. And it is said that Armenus was 
a native of Armenium, one of the cities on Lake 
Boebeis between Pherae and Larisa, and that he and 
his followers took up their abode in Acilisené and 
Syspiritis, occupying the country as far as Calachané 
and Adiabené; and indeed that he left Armenia 
named after himself. 

1 As among the Lusitanians (8. 3. 6) and the Gauls 
(4. 4. 5). 
2 2,6. temples dedicated to Jason (see 11. 14. 12), 


C 504 



Ev δὲ τοῖς ὑπὲρ τῆς ᾿Αλβανίας ὄρεσι καὶ 
τὰς Δ οἰκεῖν φασί. Θεοφάνης μὲν. οὗν ὁ 
συστρατεύσας τῷ Πομπηίῳ καὶ γενόμενος ἐν τοῖς 
᾿Αλβανοῖς, μεταξὺ τῶν ᾿Δμαζόνων καὶ τῶν 
᾿Αλβανῶν φησὶ ΤΓήλας οἰκεῖν καὶ Anyas Σκύθας, 
καὶ ῥεῖν ἐνταῦθα τὸν Μερμάδαλιν ποταμὸν τού- 
τῶν τε καὶ τῶν ᾿Αμαζόνων ἀνὰ μέσον. ἄλλοι δέ, 
ὧν καὶ ὁ Σκήψιος Μητρόδωρος καὶ “Ὑψικράτης, 
οὐδὲ αὐτοὶ "ἄπειροι τῶν τόπων γεγονότες, Ῥαργα- 
ρεῦσιν ὁμόρους αὐτὰς οἰκεῖν φασὶν ἐν ταῖς ὑπω- 
ρείαις ταῖς πρὸς ἄρκτον τῶν Καυκασίων ὀρῶν ἃ 
καλεῖται Κεραύνια" τὸν μὲν ἄλλον χρόνον καθ᾽ 
αὑτὰς αὐτουργούσας ἕκαστα, τά τε πρὸς ἄροτον 
καὶ φυτουργίαν καὶ τὰ πρὸς τὰς νομάς, καὶ 
μάλιστα τῶν ἵππων, τὰς δ᾽ ἀλκιμωτάτας ἐφ᾽ 1 
ἵππων κυνηγεσίαις πλεονάζειν καὶ τὰ πολέμια 
ἀσκεῖν" ἁπάσας δ᾽ ἐπικεκαῦσθαι τὸν δεξιὸν 
μαστὸν ἐκ νηπίων, ὥστε εὐπετῶς χρῆσθαι τῷ 
βραχίονι πρὸς ἑκάστην χρείαν, ἐν δὲ τοῖς πρώτοις 
πρὸς ἀκοντισμόν' χρῆσθαι δὲ καὶ τόξῳ καὶ 
σαγάρι καὶ πέλτῃ, δορὰς δὲ θηρίων ποιεῖσθαι 
περίκρανά τε καὶ σκεπάσματα καὶ διαζώματα' 
δύο δὲ μῆνας ἐξαιρέτους ἔχειν τοῦ ἔαρος, καθ᾽ ods 
ἀναβαίνουσιν εἰς τὸ πλησίον ὄρος τὸ διύόριζον 
αὐτάς τε καὶ τοὺς Γαργαρέας. ἀναβαίνουσι δὲ 
κἀκεῖνοι κατὰ ἔθος τι παλαιόν, συνθύσοντές τε 

1 ἐφ᾽ 1(?)oz and the earlier editors for τῶν ; Meineke ejects 
τῶν ἵππων. 

1 Cnaeus Pompeius Theophanes of Mytilené. 
2 See 13. 1. 55. 3 See 11. 4. 1. 

GEOGRAPHY, 11.5.1 


1. Tue Amazons, also, are said to live in the 
mountains above Albania. Now Theophanes,! who 
made the expedition with Pompey and was in the 
country of the Albanians, says that the Gelae and 
the Legae, Scythian people, live between the 
Amazons and the Albanians, and that the Mer- 
madalis River flows there, midway between these 
people and the Amazons. But others, among whom 
are Metrodorus of Scepsis? and Hypsicrates, who 
themselves, likewise, were not unacquainted with 
the region in question, say that the Amazons live on 
the borders of the Gargarians, in the northerly foot- 
hills of those parts of the Caucasian Mountains which 
are called Ceraunian : 3 that the Amazons spend the 
rest of their time 4 off to themselves, performing their 
several individual tasks, such as ploughing, planting, 
pasturing cattle, and particularly in training horses, 
though the bravest engage mostly in hunting on 
horseback and practise warlike exercises; that the 
right breasts of all are seared when they are infants, 
so that they can easily use their right arm for every 
needed purpose, and especially that of throwing the 
javelin; that they also use bow and sagaris® and 
light shield, and make the skins of wild animals 
serve as helmets, clothing, and girdles; but that 
they have two special months in the spring in which 
they go up into the neighbouring mountain which 
separates them and the Gargarians. The Gargarians 
also, in accordance with an ancient custom, go up 

4 2.6. ten months of the year. 
5 Apparently some sort of single-edged weapon (see 
Hesychius s.v.). 



r “-“ / 
καὶ συνεσόμενοι ταῖς γυναιξὶ τεκνοποιίας χάριν, 
cal A ‘ e ΄σ΄ 4 ’ 
ἀφανῶς τε καὶ ἐν σκότει, ὁ τυχὼν TH τυχούσῃ, ἐγκύ- 
μονας δὲ ποιήσαυτες ἀποπέμπουσιν" αἱ δ᾽ ὅ TL μὲν 
a - / , » / \ 3 ” a 
av θῆλυ τέκωσι κατέχουσιν αὐταί, τὰ δ᾽ ἄρρενα 
᾽ . 4 
κομίζουσιν ἐκείνοις ἐκτρέφειν" ὠκείωται δ᾽ ἕκαστος 
\ τ { ΄ \ \ 2 
πρὸς ἕκαστον, νομίζων υἱὸν διὰ THY ἄγνοιαν. 
2. Ὁ δὲ Μερμόδας, καταράττων ἀπὸ τῶν ὀρῶν 
΄ fol , a = ΄σ \ 
διὰ τῆς τῶν ᾿Αμαζόνων καὶ τῆς Σιρακηνῆς καὶ 
“ \ y” ’ A rf . , 
ὅση μεταξὺ ἔρημος, ets τὴν Μαιῶτιν ἐκδίδωσι. 
τοὺς δὲ Ταργαρέας συναναβῆναι μὲν ἐκ Θεμισ- 
’ \ ΄σ ᾽ / Ι] / \ 
KUpas φασὶ ταῖς “Apafcow εἰς τούσδε τοὺς 
τόπους, εἶτ᾽ ἀποστάντας αὐτῶν πολεμεῖν μετὰ 
Θρᾳκῶν καὶ Εὐβοέων τινῶν πλανηθέντων μέχρι 
δεῦρο πρὸς αὐτάς, ὕστερον δὲ καταλυσαμένους τὸν 
πρὸς αὐτὰς πόλεμον ἐπὶ τοῖς λεχθεῖσι ποιήσασθαι 
συμβάσεις, ὥστε τέκνων συγκοινωνεῖν μόνον, ζῆν 
δὲ καθ᾽ αὑτοὺς ἑκατέρους. 
3. Ἴδιον δέ τε συμβέβηκε τῷ λόγῳ περὶ τῶν 
. \ \ a 
"Aualovev’ οἱ μὲν yap ἄλλοι τὸ μυθῶδες καὶ TO 
ἱστορικὸν διωρισμένον ἔχουσι᾽ τὰ γὰρ παλαιὰ καὶ 
ψευδῆ καὶ τερατώδη μῦθοι καλοῦνται, ἡ δ᾽ ἱστορία 
΄, ᾽ , ” x ” , \ 
βούλεται τἀληθές, ἄν TE παλαιὸν ἄν TE νέον, καὶ 
Χ ΄. ΕῚ cal 
TO τερατῶδες ἢ οὐκ ἔχει ἢ σπάνιον" περὶ δὲ τῶν 
> s s > A / \ Loa \ ys 
Apafovwy Ta αὐτὰ λέγεται Kal νῦν καὶ πάλαι, 

1 Apparently the same river as that called Mermadalis in 
the preceding paragraph. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 5. 1-3 

thither to offer sacrifice with the Amazons and also 
to have intercourse with them for the sake of 
begetting children, doing this in secrecy and dark- 
ness, any Gargarian at random with any Amazon ; 
and after making them pregnant they send them 
away; and the females that are born are retained 
by the Amazons themselves, but the males are 
taken to the Gargarians to be brought up; and 
each Gargarian to whom a child is brought adopts 
the child as his own, regarding the child as his son 
because of his uncertainty. 

2. The Mermodas! dashes down from the moun- 
tains through the country of the Amazons and 
through Siracené and the intervening desert and 
then empties into Lake Maeotis. It is said that 
the Gargarians went up from Themiscyra into this 
region with the Amazons, then revolted from them 
and in company with some Thracians and Euboeans 
who had wandered thus far carried on war against 
them, and that they later ended the war against 
them and made a compact on the conditions above- 
mentioned, that is, that they should have dealings 
with one another only in the matter of children, and 
that each people should live independent of the 

3. A peculiar thing has happened in the case of 
the account we have of the Amazons; for our 
accounts of other peoples keep a distinction between 
the mythical and the historical elements; for the 
things that are ancient and false and monstrous are 
called myths, but history wishes for the truth, 
whether ancient or recent, and contains no monstrous 
element, or else only rarely. But as regards the 
Amazons, the same stories are told now as in early 


C 505 


τερατώδη τε ὄντα καὶ πίστεως πόρρω. τίς γὰρ ἂν 
πιστεύσειεν ὡς γυναικῶν στρατὸς ἢ πόλις ἢ ἔθνος 
συσταίη ἄν ποτε χωρὶς ἀνδρῶν; καὶ οὐ μόνον 
γε συσταίη, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐφόδους ποιήσαιτο ἐπὶ τὴν 
ἀλλοτρίαν καὶ κρατήσειεν οὐ τῶν ἐγγὺς μόνον, 
ὥστε καὶ μέχρι τῆς νῦν ᾿Ιωνίας προελθεῖν, ἀλλὰ 
καὶ διαπόντιον στείλαιτο στρατείαν μέχρι τῆς 
᾿Αττικῆς ; τοῦτο γὰρ ὅμοιον, ὡς ἂν εἴ τις λέγοι, 
τοὺς μὲν ἄνδρας γυναῖκας γεγονέναι τοὺς τότε, 
τὰς δὲ γυναῖκας ἄνδρας. ἀλλὰ μὴν ταῦτά γε 
αὐτὰ καὶ νῦν λέγεται περὶ αὐτῶν, ἐπιτείνει δὲ τὴν 
ἰδιότητα καὶ τὸ πιστεύεσθαι τὰ παλαιὰ μᾶλλον ἢ 
τὰ νῦν. 

4, Κτίσεις γοῦν πόλεων καὶ ἐπωνυμίαι λέγον- 
ται, καθάπερ ᾿Εφέσου καὶ Σμύρνης καὶ Κύμης καὶ 
Μυρίνης, καὶ τάφοι! καὶ ἄλλα ὑπομνήματα: τὴν 
δὲ Θεμίσκυραν καὶ τὰ περὶ τὸν Θερμώδοντα 
πεδία καὶ τὰ ὑπερκείμενα ὄρη ἅπαντες ᾿Αμα- 
ζόνων καλοῦσι, καί φασιν ἐξελαθῆναι αὐτὰς 
ἐνθένδε. ὅπου δὲ νῦν εἰσίν, ὀλίγοι τε καὶ ἀνα- 
ποδείκτως καὶ ἀπίστως ἀποφαίνονται" καθάπερ 
καὶ περὶ Θαληστρίας, ἣν ᾿Αλεξάνδρῳ συμμῖξαί 
φασιν ἐν τῇ Ὑρκανίᾳ καὶ συγγενέσθαι τεκνοποιίας 
χάριν, δυναστεύουσαν τῶν ᾿Αμαξόνων' οὐ γὰρ 
ὁμολογεῖται τοῦτο" ἀλλὰ τῶν συγγραφέων τοσού- 
των ὄντων, οἱ μάλιστα τῆς ἀληθείας φροντίσαντες 
οὐκ εἰρήκασιν, οὐδ᾽ οἱ πιστευόμενον μάλιστα 
οὐδενὸς μέμνηνται τοιούτου, οὐδ᾽ οἱ εἰπόντες τὰ 

1 Instead οὗ τάφοι, Dhilrwax have πάφου, oz πάφος, C πάφαι. 
2 δυναστεύουσαν, Casaubon, for δυναστεῦσαι oxyz, δυναστευ- 
σάντων other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 5. 3-4 

times, though they are marvellous and beyond 
belief. For instance, who could believe that an 
army of women, or a city, or a tribe, could ever be 
organised without men, and not only be organised, 
but even make inroads upon the territory of other 
people, and not only overpower the peoples near 
them to the extent of advancing as far as what is 
now Ionia, but even send an expedition across the 
sea as far as Attica? For this is the same as saying 
that the men of those times were women and that 
the women were men. Nevertheless, even at the 
present time these very stories are told about the 
Amazons, and they intensify the peculiarity above- 
mentioned and our belief in the ancient accounts 
rather than those of the present time. 

4. At any rate, the founding of cities and the 
giving of names to them are ascribed to the 
Amazons, as, for instance, Ephesus and Smyrna 
and Cymé and Myriné; and so are tombs and 
other monuments; and Themiscyra and the plains 
about Thermodon and the mountains that lie above 
them are by all writers mentioned as having be- 
longed to the Amazons; but they say that the 
Amazons were driven out of these places. Only a 
few writers make assertions as to where they are 
at the present time, but their assertions are without 
proof and beyond belief, as in the case of Thalestria, 
queen of the Amazons, with whom, they say, 
Alexander associated in Hyreania and had inter- 
course for the sake of offspring; for this assertion 
is not generally accepted. Indeed, of the numerous 
historians, those who care most for the truth do not 
make the assertion, nor do those who are most 
trustworthy mention any such thing, nor do those 


C 506 


αὐτὰ eipnxace Κλείταρχος δέ! φησι τὴν Θαλη- 
στρίαν ato Κασπίων πυλῶν καὶ Θερμώδοντος 
ὁρμηθεῖσαν ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ᾿Αλέξανδρον, εἰσὶ δ᾽ ἀπὸ 
Κασπίας εἰς Θερμώδοντα στάδιοι πλείους ἑξακισ- 

ὅ. Καὶ τὰ πρὸς τὸ ἔνδοξον θρυληθέντα οὐκ 
ἀνωμολόγηται 2 παρὰ πάντων, οἱ δὲ πλάσαντες 
ἦσαν οἱ κολακείας μᾶλλον ἢ ἀληθείας φρον- 
τίζοντες" οἷον τὸ τὸν Καύκασον μετενεγκεῖν εἰς 
τὰ Ἰνδικὰ ὄρη καὶ τὴν πλησιάζουσαν ἐκείνοις 
ἑῴαν θάλατταν ἀπὸ τῶν ὑπερκειμένων τῆς Κολ- 
χίδος καὶ τοῦ Εὐξείνου ὀρῶν' ταῦτα γὰρ οἱ 
“Ἕλληνες καὶ Καύκασον ὠνόμαζον, διέχοντα τῆς 
᾿Ινδικῆς πλείους ἢ τρισμυρίους σταδίους, καὶ 
ἐνταῦθα ἐμύθευσαν τὰ περὶ Ἰ]ρομηθέα καὶ τὸν 
δεσμὸν αὐτοῦ: ταῦτα γὰρ τὰ ὕστατα πρὸς ἕω 
ἐγνώριζον οἱ Tote. ἡ δὲ ἐπὶ ᾿Ινδοὺς στρατεία 
Διονύσου καὶ ᾿Ηρακλέους ὑστερογενῆ τὴν μυθο- 
ποιίαν ἐμφαίνει, ἅτε τοῦ Ἡρακλέους καὶ τὸν 
Προμηθέα λῦσαι λεγομένου χιλιάσιν ἐτῶν ὕστε- 
ρον. καὶ ἣν μὲν ἐνδοξότερον τὸ τὸν ᾿Αλέξανδρον 
μέχρι τῶν ᾿Ινδικῶν ὀρῶν καταστρέψασθαι τὴν 
᾿Ασίαν ἢ μέχρι τοῦ μυχοῦ τοῦ Εὐξείνου καὶ τοῦ 
Καυκάσου, arr ἡ δόξα τοῦ ὄρους καὶ τοὔνομα 
καὶ τὸ τοὺς περὶ ᾿Ιάσονα δοκεῖν μακροτάτην 
στρατείαν τελέσαι τὴν μέχρι τῶν πλησίον Καυ- 
κάσου καὶ τὸ τὸν Προμηθέα παραδεδόσθαι δεδε- 
μένον ἐπὶ τοῖς ἐσχάτοις τῆς γῆς ἐν τῷ Καυκάσῳ,3 

1 δέ before φησί is found only in E. 

2 ἀνωμολόγηται EK, instead of κἂν ὡμολόγηται; so Meineke, 
and Miiller-Diibner. 

3 Meineke indicates a lacuna after Καυκάσῳ; but it is 
probably merely a case of anacolouthon. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 5. 4-5 

who tell the story agree in their statements. 
Cleitarchus! says that Thalestria set out from the 
Caspian Gates and Thermodon and visited Alexander ; 
but the distance from the Caspian country to Ther- 
modon is more than six thousand stadia. 

5. The stories that have been spread far and wide 
with a view to glorifying Alexander are not 
accepted by all; and their fabricators were men 
who cared for flattery rather than truth. For 
instance: they transferred the Caucasus into the 
region of the Indian mountains and of the eastern 
sea which lies near those mountains from the 
mountains which lie above Colchis and the Euxine ; 
for these are the mountains which the Greeks 
named Caucasus, which is more than thirty thousand 
stadia distant from India; and here it was that they 
laid the scene of the story of Prometheus and of his 
being put in bonds; for these were the farthermost 
mountains towards the east that were known to 
writers of that time. And the expedition of 
Dionysus and Heracles to the country of the Indians 
looks like a mythical story of later date, because 
Heracles is said to have released Prometheus one 
thousand years later. And although it was a more 
glorious thing for Alexander to subdue Asia as far 
as the Indian mountains than merely to the recess 
of the Euxine and to the Caucasus, yet the glory of 
the mountain, and its name, and the belief that 
Jason and his followers had accomplished the 
longest of all expeditions, reaching as far as the 
neighbourhood of the Caucasus, and the tradition 
that Prometheus was bound at the ends of the earth 
on the Caucasus, led writers to suppose that they 

1 See Dictionary in Vol. 11, 


χαριεῖσθαί τι τῷ βασιλεῖ ὑπέλαβον, τοὔνομα τοῦ 
ὄρους μετενέγκαντες εἰς τὴν Ἰνδικήν. 

6. Τὰ μὲν οὖν ὑψηλότατα τοῦ ὄντως Καυκάσου 
τὰ νοτιώτατά ἐστι, τὰ πρὸς ᾿Αλβανίᾳ καὶ Ἰβηρίᾳ 
καὶ Κόλχοις καὶ Ἡνιόχοις" οἰκοῦσι δὲ οὺς εἶπον 
τοὺς συνερχομένους εἰς τὴν Διοσκουριάδα" ,»συνέρ- 
χονται δὲ τὸ πλεῖστον ἁλῶν χάριν. τούτων δ᾽ 
οἱ μὲν τὰς ἀκρωρείας κατέχουσιν, οἱ δὲ ἐν νάπαις 
αὐλίζονται καὶ ζῶσιν ἀπὸ θηρείων σαρκῶν τὸ 
πλέον καὶ καρπῶν ἀγρίων καὶ γάλακτος. αἱ δὲ 
κορυφαὶ χειμῶνος μὲν ἄβατοι, θέρους δὲ προσ- 
βαίνουσιν ὑποδούμενοι κεντρωτὰ ὠμοβόϊνα δίκην 
τυμπάνων πλατεῖα διὰ τὰς χιόνας καὶ τοὺς 
κρυστάλλους. καταβαίνουσι δ᾽ ἐπὶ δορᾶς κείμενοι 
σὺν τοῖς φορτίοις καὶ κατολισθαίνοντες, ὅπερ καὶ 
κατὰ τὴν ᾿Ατροπατίαν Mydiav καὶ κατὰ τὸ 
Μάσιον ὄρος τὸ ἐν ᾿Αρμενίᾳ συμβαίνει ἐνταῦθα 
δὲ καὶ τροχίσκοι ξύλινοι κεντρωτοὶ τοῖς πέλμασιν 
ὑποτίθενται. τοῦ γοῦν Καυκάσου τὰ μὲν ἄκρα 

7. Καταβαίνοντι δ᾽ εἰς τὰς ὑπωρείας ἀρκτι- 
κώτερα μέν ἐστι τὰ κλίματα, ἡμερώτερα δέ: ἤδη 
γὰρ συνάπτει τοῖς πεδίοις τῶν Σιράκων. εἰσὶ δὲ 
καὶ ρωγλοδύται τινὲς ἐν φωλεοῖς οἰκοῦντες διὰ τὰ 
ψύχη, παρ᾽ οἷς ἤδη καὶ ἀλφίτων ἐστὶν εὐπορία" 
μετὰ δὲ τοὺς Τρωγλοδύτας καὶ Χαμαικοῖται: καὶ 
Πολυφάγοι τινὲς καλούμενοι καὶ αἱ τῶν Εἰσα- 
δίκων" κῶμαι, δυναμένων γεωργεῖν διὰ τὸ μὴ 
παντελῶς ὑποπεπτωκέναι ταῖς ἄρκτοις. 

1 Χαμαικοῖται, Du Theil, for χαινανοῖται (for other variants 

see C. Miiller) ; so Meineke. 
2 Εἰσαδίκων is doubtful (see C. Miiller), 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 5. 5-7 

would be doing the king a favour if they transferred 
the name Caucasus to India. 

6. Now the highest parts of the real Caucasus 
are the most southerly—those next to Albania, 
Iberia, and the Colchians, and the Heniochians, 
They are inhabited by the peoples who, as I have 
said,! assemble at Dioscurias; and they assemble 
there mostly in order to get salt. Of these tribes, 
some occupy the ridges of the mountains, while the 
others have their abodes in glens and live mostly 
on the flesh of wild animals, and on wild fruits and 
milk. The summits of the mountains are impass- 
able in winter, but the people ascend them in 
summer by fastening to their feet broad shoes made 
of raw ox-hide, like drums, and furnished with 
spikes, on account of the snow and the ice. They 
descend with their loads by sliding down seated 
upon skins, as is the custom in Atropatian Media 
and on Mount Masius in Armenia; there, however, 
the people also fasten wooden dises furnished with 
spikes to the soles of their shoes. Such, then, are 
the heights of the Caucasus. 

7. As one descends into the foothills, the country 
inclines more towards the north, but its climate is 
milder, for there it borders on the plains of the 
Siraces. And here are also some Troglodytae, who, on 
account of the cold, live in caves; but even in 
their country there is plenty of barley. After the 
Troglodytae one comes to certain Chamaecoetae 3 
and Polyphagi,? as they are called, and to the 
villages of the Eisadici, who are able to farm be- 
cause they are not altogether exposed to the north. 

Dele 2.70: 2 2,6. ‘People who sleep on the ground.” 
3 i.e, ‘‘Heavy-eaters.” 


C 50 



8. OF & ἐφεξῆς ἤδη νομάδες οἱ μεταξὺ τῆς 
Μαιώτιδος καὶ τῆς Κασπίας Ναβιανοὶ καὶ 
Πανξανοὶ καὶ ἤδη τὰ τῶν Σιράκων καὶ ᾿Δόρσων 
φῦλα. δοκοῦσι δ᾽ οἱ ὕδορσοι καὶ οἱ Σίρακες φυ- 
γάδες εἶναι τῶν ἀνωτέρω καὶ ᾿προσάρκτιοι μᾶλλον 
2 ᾿Αβέακος μὲν οὗν, ὁ τῶν Σιράκων 
βασιλεύς, ἡνίκα Φαρνάκης τὸν Βόσπορον εἶχε, 
δύο μυριάδας ἱ ἱππέων ἔστειλε, Σπαδίνης δ᾽, ὁ τῶν 
᾿Αόρσων, καὶ εἴκοσιν, οἱ δὲ ἄνω Δορσοι καὶ 
πλείονας" καὶ γὰρ ἐπεκράτουν πλείονος γῆς, καὶ 
σχεδόν τι τῆς Κασπίων παραλίας τῆς πλείστης 
ἧρχον, ὥστε καὶ ἐνεπορεύοντο καμήλοις τὸν 
᾿Ινδικὸν φόρτον καὶ τὸν Βαβυλώνιον, παρά τε 
᾿Αρμενίων. καὶ Μήδων διαδεχόμενοι" ἐχρυσοφόρουν 
δὲ διὰ τὴν εὐπορίαν. oe μὲν οὖν ᾿Άορσοι τὸν 
Pavaiv παροικοῦσιν, οἱ Σέρακες δὲ τὸν ᾿Αχαρδέον, 
ὃς ἐκ τοῦ Καυκάσου ῥέων ἐκδίδωσιν εἰς τὴν 


1. Η δὲ δευτέρα μερὶς ἄρχεται μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς 
Κασπίας θαλάττης, εἰς ἣν κατέπανεν ἡ προτέρα. 
καλεῖται δ᾽ ἡ αὐτὴ θάλαττα καὶ “Tpxavia. δεῖ 
δὲ περὶ τῆς θαλάττης εἰπεῖν ΡΟΤΡΠΩΝ ταύτης 
καὶ τῶν προσοίκων ἐθνῶν. 

Ἔστι δ᾽ ὁ κόλπος ἀνέχων ἐκ τοῦ ὠκεανοῦ πρὸς 

1 The spelling of this name varies (see C. Miiller). 
2 “Aopoo:, Groskurd, for ᾿Αόρσων; so Miiller-Diibner’s Latin 


GEOGRAPHY, rr. 5. 8-6. 1 

8. The next peoples to which one comes between 
Lake Maeotis and the Caspian Sea are nomads, the 
Nabiani and the Panxani, and then next the tribes 
of the Siraces and the Aorsi. The Aorsi and the 
Siraces are thought to be fugitives from the upper 
tribes of those names! and the Aorsi are more to 
the north than the Siraces. Now Abeacus, king of 
the Siraces, sent forth twenty thousand horsemen 
at the time when Pharnaces held the Bosporus; 
and Spadines, king of the Aorsi, two hundred 
thousand; but the upper Aorsi sent a still larger 
number, for they held dominion over more land, 
and, one may almost say, ruled over most of the 
Caspian coast; and consequently they could import 
on camels the Indian and Babylonian merchandise, 
receiving it in their turn from the Armenians and the 
Medes, and also, owing to their wealth, could wear 
golden ornaments. Now the Aorsi live along the 
Tanais, but the Siraces live along the Achardeiis, 
which flows from the Caucasus and empties into 
Lake Maeotis. 

1. Tue second? portion begins at the Caspian 
Sea, at which the first portion ends. ‘The same sea 
is also called Hyrcanian. But I must first describe 

this sea and the tribes which live about it. 
This sea is the gulf which extends from the 

1 j.e. the southern tribes. The tribes of the Aorsi and 
Siraces (also spelt Syraci, 11. 2. 1) extended towards the 
south as far as the Caucasian Mountains (11, 2. 1). 

2 i.e. of the First Division (see 11. 1. 5). 


μεσημβρίαν κατ᾽ ἀρχὰς μὲν ἱκανῶς στενός, ἐνδο- 
τέρω δὲ πλατύνεται προϊών, καὶ μάλιστα κατὰ 
τὸν μυχὸν ἐπὶ σταδίους που καὶ πεντακισχιλίους" 
ὁ δ᾽ εἴσπλους μέχρι τοῦ μυχοῦ “μικρῷ πλειόνων 1 
ἂν εἴη, συνάπτων πως ἤδη τῇ ἀοικήτῳ. φησὶ 
δ᾽ ᾿ρατοσθένης τὸν ὑπὸ τῶν “Ἑλλήνων γνώριμον 
περίπλουν τῆς θαλάττης ταύτης, τὸν μὲν παρὰ 
τοὺς ᾿Αλβανοὺς καὶ τοὺς Καδουσίους 5 εἶναι 
πεντακισχιλίων καὶ τετρακοσίων, τὸν δὲ παρὰ 
τὴν ᾿Αναριακῶνβϑ καὶ Μάρδων καὶ Ὑρκανῶν 
μέχρι τοῦ στόματος τοῦ "O£ov ποταμοῦ τετρα- 
κισχιλίων καὶ ὀκτακοσίων' ἔνθεν δ᾽ ἐπὶ τοῦ 
᾿Ιαξάρτου δισχιλίων τετρακοσίων. δεῖ δὲ περὶ 
τῶν ἐν τῇ μερίδι ταύτῃ καὶ τοῖς ἐπὶ τοσοῦτον 
ἐκτετοπισμένοις ἁπλούστερον ἀκούειν, καὶ μά- 
λιστα περὶ τῶν διαστημάτων. 

Εἰσπλέοντι δ᾽ ἐν δεξιᾷ μὲν τοῖς ὐρωπαίοις 
οἱ συνεχεῖς Σκύθαι νέμονται καὶ Σαρμάται οἱ 
μεταξὺ τοῦ Τανάϊδος καὶ τῆς θαλάττης ταύτης, 
νομάδες οἱ πλείους, περὶ ὧν εἰρήκαμεν" ἐν ἀρισ- 
τερᾷ δ᾽ οἱ πρὸς ἕω Σκύθαι, νομάδες καὶ οὗτοι, 
μέχρι τῆς ἑῴας θωλάττης καὶ τῆς ᾿Ινδικῆς παρα- 
τείνοντες. ἅπαντας μὲν δὴ τοὺς προσβόρους 
κοινῶς οἱ παλαιοὶ τῶν ᾿“λλήνων συγγραφεῖς 
Σκύθας καὶ Κελτοσκύθας ἐκάλουν" οὐ 8 étt 
πρότερον διελόντες, τοὺς μὲν ὑπὲρ τοῦ Εὐξείνου 
καὶ Ἴστρου καὶ τοῦ ᾿Αδρίου κατοικοῦντας Ὑπερ- 
βορέους ἔλεγον καὶ Σαυρομάτας καὶ ᾿Αριμασπούς, 

1 πλειόνων, Kramer, for πλεῖον C, πλείων other MSS. ; so the 
later editors. 

2 Καδουσίους Epit., for KAovatovs MSS. 

3 ᾽Αναριακῶν, Tzschucke, for ᾿Αριάκων CD, ᾿Αναρίσκων oz. 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 6. 1-2 

ocean! towards the south; it is rather narrow at its 
entrance, but it widens out as it advances inland, 
and especially in the region of its recess, where its 
width is approximately five thousand stadia, The 
length of the voyage from its entrance to its recess 
might be slightly more than that, since its entrance 
is approximately on the borders of the uninhabited 
world. Eratosthenes says that the circuit of this sea 
was known to the Greeks; that the part along the 
coast of the Albanians and the Cadusians is five 
thousand four hundred stadia; and that the part 
along the coast of the Anariaci and Mardi and 
Hyrcani to the mouth of the Oxus River is four 
thousand eight hundred, and thence to the Iaxartes, 
two thousand four hundred. But we must under- 
stand in a more general sense the accounts of this 
portion and the regions that lie so far removed, 
particularly in the matter of distances. 

2. On the right, as one sails into the Caspian Sea, 
are those Scythians, or Sarmatians,” who live in the 
country contiguous to Europe between the Tanais 
River and this sea; the greater part of them are 
nomads, of whom I have already spoken. On the 
left are the eastern Seythians, also nomads, who 
extend as far as the Eastern Sea and India. Now 
all the peoples towards the north were by the 
ancient Greek historians given the general name 
“ Seythians’”” or “ Celtoscythians”; but the writers 
of still earlier times, making distinctions between 
them, called those who lived above the Euxine and 
the Ister and the Adriatic ‘‘ Hyperboreans,” “ Sauro- 
matians,” and ‘‘ Arimaspians,”’ and they called those 

1 See note on ‘‘ Caspian Sea” (11. 1. 5). 
appeen lle i2.. 1» 8 1] 6.1} 



τοὺς δὲ πέραν τῆς Κασπίας θαλάττης τοὺς μὲν 
Σάκας, τοὺς δὲ Μασσαγέτας ἐκάλουν, οὐκ ἔχοντες 
ἀκριβῶς" λέγειν περὶ αὐτῶν οὐδέν, καίπερ “πρὸς 
Μασσαγέτας τοῦ Κύρου πόλεμου ἱστοροῦντες. 
ἀλλ᾽ οὔτε περὶ τούτων οὐδὲν ἠκρίβωτο πρὸς 
ἀλήθειαν, οὔτε τὰ παλαιὰ τῶν "Περσικῶν οὔτε 
τῶν Μηδικῶν ἢ Συριακῶν ἐς πίστιν ἀφικνεῖτο 
μεγάλην διὰ τὴν τῶν συγγραφέων ἁπλότητα καὶ 
τὴν φιλομυθίαν. 

8. Ὁρῶντες γὰρ τοὺς φανερῶς μυθογράφους 
εὐδοκιμοῦντας φήθησαν καὶ αὐτοὶ παρέξεσθαι τὴν 
γραφὴν ἡδεῖαν, ἐὰν ἐν ἱστορίας σχήματι λέγωσιν, 
ἃ μηδέποτε εἶδον μηδὲν ἤξουδαν, ἢ οὐ Tapa γε 
εἰδότων, σκοποῦντες * αὐτὸ μόνον τοῦτο, ὅ τι 
ἀκρόασιν ἡδεῖαν ἔχει καὶ θαυμαστήν. ῥᾷον δ᾽ 
ἄν τις Ἡσιόδῳ καὶ Ὁμήρῳ πιστεύσειεν ἡρωο- 
λογοῦσι καὶ τοῖς τραγικοῖς ποιηταῖς ἢ Κτησίᾳ 
τε καὶ “Hpodotw καὶ “EXXavinm καὶ ἄλλοις 

Be Οὐδὲ τοῖς περὶ ᾿Αλεξάνδρου δὲ συγγράψασιν 

6. ῥάδιον πιστεύειν τοῖς πολλοῖς" καὶ γὰρ οὗτοι 
ese διά τε τὴν δόξαν τὴν ᾿Αλεξάνδρου 
καὶ διὰ τὸ τὴν στρατείαν πρὸς τὰς ἐσχατιὰς 
γεγονέναι τῆς ᾿Ασίας πόρρω ἀφ᾽ ἡμῶν" τὸ δὲ 
πόρρω δυσέλεγκτον. ἡ δὲ τῶν Ρωμαίων ἐπι- 
κράτεια καὶ ἡ τῶν Παρθυαίων πλεῖόν τι προσεκ- 
καλύπτει τῶν παραδεδομένων πρότερον' οἱ γὰρ 
ἀκρ' θές K, Meineke. 
μηδέ, Jones, for μήτε, from conj. of C. Miiller. 
εἰδότων, Meineke emends to ἰδόντων. 
δι᾽, before αὐτό, Corais omits. 
δέ, after αὐτό, Corais omits. 
οὐ is omitted by oz and some of the editors. 

aoark ὦ ἢ ν» 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 6. 2~4 

who lived across the Caspian Sea in part “ Sacians” 
and in part “ Massagetans,” but they were unable to 
give any accurate account of them, although they 
reported a war between Cyrus! and the Massa- 
getans. However, neither have the historians given 
an accurate and truthful account of these peoples, 
nor has much credit been given to the ancient history 
of the Persians or Medes or Syrians, on account of 
the credulity of the historians and their fondness 
for myths. 

3. For, seeing that those who were professedly 
writers of myths enjoyed repute, they thought that 
they too would make their writings pleasing if they 
told in the guise of history what they had never seen, 
nor even heard—or at least not from persons who 
knew the facts—with this object alone in view, to 
tell what afforded their hearers pleasure and amaze- 
ment. One could more easily believe Hesiod and 
Homer in their stories of the heroes, or the tragic 
poets, than Ctesias, Herodotus, Hellanicus,? and 
other writers of this kind. 

4. Neither is it easy to believe most of those who 
have written the history of Alexander ; for these toy 
with facts, both because of the glory of Alexander 
and because his expedition reached the ends of 
Asia, far away from us; and statements about things 
that are far away are hard to refute. But the 
supremacy of the Romans and that of the Parthians 
has disclosed considerably more knowledge than that 
which had previously come down to us by tradition ; 

1 Cyrus the Elder. For an account of this war, see 
Herodotus 1. 201 ff, 
2 On their writings, see Dictionary in Vol. 1. 



\ ᾽ ΄, ΄ \ [4 \ 
περὶ ἐκείνων συγγράφοντες καὶ τὰ χωρία καὶ 
Ν ΄ 4 4 
τὰ ἔθνη, ἐν οἷς αἱ πράξεις, πιστότερον λέγουσιν 
΄ \ » A σε \ 
ἢ οἱ πρὸ αὐτῶν: μᾶλλον γὰρ κατωπτεύκασι. 


1. Τοὺς δ᾽ οὖν ἐν ἀριστερᾷ εἰσπλέοντι τὸ 
Κάσπιον πέλαγος παροικοῦντας νομάδας Δάας 
οἱ νῦν προσαῃορενοῦσι τοὺς ἐπονομαζομένους 
᾿Απάρνους"" εἶτ᾽ ἔρημος “πρόκειται μεταξύ, καὶ 
ἐφεξῆς ἡ Ὑρκανία, καθ᾽ ἣν ἤδη πελαγίζει. μέχρι 
τοῦ συνάψαι τοῖς Μηδικοῖς ὄρεσι καὶ τοῖς 
᾿Αρμενίων. τούτων δ᾽ ἐστὶ μηνοειδὲς τὸ σχῆμα 
κατὰ τὰς ὑπωρείας, αἱ τελευτῶσαι πρὸς θάλατταν 
ποιοῦσι τὸν μυχὸν τοῦ κόλπου. οἰκεῖ δὲ τὴν πα- 
ρώρειαν ταύτην. μέχρι, τῶν ἄκρων ἀπὸ θαλάττης 
ἀρξαμένοις ἐπὶ μικρὸν μὲν τῶν ᾿Αλβανῶν τι 
μέρος καὶ τῶν ᾿Αρμενίων, τὸ δὲ πλέον Γῆλαι 
καὶ Καδούσιοι καὶ "Αμαρδοι καὶ Οὐίτιοι 3 καὶ 
᾿Αναριάκαι. φασὶ δὲ Llappaciwy τινὰς συνοικῆσαι 
τοῖς ᾿Αναριάκαις, ovs καλεῖσθαι νῦν ΙΤαρσίους "ὃ 
Αἰνιᾶνας δ᾽ ἐν τῇ Οὐιτίᾳ τειχίσαι. πόλιν, ἣν 
Alviava καλεῖσθαι, καὶ δείκνύσθαι " ὅπλα τε 
“Ἑλληνικὰ ἐνταῦθα καὶ σκεύη χαλκᾶ καὶ ζαφάς: 
ἐνταῦθα δὲ καὶ πόλιν ᾿Αναριάκην,5 ἐν 79° φασί, 

1 ᾿Απάρνους (so spelled in 1]. 8. 2 (twice)), Jones, for 
Σπάρνους ; others Πάρνους (as in MSS. 11. 9. 2, 8 q.v.). 

2 Οὐΐτιοι E, Kovitioe other MSS. C. Miiller conj. Κύρτιοι 
(see Ind. Var. Lect., p. 1014). 

3 Παρσίους, Corais, for Mappactous ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 6. 4-7. τ 

for those who write about those distant regions tell 
a more trustworthy story than their predecessors, 
both of the places and of the tribes among which 
the activities took place, for they have looked into 
the matter more closely. 


1. Tuos— nomads, however, who live along the 
coast on the left as one sails into the Caspian Sea are 
by the writers of to-day called Diiae, I mean, those 
who are surnamed Aparni; then, in front of them, 
intervenes ἃ desert country ; and next comes 
Hyrcania, where the Caspian resembles an open sea 
to the point where it borders on the Median and 
Armenian mountains. The shape of these mountains 
is ecrescent-like along the foot-hills, which end at the 
sea and form the recess of the gulf. This side of the 
mountains, beginning at the sea, is inhabited as far 
as their heights for a short stretch by a part of the 
Albanians and the Armenians, but for the most part by 
Gelae, Cadusii, Amardi, Vitii, and Anariacae. They 
say that some of the Parrhasii took up their abode 
with the Anariacae, who, they say, are now called 
Parsii ; and that the Aenianes built a walled city in 
the Vitian territory, which, they say, is called 
Aeniana; and that Greek armour, brazen vessels, 
and burial-places are to be seen there; and that 
there is also a city Anariacé there, in which, they 

4 δείκνυσθαι, Corais, for δείκνυται ; so the later editors. 

5 ᾿Αναριάκην, Tzschucke, for ᾿Αβάρκην Dh, NaBdpxny other 
MSS. ; so the later editors. 

6 4, Tzschucke, for ᾧ ; so the later editors. 


C 509 


δείκνυται μαντεῖον ey KOU LO LEVEY,» καὶ ἄλλα 
τινὰ ἔθνη ληστρικὰ καὶ μάχιμα μᾶλλον ἢ 
γεωργικά"" ποιεῖ δὲ τοῦτο ἡ τραχύτης τῶν 
τόπων. τὸ μέντοι πλέον τῆς περὶ τὴν ὀρεινὴν 
παραλίας Καδούσιοι νέμονται, σχεδὸν δὲ τὶ 
ἐπὶ πεντακισχιλίους σταδίους, ὥς φησι 11ατ- 
ροκλῆς, ὃς καὶ πάρισον ἡγεῖται. τὸ πέλαγος τοῦτο 

τῷ Ποντικῷ. ταῦτα μὲν οὖν τὰ χωρία λυπρά. 

΄ , , 
2. Ἣ δ᾽ Ὑρκανία σφόδρα εὐδαίμων καὶ πολλὴ 
αἵ \ / \ a , ,’ , 

καὶ TO πλέον πεδιὰς πόλεσί τε ἀξιολόγοις διει- 
, ᾿ » Aan , 4 \ \ 
λημμένη, ὧν ἐστὶ Ταλαβρόκη καὶ Σαμαριανὴ Kat 
Κώρτα καὶ τὸ βασίλειον Tarn ὅ φασι μικρὸν 
ὑπὲρ τῆς θαλάττης ἱδρυμένον διέχειν τῶν Κασ- 
πίων πυλῶν σταδίους χιλίους τετρακοσίους, 
καὶ διὰ τὸ μὲν Eidos? τῆς εὐδαιμονίας σημεῖα 
διηγοῦνται" ἡ μὲν γὰρ ἄμπελος μετρητὴν οἴνου 
φέρει, ἡ δὲ συκῆ μεδίμνους ἑξήκοντα, ὁ δὲ σῖτος 
ἐκ τοῦ ἐκπεσόντος καρποῦ τῆς καλάμης φύεται, 
ἐν δὲ τοῖς δένδρεσι σμηνουργεῖται καὶ τῶν 
φύλλων ἀπορρεῖ μέλι τοῦτο δὲ γίνεται καὶ τῆς 
’ » “- a \ a ’ , > 
Μηδίας ἐν τῇ Ματιανῇ καὶ τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας ἐν 
τῇ Σακασηνῇ καὶ τῇ ᾿Δραξηνῇ. τῆς μέντοι 
προσηκούσης ἐπιμελείας οὐκ ἔτυχεν οὔτε αὐτὴ 
οὔτε ἡ ἐπώνυμος αὐτῇ θάλαττα, ἄπλους τε οὖσα 

1 ἐγκοιμωμένων, Tzschucke, for ἐν κοιμωμένων ; so the later 

2 There appears to be an omission here. Groskurd suggests 
that Strabo wrote ‘‘and some other traces of Greek colonisa- 
tion, and all these tribes are more inclined to brigandage 
and war.” 

3 καὶ τοῦ μὲν εἴδους Owz, καὶ ταῦτα μὲν Tov εἴδους zy. E 
omits the words, inserting δέ after σημεῖα. T. G. Tucker 
(Classical Quarterly 3.101) proposes καὶ νὴ Ala τοῦ μεγέθους 

. διηγοῦνται. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 7. 1-2 

say, is to be seen an oracle for sleepers,'* and 
some other tribes that are more inclined to brigand- 
age and war than to farming; but this is due 
to the ruggedness of the region. However, the 
greater part of the seaboard round the mountainous 
country is occupied by Cadusii, for a stretch of 
almost five thousand stadia, according to Patrocles,® 
who considers this sea almost equal to the Pontic 
Sea. Now these regions have poor soil. 

2. But Hyrcania is exceedingly fertile, extensive, 
and in general level ; it is distinguished by notable 
cities, among which are Talabrocé, Samariané, Carta, 
and the royal residence Tapé, which, they say, is 
situated slightly above the sea and at a distance of 
one thousand four hundred stadia from the Caspian 
Gates. And because of its particular kind of 
prosperity writers go on to relate evidences thereof : 
the vine produces one metretes* of wine, and 
the fig-tree sixty medimni;°® the grain grows up 
from the seed that falls from the stalk; bees have 
their hives in the trees, and honey drips from the 
leaves; and this is also the case in Matiané in 
Media, and in Sacasené and Araxené in Armenia.® 
However, neither the country itself nor the sea that 
is named after it has received proper attention, the 
sea being both without vessels and unused. There 

1 j.e. people received oracles in their dreams while sleep- 
ing in the temple (cf. 16. 2. 35). 

2 See critical note. 3 See Dictionary in Vol. I. 

4 A little less than nine gallons. 

5 The medimnus was about a bushel and a half. 

Onis ΟΣ ΝΣ mich 

4 διηγοῦνται, Groskurd, for ἡγοῦνται, which K and Meineke 

VOL Vv. I 


\ ᾽ , a 7, 7 > ᾽ A ΄ 
καὶ ἀργός" νῆσοί τέ εἰσιν οἰκεῖσθαι δυνάμεναι, 
ὡς δ᾽ εἰρήκασί τινες, καὶ χρυσῖτιν ἔχουσαι γῆν. 
αἴτιον δ᾽, ὅτε καὶ οἱ ἡγεμόνες οἵ 7 ἐξαρχῆς 
ἐτύγχανον βάρβαροι ὄντες οἱ τῶν Ὑρκανῶν, 
Μηῆδοί τε καὶ Tépoas, καὶ οἱ ὕστατοι i Παρθυαῖοι, 
χείρους ἐκείνων ὄντες, καὶ ἡ γείτων ἅπασα χώρα 
λῃστῶν καὶ νομάδων μεστὴ καὶ ἐρημίας. Μα- 
κεδόνες δ᾽ ὀλίγον μὲν χρόνον ἐπῆρξαν, καὶ ἐν 
πολέμοις ὄντες καὶ τὰ πόρρω σκοπεῖν οὐ δυνά- 
μενοι. φησὶ δ᾽ ᾿Αριστόβουλος ὑλώδη οὖσαν τὴν 
Ὑρκανίαν δρῦν ἔ ἔχειν, πεύκην δὲ καὶ ἐλάτην καὶ 
πίτυν μὴ φύειν, τὴν δ᾽ Ἰνδικὴν πληθύειν τούτοις. 

a AG Ie / 3. αὖν Ae fens \ \ 
τῆς δὲ Ὑρκανίας ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ Νησαία' τινὲς δὲ 
καὶ καθ᾽ αὑτὴν τιθέασι τὴν Νησαίαν. 

3: Διαρρεῖται δὲ καὶ ποταμοῖς ἡ Ὑρκανία τῷ 
τε "Oxo καὶ τῷ "OEo μέχρι τῆς εἰς θάλατταν 
ἐκβολῆς, ὧν ὁ Ὦχος καὶ διὰ τῆς Νησαίας ῥεῖ" 
ἔνιοι δὲ τὸν Ὦχον εἰς τὸν "Ofov ἐμβάλλειν 
φασίν. ᾿Αριστόβουλος δὲ καὶ μέγιστον ἀπο- 

’ \ 3 lal e , e > c lal 
φαίνει tov ᾽ξον τῶν ἑωραμένων vp ἑαυτοῦ 

\ \ ᾽ , ᾿ a ? A ῃ κ᾿ 
κατὰ τὴν ᾿Ασίαν, πλὴν τῶν ᾿Ινδικῶν: φησὶ δὲ 

‘ 5 3 \ Ka ἊΨ / 
Kal εὔπλουν εἶναι (καὶ οὗτος Kai ᾿Ερατοσθένης 
παρὰ Ἰ]ατροκλέους λαβών) καὶ πολλὰ τῶν 
Ινδικῶν φορτίων κατάγειν εἰς τὴν Ὑρκανίαν 
θάλατταν, ἐντεῦθεν δ᾽ εἰς τὴν ᾿Αλβανίαν πε- 

lal ‘A A Lal 4 ‘A r e ra , 
ραιοῦσθαι, καὶ διὰ τοῦ Κύρου καὶ τῶν ἑξῆς τόπων 
>] Ν » “2 > / \ 
εἰς τὸν Εὔξεινον καταφέρεσθαι. ov πάνυ δὲ 
rua A a © 5 > 7, > 
ὑπὸ τῶν παλαιῶν ὁ Ἶῶχος ὀνομάζεται. ᾿Απολ- 

1 Pinus maritima. 2 Pinus picea. 

3 Pinus pinea. Ah Ge Y le 5.0 

δ This Aristobulus accompanied Alexander on his expedi- 
tion and wrote a work of unknown title. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 7. 2-3 

are islands in this sea which could afford a livelihood, 
and, according to some writers, contain gold ore. 
The cause of this lack of attention was the fact that 
the first governors of the Hyrcanians, I mean the 
Medes and Persians, as also the last, I mean the 
Parthians, who were inferior to the former, were 
barbarians, and also the fact that the whole of the 
neighbouring country was full of brigands and 
nomads and deserted regions. The Macedonians 
did indeed rule over the country for a short time, 
but they were so occupied with wars that they 
could not attend to their remote possessions, 
According to Aristobulus, Hyreania, which is a 
wooded country, has the oak, but does not produce 
the torch-pine? or fir? or stone-pine,® though India 
abounds in these trees. Nesaea, also, belongs to 
Hyrcania, though some writers set it down as an 
independent district.* 

3. Hyrcania is traversed by the rivers Ochus and 
Oxus to their outlets into the sea; and of these, the 
Ochus flows also through Nesaea, but some say that 
the Ochus empties into the Oxus. Aristobulus® 
declares that the Oxus is the largest of the rivers he 
has seen in Asia, except those in India. And he 
further says that it is navigable (both he and 
Eratosthenes taking this statement from Patrocles) Ὁ 
and that large quantities of Indian wares are brought 
down on it to the Hyrcanian Sea, and thence on that 
seaare transported to Albaniaand broughtdown onthe 
Cyrus River and through the region that comes next 
after it to the Euxine. The Ochus is not mentioned 
at all by the ancient writers. Apollodorus,’? however, 

ὁ See Dictionary in Vol. 1, 7 Of Artemita. 


, e ΄“- 
λόδωρος μέντοι ὁ τὰ Παρθικὰ γράψας συνεχῶς 
αὐτὸν ὀνομάζει, ὡς ἐγγυτάτω τοῖς Παρθυαίοις 

4. ἹΙροσεδοξάσθη δὲ καὶ περὶ τῆς θαλάττης 
ταύτης πολλὰ ψευδῆ διὰ τὴν ᾿Αλεξάνδρου φιλοτι- 

x e 7 
μίαν: ἐπειδὴ yap ὡμολόγητο ἐκ πάντων, ὅτι 
As ΄ ss 
διείργει τὴν ᾿Ασίαν ἀπὸ τῆς Εὐρώπης ὁ Τάναϊς 
ποταμός, τὸ δὲ μεταξὺ τῆς θαλάττης καὶ τοῦ 
pas \ “ > / yv 
Τανάϊδος, πολὺ μέρος τῆς ᾿Ασίας ὄν, οὐχ ὑπέπιπτε 

r -“ , 4 lol 

τοῖς Μακεδόσι, στρατηγεῖν 6 ἔγνωστο, ὥστε TH 

“ la) lal \ 

φήμῃ ye κἀκείνων δόξαι TOV μερῶν κρατεῖν τὸν 
> 7 > a Ss lol / na 

᾿Αλέξανδρον: eis ἕν οὖν συνῆγον τήν τε Μαιῶτιν 
΄, \ \ - / 

λίμνην THY δεχομένην Tov Τάναϊν καὶ τὴν Ἱζασπίαν 

θάλατταν, λίμνην καὶ ταύτην καλοῦντες καὶ 
lol / Ν > 4 > , 

συντετρῆσθαι φάσκοντες πρὸς ἀλλήλας ἀμφοτέρας, 

\ ΄ fol ΄ 

ἑκατέραν δὲ εἶναι μέρος τῆς ἑτέρας. ἸΙολύκλειτος 
\ la 3 

δὲ καὶ πίστεις προσφέρεται περὶ τοῦ λίμνην εἶναι 

τὴν θάλατταν ταύτην (ὄφεις τε yap ἐκτρέφειν Kal 

Η ef 4 
ὑπόγλυκυ εἶναι τὸ ὕδωρ), ὅτι δὲ καὶ οὐχ ἑτέρα 
rn ΄ ΄ , “ \ 
τῆς Μαιώτιδός ἐστι, τεκμαιρόμενος ἐκ τοῦ τὸν 

/ - > > \ τ ΄ > \ A > “ 
Τάναϊν εἰς αὐτὴν ἐμβάλλειν: ἐκ γὰρ τῶν αὐτῶν 
3 4 a , nn 5" 2 oa 3 A <e 
ὀρῶν τῶν ᾿Ινδικῶν, ἐξ ὧν 6 τε Ὦχος καὶ ὁ Ὦξος 

\ Μ Vs / \ ἀν, / 3 / 
καὶ ἄλλοι πλείους, φέρεται καὶ ὁ ᾿Ιαξάρτης ἐκδί- 
δωσί τε ὁμοίως ἐκείνοις εἰς τὸ Κάσπιον πέλαγος, 
πάντων ἀρκτικώτατος. τοῦτον οὖν ὠνόμασαν 
Τάναϊν, καὶ προσέθεσαν καὶ τούτῳ πίστιν, ὡς " 
» / “ aA ” ε Γ ΄ Ξ \ \ 
ein Τάναϊς, ὃν εἴρηκεν ὁ Πολύκλειτος: THY γὰρ 
περαίαν τοῦ ποταμοῦ τούτου φέρειν ἐλάτην καὶ 
>. o UJ a \ / 
ὀϊστοῖς ἐλατίνοις χρῆσθαι τοὺς ταύτῃ Σκύθας, 

rn a \ 
τοῦτο δὲ καὶ τεκμήριον TOD THY χώραν THY πέραν 

1 ὡς, Corais, for ὥστ᾽ ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 7. 3-4 

who wrote the Parthica, names it continually, 
implying that it flows very close to the country of 
the Parthians. 

4. Many false notions were also added to the 
account of this sea because} of Alexander’s love of 
glory; for, since it was agreed by all that the 
Tanais separated Asia from Europe, and that the 
region between the sea and the Tanais, being a con- 
siderable part of Asia, had not fallen under the 
power of the Macedonians, it was resolved to mani- 
pulate the account of Alexander’s expedition so that 
in fame at least he might be credited with having 
conquered those parts of Asia too. They therefore 
united Lake Maeotis, which receives the Tanais, 
with the Caspian Sea, calling this too a lake and 
asserting that both were connected with one another 
by an underground passage and that each was a part 
of the other. Polycleitus goes on to adduce proofs 
in connection with his belief that the sea is a lake 
(for instance, he says that it produces serpents, and 
that its water is sweetish) ; and that it is no other 
than Maeotis he judges from the fact that the Tanais 
empties into it. From the same Indian mountains, 
where the Ochus and the Oxus and several other 
rivers rise, flows also the Iaxartes, which, like those 
rivers, empties into the Caspian Sea and is the most 
northerly of them all. ‘This river, accordingly, they 
named Tanais; and in addition to so naming it they 
gave as proof that it was the Tanais mentioned by 
Polycleitus that the country on the far side of this 
river produces the fir-tree and that the Scythians in 
that region use arrows made of fir-wood ; and they 
say that this is also evidence that the country on the 

1 See 11. 5. δὲ 



τῆς Εὐρώπης εἶναι, μὴ τῆς ᾿Ασίας: τὴν yap 
᾿Ασίαν τὴν ἄνω καὶ τὴν πρὸς ἕω μὴ φύειν ἐλάτην. 
᾿Ερατοσθένης δέ φησι καὶ ἐν τῇ ᾿Ινδικῇ φύεσθαι 
ἐλάτην καὶ ἐντεῦθεν ναυπηγήσασθαι τὸν στόλον 
᾿Αλέξανδρον" πολλὰ δὲ καὶ ἄλλα τοιαῦτα συγ- 
κρούειν ᾿Βρατοσθένης πειρᾶται, ἡμῖν δ᾽ ἀποχρών- 
τως εἰρήσθω περὶ αὐτῶν. 

5. Καὶ τοῦτο δ᾽ ἐκ τῶν κατὰ τὴν Ὑρκανίαν 
ἱστορουμένων παραδόξων ἐστὶν ὑπὸ Εὐδόξου καὶ 
ἄλλων, ὅτι πρόκεινταί τινες ἀκταὶ τῆς θαλάττης 
ὕπαντροι, τούτων δὲ μεταξὺ καὶ τῆς θαλάττης 
ὑπόκειται ταπεινὸς αἰγιαλός, ἐκ δὲ τῶν ὕπερθεν 
κρημνῶν ποταμοὶ ῥέοντες τοσαύτῃ προφέρονται 
βίᾳ, ὥστε ταῖς ἀκταῖς συνάψαντες ἐξακοντίζουσι 
τὸ ὕδωρ εἰς τὴν θάλατταν, ἄ ἄρραντον φυλάττοντες 
τὸν αἰγιαλόν, ὥστε καὶ στρατοπέδοις ὁδεύσιμον 
εἶναι, σκεπαξζομένοις | τῷ ῥεύματι" οἱ δ᾽ ἐπιχώριοι 
κατάγονται πολλάκις εὐωχίας καὶ θυσίας χάριν 
εἰς τὸν τόπον καὶ ποτὲ μὲν ὑπὸ τοῖς ἄντροις 
κατακλίνονται, ποτὲ δ᾽ ὑπ᾽ αὐτῷ τῷ ῥεύματι 
ἡλιαζόμενοι, ἄλλως 3 ἄλλοι τέρπονται, παραφαινο- 
μένης ἅμα καὶ τῆς θαλάττης ἑκατέρωθεν καὶ 
τῆς ἠιόνος, ποώδους καὶ ἀνθηρᾶς οὔσης διὰ τὴν 

1. ᾿Απὸ δὲ τῆς Ὑρκανίας θαλάττης προϊόντι 
ἐπὶ τὴν ἕω δεξιὰ μέν ἐστι τὰ ὄρη μέχρι τῆς 
Ἰνδικῆς θαλάττης παρατείνοντα, ἅπερ οἱ “Ελληνες 

1 σκεπαζομένοις Hpit. for σκεπαζόμενον. 
2 δ᾽, after ἄλλως, Meineke omits. 

GEOGRAPHY, 11. 7. 4-8. 1 

far side belongs to Europe and not to Asia, for, they 
add, Upper and Eastern Asia does not produce the 
fir-tree. But Eratosthenes says that the fir-tree 
grows alsoin India and that Alexander built his fleet 
out of fir-wood from there. Eratosthenes tries to 
reconcile many other differences of this kind, but as 
for me, let what I have said about them suffice. 

5. This too, among the marvellous things recorded 
of Hyrcania, is related by Eudoxus? and others : 
that there are some cliffs facing the sea with caverns 
underneath, and between these and the sea, below 
the cliffs, is a low-lying shore ; and that rivers flow- 
ing from the precipices above rush forward with so 
great force that when they reach the cliffs they hurl 
their waters out into the sea without wetting the 
shore, so that even armies can pass underneath 
sheltered by the stream above; and the natives 
often come down to the place for the sake of feasting 
and sacrifice, and sometimes they recline in the 
eaverns down below and sometimes they enjoy 
themselves basking in the sunlight beneath the 
stream itself, different people enjoying themselves in 
different ways, having in sight at the same time on 
either side both the sea and the shore, which latter, 
because of the moisture, is grassy and abloom with 


1. As one proceeds from the Hyrcanian Sea 
towards the east, one sees on the right the moun- 
tains that extend as far as the Indian Sea, which by 

! Eudoxus of Cnidus (see Dictionary in Vol. 1). 





ὀνομάζουσι Ταῦρον, ἀρξάμενα ἀπὸ τῆς Παμφυ- 
λίας καὶ τῆς Κιλικίας καὶ μέχρι δεῦρο προϊόντα 
ἀπὸ τῆς ἑσπέρας συνεχῆ καὶ τυγχάνοντα 5 ἄλλων 
καὶ ἄλλων ὀνομάτων. προσοικοῦσι δ᾽ αὐτοῦ τὰ 
προσάρκτια μέρη πρῶτοι μὲν οἱ Γῆλαι καὶ 
Καδούσιοι καὶ "Δμαρδοι, καθάπερ εἴρηται, καὶ 
τῶν Ὑρκανίων τινές, ἔπειτα τὸ τῶν Παρθυαίων 
ἔθνος καὶ τὸ τῶν Διαργιανῶν καὶ τῶν een καὶ 
ἡ ἔρημος, ἣν ἀπὸ τῆς Ὑρκανίας. ὁρίξει ὁ Σάρνιος 
ποταμὸς πρὸς ἕω βαδίξουσι καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν ᾽Ὥχον. 
καλεῖται δὲ τὸ μέχρι δεῦρο ἀπὸ τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας 
διατεῖνον, ἢ μικρὸν ἀπολεῖπον, Παραχοάθρας.ὅ 
ἔστι δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς Ὑρκανίας θαλάττης εἰς τοὺς 
᾿Αρίους περὶ ἑξακισχιλίους σταδίους, εἶθ᾽ ἡ 

ακτριανή ἐστι καὶ ἡ Σογδιανή, τελευταῖοι δὲ 
Σκύθαι νομάδες. τὰ δ᾽ ὄρη Μακεδόνες μὲν 
ἅπαντα τὰ ἐφεξῆς ἀπὸ ᾿Αρίων Καύκασον ἐκά- 
λεσαν, παρὰ δὲ τοῖς βαρβάροις τά τε ἄκρα κατὰ 
μέρος ὠνομάξετο ὁ Παροπάμισος τὰ προσβόρεια * 
καὶ τὰ ᾿Ημωδὰ καὶ τὸ Ἴμαον καὶ ἄλλα τοιαῦτα 
ὀνόματα ἑκάστοις μέρεσιν ἐπέκειτο. 

2. "Ev ἀριστερᾷ δὲ τούτοις ἀντιπαράκειται τὰ ὃ 

Σκυθικὰ ἔθνη καὶ τὰ νομαδικά, ἅπασαν ἐκπλη- 

lo \ / γ΄. e \ ‘ / 
ροῦντα τὴν βόρειον πλευράν. οἱ μὲν δὴ πλείους 
τῶν Σκυθῶν ἀπὸ τῆς Κασπίας θαλάττης ἀρξάμενοι 
Δάαι προσαγορεύονται, τοὺς δὲ προσεῴους τούτων 

1 ἀρξάμενα Egayz (ἀρξάμενον other MSS.); so Tzschucke, 
Corais, Meineke. 
2 τυγχάνοντα Εἰ, τυγχανόντων other MSS. 
3 Tlapaxod@pas, Tzschucke, for Παρωχοάρας ; so the later 
4 The reading of the MSS., τά τε ἄκρα καὶ τοῦ Παραπαμίσου 
τὰ προσβόρεια KTA., is corrupt. Jones corrects the passage by 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 8. 1-2 

the Greeks are named the Taurus. Beginning at 
Pamphylia and Cilicia they extend thus far in a 
continuous line from the west and bear various 
different names. Inthe northerly parts of the range 
dwell first the Gelae and Cadusii and Amardi, as 1 
have said, and certain of the Hyrcanians, and after 
them the tribe of the Parthians and that of the 
Margianians and the Arians; and then comes the 
desert which is separated from Hyrcania by the 
Sarnius River as one goes eastwards and towards 
the Ochus River. The mountain which extends from 
Armenia to this point, or a little short of it, is called 
Parachoathras. The distance from the Hyrcanian 
Sea to the country of the Arians is about six thou- 
sand stadia. Then comes Bactriana, and Sogdiana, 
and finally the Scythian nomads. Now the Mace- 
donians gave the name Caucasus to all the mountains 
which follow in order after the country of the Arians ; 
but among the barbarians? the extremities? on the 
north were given the separate names ‘ Paropamisus ” 
and “ Emoda”’ and “ Imaus”’ ; and other such names 
were applied to separate parts. 

2. On the left and opposite these peoples are 
situated the Scythian or nomadic tribes, which cover 
the whole of the northern side. Now the greater 
part of the Scythians, beginning at the Caspian Sea, 
are called Diae, but those who are situated more to 

1171... 15 

3.2.6. the ‘‘ natives,” as referred to in 15. J. 11. 

3 2.6. the ‘‘farthermost (or outermost) parts of the Taurus,”’ 
as mentioned in 15. 1. 11 (¢. v.). 

following the similar statement in 15, 1. 11 (but ep. Groskurd 
and C. Miller). 
5 τά, before Σκυθικά, Corais inserts ; so the later editors. 



μᾶλλον Μασσαγέτας καὶ Σάκας ὀνομάζουσι, τοὺς 
δ᾽ ἄλλους κοινῶς μὲν Σκύθας ὀνομάζουσιν, ἰδίᾳ δ᾽ 
ὡς ἑκάστους" ἅπαντες δ᾽ ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολὺ νομάδες. 
μάλιστα δὲ γνώριμοι γεγόνασι τῶν νομάδων οἱ 
τοὺς “Ἕλληνας ἀφελόμενοι τὴν Βακτριανήν, Ασιοι 
καὶ ἸΙασιανοὶ καὶ Τόχαροι καὶ Σακάραυλοι," 
ὁρμηθέντες ἀπὸ τῆς περαίας τοῦ ᾿Ιαξάρτου τῆς 
κατὰ Σάκας καὶ Σογδιανούς, ἣ ἣν κατεῖχον Σάκαι. 
καὶ τῶν Δαῶν οἱ μὲν προσαγορεύονται Ἄπαρνοι, 
οἱ δὲ Ξάνθιοι, οἱ δὲ Πίσσουροι: οἱ μὲν οὖν 
“Arrapvot πλησιαίτατα τῇ Ὑρκανίᾳ παράκεινται 
καὶ τῇ κατ᾽ αὐτὴν θαλάττῃ, οἱ δὲ λοιποὶ διατεί- 
νουσι καὶ μέχρι τῆς ἀντιπαρηκούσης τῇ ᾿Αρίᾳ. 

ὃ. Μεταξὺ δ᾽ αὐτῶν καὶ τῆς Ὑρκανίας καὶ τῆς 
Παρθυαίας μέχρι ᾿Αρίων ἔρημος πρόκειται πολλὴ 
καὶ ἄνυδρος, ἣν διεξιόντες μακραῖς ὁδοῖς κατέ- 
τρεχον τήν τε Ὑρκανίαν καὶ τὴν Νησαίαν καὶ 
τὰ τῶν Παρθυαίων πεδία" οἱ δὲ συνέθεντο φόρους" 
φόρος δ᾽ ἦν τὸ ἐπιτρέπειν τακτοῖς τισὶ χρόνοις 
τὴν χώραν κατατρέχειν καὶ ᾿ φέρεσθαι λείαν. ἐπι- 
πολαζόντων δ᾽ αὐτῶν παρὰ τὰ συγκείμενα, ἐπο- 
λεμεῖτο, καὶ πάλιν διαλύσεις καὶ ἀναπολεμήσεις 
ὑπῆρχον. τοιοῦτος δὲ καὶ ὁ τῶν ἄλλων νομάδων 
βίος, ἀεὶ τοῖς πλησίον ἐπιτιθεμένων, τοτὲ δ᾽ αὖ 

4, Σάκαι μέντοι παραπλησίας ἐφόδους ἐποιή- 

- Τόχαροι, the editors, for Τάχαροι. 

2 καί, before ὁρμηθέντες, Kramer omits; so the later 

3 διατείνουσι, Corais, for διαμένουσι (but E omits the word) ; 
so the later editors. 

4 Νησαίαν, Xylander, for Ἰσαίαν ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 8. 2-4 

the east than these are named Massagetae and Sacae, 
whereas all the rest are given the general name of 
Seythians, though each people is given a separate 
name of its own. ‘They are all for the most part 
nomads. But the best known of the nomads are 
those who took away Bactriana from the Greeks, I 
mean the Asii, Pasiani, Tochari,! and Sacarauli, who 
originally came from the country on the other side 
of the Iaxartes River that adjoins that of the Sacae 
and the Sogdiani and was occupied by the Sacae. 
And as for the Diae, some of them are called Aparni, 
some Xanthii, and some Pissuri. Now of these the 
Aparni are situated closest to Hyrcania and the part 
of the sea that borders on it, but the remainder 
extend even as far as the country that stretches 
parallel to Aria, 

3. Between them? and Hyrcania and Parthia and 
extending as far as the Arians is a great waterless 
desert, which they traversed by long marches and then 
overran Hyrcania, Nesaea, and the plains of the Parth- 
ians. And these people agreed to pay tribute, and the 
tribute was to allow the invaders at certain appointed 
times to overrun the country and carry off booty. 
But when the invaders overran their country more 
than the agreement allowed, war ensued, and in turn 
their quarrels were composed and new wars were 
begun. Such is the life of the other nomads also, 
who are always attacking their neighbours and then 
in turn settling their differences. 

4. The Sacae, however, made raids like those of 

1 On the Tochari and their language, see the article by 
T. A. Sinclair in the Classical Review, xxxvii, Nov., Dec., 
1923, p. 159. 

* The Aparnian Daae (see 11. 9. 2). 





σαντο τοῖς Κιμμερίοις καὶ Τρήρεσι, τὰς μὲν 
μακροτέρας, τὰς δὲ καὶ ἐγγύθεν" καὶ γὰρ τὴν 
Βακτριανὴν “κατέσχον. καὶ τῆς A ρμενίας κατεκτή- 
σαντο τὴν ἀρίστην γῆν, ἣν καὶ ἐπώνυμον ἑαυτῶν 
κατέλιπον “τὴν Σακασηνήν, καὶ μέχρι Καππα- 
δόκων, καὶ “μάλιστα τῶν πρὸς Εὐξείνῳ, ots 
Ποντικοὺς νῦν καλοῦσι, προῆλθον. ἐπιθέμενοι 
δ᾽ αὐτοῖς πανηγυρίξουσιν ἀπὸ τῶν λαφύρων οἱ 
ταύτῃ τότε τῶν Περσῶν στρατηγοί, νύκτωρ ἄρδην 
αὐτοὺς ἠφάνισαν. ἐν δὲ τῷ πεδίῳ πέτραν τινὰ 
προσχώματι συμπληρώσαντες͵ εἰς βουνοειδὲς 
σχῆμα ἐπέθηκαν τεῖχος καὶ τὸ τῆς ᾿Αναΐτιδος 
καὶ τῶν συμβώμων θεῶν ἱερὸν ἱδρύσαντο, Opavod 

i ᾿Αναδάτου, Περσικῶν δαιμόνων; ἀπέδειξάν τε 
rasyypiy κατ᾽ ἔτος ἱεράν, τὰ Σάκαια, ἣν μέχρι 
νῦν ἐπιτελοῦσιν οἱ τὰ Ζῆλα 3 ἔχοντες" οὕτω γὰρ 
καλοῦσι τὸν τόπον᾽ ἔστι δὲ ἱεροδούλων πόλισμα 
τὸ πλέον" Πομπήιος δὲ προσθεὶς χώραν ἀξιόλογον 
καὶ τοὺς ἐν αὐτῇ συνοικίσας εἰς τὸ τεῖχος μίαν 
τῶν πόλεων ἀπέφηνεν, ὧν διέταξε μετὰ τὴν 
Μιθριδάτου κατάλυσιν. 

BO? μὲν ὃ οὕτω λέγουσι περὶ τῶν Σακῶν, οἱ δ᾽, 
ὅτι Κῦρος ἐπιστρατεύσας τοῖς Σάκαις, ἡττηθεὶς 
τῇ μάχῃ φεύγει, στρατοπεδευσάμενος δ᾽ ἐν ᾧ 
χωρίῳ τὰς παρασκευὰς ἀπελελοίπει * πλήρεις 
ἀφ Povias a ἁπάσης, καὶ μάλιστα οἴνου, διαναπαύσας 
μικρὰ τὴν στρατιάν, ἤλαυνεν ἀφ᾽ ἑσπέρας, ὡς 
φεύγων, πλήρεις ἀφεὶς τὰς σκηνάς: προελθὼν 8, 

1 Τρήρεσι, Xylander, for τριήρεσι ; so the later editors. 
2 Ζῆλα, Tzschucke, for Σάκα ; so the later editors. 

3 Corais, Meineke and others insert οὖν after μέν. 

4 ἀπελελοίπει, Jones, for ἀπολελοίπει. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 8. 4-5 

Cimmerians and Treres,! some into regions close to 
their own country, others into regions farther away. 
For instance, they occupied Bactriana, and acquired 
possession of the best land in Armenia, which they 
left named after themselves, Sacasené; and they 
advanced as far as the country of the Cappadocians, 
particularly those situated close to the Euxine, who 
are now called the Pontici. But when they were 
holding a general festival and enjoying their booty, 
they were attacked by night by the Persian generals 
who were then in that region and utterly wiped out. 
And these generals, heaping up a mound of earth 
over a certain rock in the plain, completed it in the 
form of a hill, and erected on it a wall, and estab- 
lished the temple of Anaitis and the gods who share 
her altar—Omanus and Anadatus, Persian deities ; 
and they instituted an annual sacred festival, the 
Sacaea, which the inhabitants of Zela (for thus the 
place is called) continue to celebrate to the present 
day. It isa small city belonging for the most part 
to the temple-slaves. But Pompey added consider- 
able territory to it, settled the inhabitants thereof 
within the walls, and made it one of the cities which 
he organised after his overthrow of Mithridates. 

5. Now this is the account which some writers 
give of the Sacae. Others say that Cyrus made 
an expedition against the Sacae, was defeated in the 
battle, and fled; but that he encamped in the place 
where he had left behind his supplies, which con- 
sisted of an abundance of everything and especially of 
wine, rested his army a short time, and set out at 
nightfall, as though he were in flight, leaving the 
tents full of supplies; and that he proceeded as far 

1 Cf. 1. 3. 21, 12. 3. 24, 12. 8. 7,13. 1.813. Ὁ ΒΡ 14, 1. 40. 


ὅσον ἐδόκει συμφέρειν, ἱδρύθη: ἐπιόντες δ᾽ ἐκεῖνοι 
καὶ καταλαβόντες ἔ ἔρημον ἀνδρῶν τὸ στρατόπεδον, 
τῶν δὲ πρὸς ἀπόλαυσιν μεστόν, ἀνέδην ἐνεπίμ- 
πλαντο" ὁ δ᾽ ὑποστρέψας ἐξοίνους κατέλαβε καὶ 
παραπλῆγας, ὥσθ᾽ οἱ μὲν ἐν κάρῳ κείμενοι καὶ 
ὕπνῳ κατεκόπτοντο, οἱ δ᾽ ὀρχούμενοι καὶ βακ- 
χεύοντες γυμνοὶ περιέπιπτον τοῖς τῶν πολεμίων 
ὅπλοις, ὀλίγου δ᾽ ἀπώλοντο ἅπαντες. ὁ δὲ θεῖον 
νομίσας τὸ εὐτύχημα, τὴν ἡμέραν ἐκείνην ἀνιερώ- 
σας τῆ πατρίῳ θεῷ 7 poonyopeuce * Σάκαια: 
ὅπου δ᾽ ἂν ἡ τῆς θεοῦ ταύτης ἱερόν, ἐνταῦθα 
νομίζεται καὶ ἡ τῶν Σακαίων ἑορτὴ βακχεία τις 2 
μεθ᾽ ἡμέραν καὶ νύκτωρ, διεσκευασμένων Σκυθιστί, 
πινόντων ἅμα καὶ πληκτιζομένων πρὸς ἀλλήλους 
ἅμα τε καὶ τὰς συμπινούσας γυναῖκας. 

6. Μασσαγέται & ἐδήλωσαν τὴν σφετέραν 
ἀρετὴν ἐν τῷ πρὸς Κῦρον πολέμῳ, περὶ ὧν ὃ 
θρυλοῦσι πολλοί, καὶ δεῖ πυνθάνεσθαι παρ᾽ 
ἐκείνων. λέγεται δὲ καὶ τοιαῦτα περὶ τῶν Μασ- 
σαγετῶν, ὅτι κατοικοῦσιν οἱ μὲν ὄρη, τινὲς δ' 
αὐτῶν πεδία, οἱ δὲ ἕλη, ἃ ποιοῦσιν οἱ ποταμοί, 
οἱ δὲ τὰς ἐν τοῖς ἕλεσι νήσους. μάλιστα δέ φασι 
τὸν ᾿Αράξην4 ποταμὸν κατακλύζειν τὴν χώραν 
πολλαχῆ σχιζόμενον, ἐκπίπτοντα δὲ τοῖς μὲν 
ἄλλοις στόμασιν εἰς τὴν ἄλλην τὴν πρὸς ἄρκτοις 
θάλατταν, évi δὲ μόνῳ πρὸς τὸν κόλπον τὸν 
Ὑρκάνιον. θεὸν δὲ ἥλιον μόνον ἡγοῦνται, τούτῳ 
δὲ ἱπποθυτοῦσι: γαμεῖ δ᾽ ἕκαστος μίαν, χρῶνται 

1 προσηγόρευσε 0x2, προσηγορεύσας other MSS. 

? τις, Tzschucke, for τοῖς D, τῆς Chilrwg, τῶν gay. 

3 For ὧν, Meineke, following conj. of Corais, reads οὗ, 
4 ᾿Αράξην i, “Apatov other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 8. 5-6 

as he thought best and halted; and that the Sacae 
pursued, found the camp empty of men but full of 
things conducive to enjoyment, and filled them- 
selves to the full; and that Cyrus turned back, and 
found them drunk and crazed, so that some were 
slain while lying stupefied and asleep, whereas 
others fell victims to the arms of the enemy while 
dancing and revelling naked, and almost all perished ; 
and Cyrus, regarding the happy issue as of divine 
origin, consecrated that day to the goddess of his 
fathers and called it Sacaea; and that wherever 
there is a temple of this goddess, there the festival 
of the Sacaea, a kind of Bacchic festival, is the 
custom, at which men, dressed in the Scythian 
garb, pass day and night drinking and playing 
wantonly with one another, and also with the 
women who drink with them. 

6. The Massagetae disclosed their valour in their 
war with Cyrus, to which many writers refer again 
and again; and it is from these that we must get 
our information. Statements to the following effect 
are made concerning the Massagetae: that some 
of them inhabit mountains, some plains, others 
marshes which are formed by the rivers, and others 
the islands in the marshes. But the country is 
inundated most of all, they say, by the Araxes 
River, which splits into numerous branches and 
empties by its other mouths into the other sea! on 
the north, though by one single mouth it reaches 
the Hyrcanian Gulf. They regard Helius? alone as 
god, and to him they sacrifice horses. Each man 
marries only one wife, but they use also the wives of 

1 The Northern Ocean. 2 The Sun. 


δὲ Kal ταῖς ἀλλήλων οὐκ ἀφανῶς, ὁ δὲ μιγνύμενος 
τῇ ἀλλοτρίᾳ, τὴν φαρέτραν ἐξαρτήσας ἐκ τῆς 
ἁμάξης, φανερῶς μίγνυται" θάνατος δὲ νομίζεται 
παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἄριστος, ὅταν γηράσαντες κατακο- 
πῶσι μετὰ προβατείων κρεῶν καὶ ἀναμὶξ βρωθῶσι: 
τοὺς δὲ νόσῳ θανόντας ῥίπτουσιν, ὡς ἀσεβεῖς καὶ 
ἀξίους ὑ ὑπὸ θηρίων βεβρῶσθαι. ἀγαθοὶ δὲὶ ἱππόται 
καὶ πεζοί, τόξοις δὲ χρῶνται καὶ μαχαίραις καὶ 
θώραξι καὶ σαγάρεσι χαλκαῖς, ζῶναι δὲ αὐτοῖς 
εἰσὶ χρυσαῖ καὶ διαδήματα ἐν ταῖς μάχαις" οἵ τε 
ἵπποι χρυσοχάλινοι, καὶ ,μασχαλιστῆρες δὲ 

χρυσοῖ ἄργυρος οὐ γίνεται παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς, 
σίδηρος δ᾽ ὀλίγος, χαλκὸς δὲ καὶ χρυσὸς 

1. Οἱ μὲν οὖν ἐν ταῖς νήσοις, οὐκ ἔχοντες 
σπόριμα, ῥιζοφαγοῦσι καὶ ἀγρίοις χρῶνται 
καρποῖς, ἀμπέχονται δὲ τοὺς τῶν δένδρων φλοιούς 
(οὐδὲ γὰρ βοσκήματα ἔχουσι), πίνουσι δὲ τὸν ἐκ 
τῶν δένδρων καρπὸν ἐκθλίβοντες" οἱ δ᾽ ἐν τοῖς 
ἕλεσιν ἰχθυοφαγοῦσιν, ἀμπέχονται δὲ τὰ τῶν 
φωκῶν δέρματα τῶν ἐκ θαλάττης ἀνατρεχουσῶν' 
οἱ δ᾽ ὄρειοι τοῖς ἀγρίοις τρέφονται καὶ αὐτοὶ 
καρποῖς" ἔχουσι δὲ καὶ πρόβατα ὀλίγα, ὥστ᾽ οὐδὲ 
κατακύπτουσι, φειδόμενοι τῶν ἐρίων χάριν καὶ 
τοῦ γάλακτος" τὴν δ᾽ ἐσθῆτα ποικίλλουσιν 
ἐσ λβίσρις φαρμάκοις δυσεξίτηλον ἔχουσι τὸ 
ἄνθος. οἱ δὲ πεδινοί, καίπερ ἔχοντες χώραν, οὐ 
τ λυρεῤμεην ἀλλὰ ἀπὸ προβάτων καὶ ἰχθύων 
ζῶσι νομαδικῶς καὶ Σκυθικῶς, ἔτι γάρ τις καὶ 
κοινὴ ἡ δίαιτα πάντων τῶν τοιούτων, ἣν πολλάκις 
λέγω, καὶ ταφαὶ δ᾽ εἰσὶ παραπλήσιαι καὶ ἤθη καὶ 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 8. 6-7 

one another; not in secret, however, for the man who 
is to have intercourse with the wife of another hangs 
up his quiver on the wagon and has intercourse with 
her openly. And they consider it the best kind of 
death when they are old to be chopped up with the 
flesh of cattle and eaten mixed up with that flesh. 
But those who die of disease are cast out as impious 
and worthy only to be eaten by wild beasts. They are 
good horsemen and foot-soldiers; they use bows, short 
swords, breastplates, and sagares! made of brass; and 
in their battles they wear head-bands and belts made 
of gold. And their horses have bits and girths made 
of gold. Silver is not found in their country, and 
only a little iron, but brass and gold in abundance. 
7. Now those who live in the islands, since they 
have no grain to sow, use roots and wild fruits as 
food, and they clothe themselves with the bark of 
trees (for they have no cattle either), and they drink 
the juice squeezed out of the fruit of the trees. 
Those who live in the marshes eat fish, and clothe 
themselves in the skins of the seals that run up 
thither from the sea. The mountaineers themselves 
also live on wild fruits; but they have sheep also, 
though only a few, and therefore they do not 
butcher them, sparing them for their wool and 
milk ; and they variegate the colour of their clothing 
by staining it with dyes whose colours do not easily 
fade. The inhabitants of the plains, although they 
possess land, do not till it, but in the nomadic or 
Scythian fashion live on sheep and fish. Indeed, 
there not only is a certain mode of life common to 
all such peoples, of which I often speak,” but their 
burials, customs, and their way of living as a whole, 

1 Sce note on ‘‘sagaris,” 1], 5, 1. 3. ς,..1.. 3.1 —8: 

C 514 


« 4 / > / / \ \ \ 
ὁ σύμπας Bios, αὐθέκαστος μέν, σκαιὸς δὲ Kal 
ἄγριος καὶ πολεμικός, πρὸς δὲ τὰ συμβόλαια 
ἁπλοῦς καὶ ἀκάπηλος. 
8, Τοῦ δὲ τῶν Μασσαγετῶν καὶ τῶν Σακῶν 
" \ e? yA ib \ e ΄ > 
ἔθνους καὶ οἱ ᾿Αττάσιοι' καὶ οἱ Χωράσμιοι, εἰς 
ods ἀπὸ τῶν Βακτριανῶν καὶ τῶν Σογδιανῶν 
ἔφυγε Σπιταμένης, εἷς ἐκ τῶν ἀποδράντων 
Περσῶν τὸν ᾿Αλέξανδρον, καθάπερ καὶ Βῆσσος" 
Ws A 4 \ ’ UA 
καὶ ὕστερον δὲ ᾿Αρσάκης tov Καλλίνικον φεύγων 
Σέλευκον εἰς τοὺς ᾿Απασιάκας ἐχώρησε. φησὶ 
> Fr / \ ? \ \ f 
δ᾽ ᾿Ιὑρατοσθένης τοὺς Apaxwtous καὶ Μασσαγέτας 
a na / 
τοῖς Βακτρίοις παρακεῖσθαι πρὸς δύσιν παρὰ τὸν 

Ὦξον, καὶ Σάκας μὲν καὶ Σογδιανοὺς τοῖς ὅλοις 

ἐδάφεσιν ἀντικεῖσθαι τῇ ᾿Ινδικῆ, Βακτρίους δ᾽ 
ἐπ᾽ ὀλίγον" τὸ γὰρ πλέον τῷ Παροπαμισῷ παρα- 
κεῖσθαι" διείργειν δὲ Σάκας μὲν καὶ Σογδιανοὺς 
Ν ᾽ ’ \ \ \ \ 
tov ᾿Ιαξάρτην, καὶ Σογδιανοὺς δὲ καὶ Bak- 
\ \ 3 \ Vibe A \ 

τριανοὺς τὸν Ὦξον, μεταξὺ δὲ Ὑρκανῶν καὶ 
Ε , ΄ 5) aALk ΄ \ \ \ 
Αρίων Ταπύρους οἰκεῖν: κύκλῳ δὲ περὶ τὴν 

/ \ \ € \ % 4 2 
θάλατταν μετὰ τοὺς Ὑ ρκανοὺς ᾿Αμάρδους 5 τε 


L ᾿Αναριάκας 3 καὶ Καδουσίους καὶ ᾿Αλβανοὺς 

\ ’ \ 3 / / \ Ν ς / 
καὶ Κασπίους καὶ Οὐιτίους, τάχα δὲ καὶ ἑτέρους 

/ “ > \ / \ / “ « n 
μέχρι Σκυθῶν, ἐπὶ θάτερα δὲ μέρη τῶν “Ὑρκανῶν 
Δέρβικας, τοὺς δὲ Καδουσίους συμψαύειν Μήδων 
καὶ Ματιανῶν ᾿ ὑπὸ τὸν Παραχοάθραν. 

9. Τὰ δὲ διαστήματα οὕτω λέγει" ἀπὸ μὲν τοῦ 
Κασπίου ἐπὶ τὸν Κῦρον ὡς χιλίους ὀκτακοσίους 

1 On ᾽Αττάσιοι, believed to be corrupt, see C. Miiller, διά. 
Var. Lect., p. 1015. 

* “Audpdous, Xylander, for ᾿Αρμανούς E, ᾿Αμάρνους other 
MSS. ; so the later editors. 

3. ΤΑναριάκας, Xylander, for ᾿Αδριάκας EK, ᾿Ανδριάκας other 
MSS. ; so the later editors. 

GEOGRAPHY, τι. 8. 7-9 

are alike, that is, they are self-assertive, uncouth, 
wild, and warlike, but, in their business dealings, 
straightforward and not given to deceit. 

8. Belonging to the tribe of the Massagetae and 
the Sacae are also the Attasii and the Chorasmii, to 
whom Spitamenes! fled from the country of the 
Bactriani and the Sogdiani. He was one of the 
Persians who escaped from Alexander, as did also 
Bessus; and later Arsaces,2, when he fled from 
Seleucus Callinicus,? withdrew into the country of 
the Apasiacae. Eratosthenes says that the Arachoti 
and Massagetae are situated alongside the Bactrians 
towards the west along the Oxus River, and that the 
Sacae and the Sogdiani, with the whole of their 
lands, are situated opposite India, but the Bactriani 
only for a slight distance; for, he says, they 
are situated for the most part alongside the 
Paropamisus, and the Sacae and the Sogdiani are 
separated from one another by the Iaxartes River, 
and the Sogdiani and the Bactriani by the Oxus 
River; and the Tapyri live between the Hyrcanians 
and the Arians; and in a circuit round the sea after 
the Hyrcanians one comes to the Amardi, Anariacae, 
Cadusii, Albani, Caspii, Vitii, and perhaps also other 
peoples, until one reaches the Scythians ; and on the 
other side of the Hyrcanians are Derbices; and the 
Cadusii border on the Medi and Matiani below the 

9. Eratosthenes gives the distances as follows: 
From Mt. Caspius to the Cyrus River, about one 

1 See Arrian’s Expedition of Alexander, 3. 28. 16, 29. 12, 30.1. 
2 King of Parthia. 3 King of Syria 246—226 B.c. 

4 Τὸ reads Μαντιανῶν (cp. Μαντιανή and note in 11. 14. 8). 



σταδίους, ἔνθεν δ᾽ ἐπὶ Κασπίας πύλας πεντα- 
κισχιλίους ἑξακοσίους, εἶτ᾽ εἰς ᾿Αλεξάνδρειαν. τὴν 
ἐν ᾿Αρίοις ἑξακισχιλίους τετρακοσίους, εἶτ᾽ εἰς 
Βάκτραν τὴν πόλιν, ἣ καὶ Ζαριάσπα καλεῖται, 
τρισχιλίους ὀκτακοσίους ἑβδομήκοντα, εἶτ᾽ ἐπὶ 
τὸν ᾿Ιαξάρτην ποταμόν, ἐφ᾽ ὃν ᾿Αλέξανδρος ἧκεν, 
ὡς πεντακισχιλίους" ὁμοῦ δισμύριοι, δισχίλιοι 
ἑξακόσιοι ἑβδομήκοντα. λέγει δὲ καὶ οὕτω τὰ 
διαστήματα ἀπὸ Κασπίων πυλῶν εἰς ᾿Ινδούς, εἰς 
μὲν ᾿Ἑκατόμπυλον χιλίους ἐννακοσίους ἑξήκοντά 
φασιν, εἰς δ᾽ ᾿Αλεξάνδρειαν τὴν ἐν ᾿Αρίοις τετρα- 
κισχιλίους πεντακοσίους τρίάκοντα; εἶτ᾽. “εἰς 
Προφθασίαν τὴν ἐν Δραγγῇ χιλίους ἑξακοσίους, 
οἱ δὲ πεντακοσίους, εἶτ᾽ εἰς ᾿Αραχωτοὺς τὴν πόλιν 
τετρακισχιλίους ἑκατὸν εἴκοσιν, εἶτ᾽ εἰς ᾿᾽Ορτό- 
σπανα, ἐπὶ τὴν ἐκ Βάκτρων τρίοδον, δισχιλίους, 
εἶτ᾽ εἰς τὰ ὅρια τῆς ᾿Ινδικῆς χιλίους" ὁμοῦ μύριοι 
πεντακισχίλιοι τριακόσιοι.3 ἐπ᾽ εὐθείας δὲ τῷ 
διαστήματι τούτῳ 3 συνεχὲς δεῖ νοεῖν, τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦ 
᾿Ινδοῦ μέχρι τῆς ewas θαλάττης μῆκος τῆς ᾿Ινδικῆς. 
ταῦτα μὲν τὰ περὶ τοὺς Σάκας. 


ς / \ 
H δὲ Παρθυαία πολλὴ μὲν οὐκ ἔστι" συνε- 
lal las € lal , 
τέλει γοῦν μετὰ τῶν Ὕρκα; ὧν κατὰ * τὰ Περσικά, 
καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα, τῶν Μακεδόνων κρατούντων ἐπὶ 

1 Δραγγῇ, the editors, for Δράπῃ. 

2 τριακόσιοι, Kramer, for πεντακόσιοι; so the later editors. 
8 τό, before συνεχές, Jones deletes. 

4 κατά, before τά, Casaubon inserts ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 8. 9-9. 1 

thousand eight hundred stadia; thence to the 
Caspian Gates, five thousand six hundred; then 
to Alexandreia in the country of the Arians, six 
thousand four hundred; then to the city Bactra, 
also called Zariaspa, three thousand eight hundred 
and seventy; then to the Iaxartes River, to which 
Alexander came, about five thousand; a distance 
all told of twenty-two thousand six hundred and 
seventy stadia. He gives also the distance from 
the Caspian Gates to India as follows: ‘To Heca- 
tompylus, they say one thousand nine hundred and 
sixty stadia; to Alexandreia in the country of the 
Arians, four thousand five hundred and thirty; then 
to Prophthasia in Drangé, one thousand six hundred 
(others say one thousand five hundred); then to 
the city Arachoti, four thousand one hundred and 
twenty; then to Ortospana, to the junction of the 
three roads leading from Bactra, two thousand ; 
then to the borders of India, one thousand; a 
distance all told of fifteen thousand three hundred 
stadia.1 We must conceive of the length of India, 
reckoned from the Indus River to the eastern sea, 
as continuous with this distance in a straight line. 
So much for the Sacae. 


1. As for the Parthian country, it is not large; 
at any rate, it paid its tribute along with the 
Hyrcanians in the Persian times, and also after this, 
when for a long time the Macedonians held the 

1 The sum total of the distances here given is 15,210 
stadia, not 15,300 (15,500 MSS.). The total of 15,300 is 
again found in 15. 2. 8. 


C 51 


/ \ A , ΄“ 
χρόνον πολύν. πρὸς δὲ τῇ σμικρότητι δασεῖα 
καὶ ὀρεινή ἐστι καὶ ἄπορος, ὥστε! διὰ τοῦτο 
δρόμῳ διεξιᾶσι τὸν ἑαυτῶν οἱ βασιλεῖς ὄχλον, οὐ 
δυναμένης τρέφειν τῆς χώρας οὐδ᾽ ἐπὶ μικρόν'" 
ἀλλὰ νῦν HOS UT Mi “μέρη δ᾽ ἐστὶ τῆς Παρθυηνῆς 
ἥ τε Κωμισηνὴ Σ καὶ ἡ Χωρηνή, σχεδὸν δέ τι καὶ 

cr ¢€ lal 
Ta μέχρι πυλῶν Κασπίων καὶ Payov καὶ Ταπύ- 
ρων, ὄντα τῆς Μηδίας πρότερον. ἔστι δ᾽ ᾿Απά- 
,c / / \ \ « ’΄ » \ 
μεια καὶ Ἡράκλεια πόλεις περὶ tas Payas. εἰσὶ 
δ᾽ ἀπὸ Κασπίων πυλῶν εἰς μὲν Ῥάγας στάδιοι 
/ “ ᾽ , ᾽ ’ 
πεντακόσιοι, ws φησιν ᾿Απολλόδωρος, eis ὃ 
1 , \ “ / / 
Exatouturov, τὸ τῶν Llap@vaiwy βασίλειον, 
ίλιοι διακόσιοι ἑξήκοντα' τοὔνομα δὲ ταῖς 
Ράγαις ἀπὸ τῶν γενομένων σεισμῶν γενέσθαι 
φασίν, ὑφ᾽ ὧν πόλεις τε συχναὶ καὶ κῶμαι δισ- 
΄ ,ὔ , 
ἔλιαι, ws Ποσειδώνιός φησι, ἀνετράπησαν. τοὺς 
Ν ΄ , lal \ \ , \ 
δὲ Ταπύρους οἰκεῖν φασὶ μεταξὺ Δερβίκων τε καὶ 
Ὑρκανῶν. ἱστοροῦσι δὲ περὶ τῶν Ταπύρων, ὅτι 
αὐτοῖς εἴη νόμιμον τὰς γυναῖκας ἐκδιδόναι τὰς 
γαμετὰς ἑτέροις ἀνδράσιν, ἐπειδὰν ἐξ αὐτῶν 
,ὔ ’ὔ 
ἀνέλωνται δύο ἢ τρία τέκνα, καθάπερ καὶ Κάτων 
« , Α 5.“ " \ f SigeF. Te - 
Ορτησίῳ δεηθέντι ἐξέδωκε τὴν Μαρκίαν ἐφ᾽ ἡμῶν 
κατὰ παλαιὸν Ῥωμαίων ἔθος. 

2. Νεωτερισθέντων δὲ τῶν ἔξω τοῦ Ταύρου διὰ 
τὸ πρὸς ἄλλοις 5 εἶναι τοὺς τῆς Συρίας καὶ τῆς 
Μηδίας βασιλέας τοὺς ἔχοντας καὶ ταῦτα, πρῶτον 

1 ὥστε gixy, ws other MSS. except E, which omits the 

2 Κωμισηνή, Tzschucke, for Κωμεισηνή CDh, Καμβυσηνή y, 
Καμεισηνή other MSS. ; so the later editors. 

3 ἄλλοις, Corais, from conj. of Tyrwhitt, for ἀλλήλους loz, 
ἀλλήλοις Other MSS, (but see Kramer’s note). 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 9. 1-2 

mastery. And, in addition to its smallness, it is 
thickly wooded and mountainous, and also poverty- 
stricken, so that on this account the kings send their 
own throngs through it in great haste, since the 
country is unable to support them even for a short 
time. At present, however, it has increased in 
extent. Parts of the Parthian country are Comisené 
and Chorené, and, one may almost say, the whole 
region that extends as far as the Caspian Gates 
and Rhagae and the Tapyri, which formerly be- 
longed to Media. And in the neighbourhood of 
Rhagae are the cities Apameia and Heracleia. The 
distance from the Caspian Gates to Rhagae is 
five hundred stadia, as Apollodorus says, and to 
Hecatompylus, the royal seat of the Parthians, one 
thousand two hundred and sixty. Rhagae is said 
to have got its name from the earthquakes that 
took place in that country, by which numerous 
cities and two thousand villages, as Poseidonius 
says, were destroyed. The Tapyri are said to live 
between the Derbices and the Hyreanians. It is 
reported of the Tapyri that it was a custom of theirs 
to give their wives in marriage to other husbands 
as soon as they had had two or three children by 
them; just as in our times, in accordance with an 
ancient custom of the Romans, Cato gave Marcia 
in marriage to Hortensius at the request of the 

2. But when revolutions were attempted by the 
countries outside the Taurus, because of the fact 
that the kings of Syria and Media, who were in 
possession also of these countries, were busily 
engaged with others, those who had been entrusted 
with their government first caused the revolt of 



μὲν τὴν Βακτριανὴν ἀπέστησαν οἱ πεπιστευμένοι 
καὶ τὴν ἐγγὺς αὐτῆς πᾶσαν, οἱ περὶ Εὐθύδημον. 
» > ae | , > \ SS ’ὔ lal lal 1 Ν 
ἔπειτ᾽ ᾿Αρσάκης, ἀνὴρ Σκύθης, τῶν Δαῶν 1 τινὰς 
ἔχων, τοὺς ᾿Απάρνους 5 καλουμένους νομάδας, 
παροικοῦντας tor χον, ἐπῆλθεν ἐπὶ τὴν 
Παρθυαίαν καὶ ἐκράτησεν αὐτῆς. κατ᾽ ἀρχὰς 
μὲν οὖν ἀσθενὴς ἢ ἣν διαπολεμῶν πρὸς τοὺς ἀφαιρε- 
θέντας τὴν χώραν καὶ αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ διαδεξάμενοι 
ἐκεῖνον, ἔπειθ᾽ οὕτως ἴσχυσαν ἀφαιρούμενοι τὴν 
πλησίον ἀεὶ διὰ τὰς ἐν τοῖς πολέμοις κατορ- 
θώσεις, ὥστε τελευτῶντες ἁπάσης τῆς ἐντὸς 
Εὐφράτου κύριοι κατέστησαν. ἀφείλοντο δὲ καὶ 
τῆς Βακτριανῆς μέρος βιασάμενοι τοὺς Σκύθας 
καὶ ἔτι πρότερον. τοὺς περὶ Evxpariéay, καὶ νῦν 
ἐπάρχουσι τοσαύτης γῆς καὶ τοσούτων ἐθνῶν, 
ὥστε ἀντίπαλοι τοῖς Ῥωμαίοις τρόπον τινὰ 
γεγόνασι κατὰ μέγεθος τῆς ,ἀρχῆς. αἴτιος δ᾽ ὁ 
βίος αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ ἔθη τὰ ἔχοντα πολὺ μὲν τὸ 
βάρβαρον καὶ τὸ Σκυθικόν, πλέον μέντοι τὸ 
χρήσιμον πρὸς ἡγεμονίαν καὶ τὴν ἐν τοῖς πολέ- 
μοις κατόρθωσιν. 

3. Φασὶ δὲ τοὺς ᾿Απάρνους 3 Δάας μετανάστας 
εἶναι ἐκ τῶν ὑπὲρ τῆς Μαιώτιδος Δαῶν, ods 
Ξανδίους ἢ Παρίους καλοῦσιν" οὐ πάνυ δ᾽ ὧμο- 
λόγηται Δάας εἶναί τινᾶς τῶν ὑπὲρ τῆς Μαιώ- 
τιδος Σκυθῶν" ἀπὸ τούτων δ᾽ οὖν ἕλκειν φασὶ 
τὸ γένος τὸν ᾿Αρσάκην, οἱ δὲ Βακτριανὸν λέγουσιν 
αὐτόν, φεύγοντα δὲ τὴν αὔξησιν τῶν περὶ 
Διόδοτον ἀποστῆσαι τὴν Παρθυαίαν. εἰρηκότες 

1 Δαῶν, Xylander, for Δατίων ; so the later editors. 

* *Amapvous, Jones, for Πάρνους (see note on ᾿Απάρνους, 11. 
7. 1). 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 9. 2-3 

Bactriana and of all the country near it, I mean 
Euthydemus and his followers; and then Arsaces, 
a Scythian, with some of the Daae (I mean the 
Aparnians, as they were called, nomads who lived 
along the Ochus), invaded Parthia and conquered 
it. Now at the outset Arsaces was weak, being 
continually at war with those who had been de- 
prived by him of their territory, both he himself and 
his successors, but later they grew so strong, always 
taking the neighbouring territory, through successes 
in warfare, that finally they established themselves 
as lords of the whole of the country inside the 
Euphrates. And they also took a part of Bactriana, 
having forced the Scythians, and still earlier 
Eucratides and his followers, to yield to them; 
and at the present time they rule over so much 
land and so many tribes that in the size of their 
empire they have become, in a way, rivals of the 
Romans. ‘The cause of this is their mode of life, 
and also their customs, which contain much that 
is barbarian and Scythian in character, though more 
that is conducive to hegemony and success in war. 

3. They say that the Aparnian Daae were 
emigrants from the Diae above Lake Maeotis, who 
are called Xandii or Parii. But the view is not 
altogether accepted that the Diae are a part of 
the Scythians who live about Maeotis. At any 
rate, some say that Arsaces derives his origin from 
the Scythians, whereas others say that he was a 
Bactrian, and that when in flight from the enlarged 
power of Diodotus and his followers he caused 
Parthia to revolt. But since I have said much 

3 ΤΑπάρνους, Jones, for Πάρνους (see note on ᾿Απάρνους, 11. 



\ Ἂν \ Lond ΄“- ’, > a a 
δὲ πολλὰ περὶ τῶν Παρθικῶν νομίμων ἐν τῇ ἕκτῃ 
τῶν ἱστορικῶν ὑπομνημάτων βίβχῳ, δευτέρᾳ δὲ 
τῶν μετὰ Πολύβιον, παραλείψομεν. ἐνταῦθα, μὴ 
ταυτολογεῖν δόξωμεν, τοσοῦτον εἰπόντες μόνον, 
ὅτι τῶν Παρθυαίων συνέδριόν φησιν εἶναι Locer- 
δώνιος διττόν, τὸ μὲν συγγενῶν, τὸ δὲ σοφῶν καὶ 
/ » ce » -“ \ lal / 
μάγων, ἐξ ὧν ἀμφοῖν τοὺς βασιλεῖς καθίστασθαι. 


ΠΕ ἘΠ ἐδ ᾿Αρία καὶ ἡ Μαργιανὴ | “κράτιστα 
χωρία ἐστὶ ταύτῃ, τῇ μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ὀρῶν ἐγκλειό- 
μενα, τῇ δ᾽ ἐν πεδίοις τὰς οἰκήσεις ἔχοντα. τὰ 
μὲν οὖν ὄρη νέμονται σκηνῖταί τινες, τὰ δὲ πεδία 
ποταμοῖς διαρρεῖται ποτίζουσιν αὐτά, τὰ μὲν τῷ 
᾿Αρίῳ, τὰ δὲ Μάργφῳ. ὁμορεῖ δὲ ἡ ᾿Αρία τῇ 

C 516 ΠΒακτριανῇ καὶ τὴν ὑποστᾶσαν ὄρει τῷ ἔχοντι 
τὴν Βακτριανήν"3 διέχει δὲ τῆς Ὑρκανίας περὶ 
ἑξακισχιλίους σταδίους. συντελὴς δ᾽ ἦν αὐτῇ 
καὶ ἡ Δραγγιανὴ μέχρι Καρμανίας, τὸ μὲν πλέον 
τοῖς νοτίοις μέρεσι τῶν ὁρῶν ὑποπεπτωκυῖα, 
ἔχουσα μέντοι τινὰ τῶν μερών * καὶ τοῖς ἀρκτι- 
κοῖς πλησιάξοντα τοῖς κατὰ τὴν ᾿Αρίαν" καὶ ἡ 
᾿Αραχωσία δὲ οὐ πολὺ ἄπωθέν ἐστι, καὶ αὕτη 


1 Μαργιανή, Casaubon, for Ματιανή E, Μαντιανή 1, Μαρτιανή 
other MSS. 

2 κράτιστα HK, ἃ κράτιστα other MSS. 

3 The words καὶ thy ὑποστᾶσαν ὄρει τῷ ἔχοντι Thy Βακτριανήν 
are unintelligible. For purely conjectural emendations see 
C. Miller, Znd. Var. Lect. p. 1016. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 9. 3-10. 1 

about the Parthian usages in the sixth book 
of my Historical Sketches and in the second book 
of my History of events after Polybius,t I shall 
omit discussion of that subject here, lest I may 
seem to be repeating what I have already said, 
though I shall mention this alone, that the Council 
of the Parthians, according to Poseidonius, consists 
of two groups, one that of kinsmen,? and the other 
that of wise men and Magi, from both of which 
groups the kings were appointed.® 


1. Arta and Margiana are the most powerful 
districts in this part of Asia, these districts in part 
being enclosed by the mountains and in part having 
their habitations in the plains. Now the mountains 
are occupied by Tent-dwellers, and the plains are 
intersected by rivers that irrigate them, partly by 
the Arius and partly by the Margus. Aria borders 
on Margiana and... Bactriana;* it is about six 
thousand stadia distant from MHyrcania. And 
Drangiana, as far as Carmania, was joined with 
Aria in the payment of tribute—Drangiana, for the 
most part, lying below the southern parts of the 
mountains, though some parts of it approach the 
northern region opposite Aria. But Arachosia, also, 
is not far away, this country too lying below the 

1 See Vol. I, p. 47, note 1. 2 2,6, of the king. 

8 It appears that the kings were chosen from the first 
group by the members of the second (see Forbiger, Vol. ITI, 
p: 39, note 7). 

4 The text is corrupt (see critical note). 

4 Instead of μερῶν E reads ὀρῶν. 


τοῖς νοτίοις μέρεσι τῶν ὀρῶν ὑποπεπτωκυΐα καὶ 
μέχρι τοῦ ᾿Ϊνδοῦ ποταμοῦ τεταμένη, μέρος οὖσα 
τῆς ᾿Αριανῆς. μῆκος δὲ τῆς ᾿Αρίας ὅσον δισχίλιοι 
στάδιοι, πλάτος δὲ τριακόσιοι τοῦ πεδίου: πόλεις 
δὲ ᾿Αρτακάηνα ' καὶ ᾿Αλεξάνδρεια καὶ ᾿Αχαΐα, 
ἐπώνυμοι τῶν κτισάντων. εὐοινεῖ δὲ σφόδρα ἡ 
γῆ; καὶ γὰρ εἰς τριγονίαν παραμένει ἐν ἀπιτώττοις 

2. Παραπλησία δ᾽ ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ Μαργιανή, ἐρη- 
μίαις δὲ περιέχεται τὸ πεδίον. θαυμάσας δὲ τὴν 
εὐφυΐαν ὁ Σωτὴρ ᾿Αντίοχος τείχει περιέβαλε 
κύκλον ἔχοντι χιλίων καὶ πεντακοσίων σταδίων, 
πόλιν δὲ ἔκτισεν ᾿Αντιόχειαν. εὐάμπελος δὲ καὶ 
αὕτη ἡ γῆ: φασὶ γοῦν τὸν πυθμένα εὑρίσκεσθαι 
πολλάκις δυσὶν ἀνδράσι περιληπτόν, τὸν δὲ 
βότρυν δίπηχυν. 


1. Τῆς δὲ Βακτρίας μέρη μέν τινα τῇ ᾿Αρίᾳ 
παραβέβληται πρὸς ἄρκτον, τὰ πολλὰ δ ὑπέρ- 
κειται πρὸς ἕω' πολλὴ δ᾽ ἐστὶ καὶ πάμφορος 
πλὴν ἐλαίου. τοσοῦτον dé i ἴσχυσαν οἱ ἀποστή- 
σαντες “Ἑλληνες aut ἣν διὰ τὴν ἀρετὴν τῆς χώρας, 
ὥστε τῆς τε ᾿Αριανῆς ἐπεκράτουν καὶ τῶν ᾿Ϊνδῶν, 
ὥς φησιν ᾿Απολλόδωρος ὁ ᾿Αρτεμιτηνός," καὶ 
πλείω ἔθνη κατεστρέψαντο ἢ ᾿Αλέξανδρος, καὶ 
μάλιστα Μένανδρος (εἴ γε καὶ τὸν Ὕπανιν διέβη 

1 For variant spellings see C. Miller, Ind. Var. Lect. 
p- 1016. 

2 ῬΑρτεμιτηνός, Corais, for ᾿Αρταμιτηνός (cp. 2, 5. 12, 1]. 
11. 7, and 11. 13. 6). 


GEOGRAPHY 11% το: 1-11) 1 

southern parts of the mountains and extending as 
far as the Indus River, being a part of Ariana. ‘The 
length of Aria is about two thousand stadia, and 
the breadth of the plain about three hundred. [5 
cities are Artaceéna and Alexandreia and Achaia, 
all named after their founders. ‘The land is ex- 
ceedingly productive of wine, which keeps good for 
three generations in vessels not smeared with pitch. 

2. Margiana is similar to this country, although 
its plain is surrounded by deserts. Admiring its 
fertility, Antiochus Soter! enclosed a circuit of 
fifteen hundred stadia with a wall and founded a city 
Antiocheia. The soil of the country is well suited 
to the vine; at any rate, they say that a stock of the 
vine is often found which would require two men to 
girth it,? and that the bunches of grapes are two 


1. As for Bactria, a part of it lies alongside Aria 
towards the north, though most of it lies above Aria 
and to the east of it. And much of it produces 
everything except oil. The Greeks who caused 
Bactria to revolt grew so powerful on account of the 
fertility of the country that they became masters, 
not only of Ariana, but also of India, as Apollodorus 
of Artemita says: and more tribes were subdued by 
them than by Alexander—by Menander in particular 
(at least if he actually crossed the Hypanis towards 

1 King of Syria 280-261 B.c. 

2 2.6. about ten to eleven feet in circumference. 

3 7.e. about three feet ; apparently in dength, not in cir- 


C 517 


πρὸς ἕω, καὶ “μέχρι τοῦ Ἴμάου 1 προῆλθε), τὰ μὲν 
γὰρ αὐτός, τὰ δὲ Δημήτριος ὁ ὁ Εὐθυδήμου υἱός, τοῦ 
Βακτρίων βασιλέως" οὐ μόνον δὲ τὴν Παταληνὴν 
κατέσχον, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς ἄλλης παραλίας τήν τε 
Σαραόστου καλουμένην καὶ τὴν Σιγέρδιδος βασι- 
λείαν. Kal’ ὅλου δέ φησιν. ἐκεῖνος τῆς συμπάσης 
᾿Αριανῆς πρόσχημα εἶναι τὴν Βακτριανήν" καὶ δὴ 
καὶ μέχρι Σηρῶν καὶ Dpvvdv? ἐξέτεινον τὴν 

2. llores & εἶχον τά TE Βάκτρα, ἥνπερ καὶ 
Ζαριάσπαν καλοῦσ'ν, ἣν διαρρεῖ ὁ ὁμώνυμος ποτα- 
μὸς ἐκβάλλων εἰς τὸν ᾽Ὧξον, καὶ Adpawa? καὶ 
ἄλλας πλείους: τούτων δ᾽ ἦν καὶ ἡ Hai sare 0 
τοῦ ἄρξαντος ἐπώνυμος. οἱ δὲ κατασχόντες 
αὐτὴν “Ἕλληνες καὶ εἰς σατραπείας διῃρήκασιν, 
ὧν τήν Te’ Ασπιώνου καὶ τὴν Τουριούαν * ἀφήρην- 
to ὐκρατίδην οἱ ἸΙαρθυαῖοι. ἔσχον δὲ καὶ τὴν 
Σογδιανὴν ὑπερκειμένην πρὸς ἕω πῆς Βακτριανῆς 
μεταξὺ τοῦ τε Ὥξου cee ὃς ὁρίζει τήν τε 
τῶν Βακτρίων καὶ τὴν τῶν Σογδίων, καὶ τοῦ 
᾿Ιαξάρτου: οὗτος δὲ καὶ τοὺς Σογδίους ὁρίζει καὶ 
Τοῖς νομάδας. 

To μὲν οὖν παλαιὸν οὐ πολὺ ΠΥ τοῖς 
Bios καὶ τοῖς ἤθεσι τῶν νομάδων οἵ τε Σογδια- 
νοὶ καὶ οἱ Βακτριανοί, μικρὸν δ᾽ ὅμως ἡμερώτερα 
ἦν τὰ τῶν Βακτριανῶν, ἀλλὰ καὶ περὶ τούτων οὐ 
τὰ βέλτιστα λέγουσιν οἱ περὶ ᾿Ονησίκριτον" τοὺς 
γὰρ ἀπειρηκότας διὰ γῆρας ἢ νόσον ζῶντας παρα- 

1 Ἴμάου, Meineke, from conj. of Casaubon, for Ἰσάμου. 

2 Φρυνῶν, Tzschucke, for Φαυνῶν. 

3 Adpaya, Meineke emends to “Adpaya (cp. “Adpaya in 
15. 2. 10), but the spelling is doubtful. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 11. 1-3 

the east and advanced as far as the Imaiis), for some 
were subdued by him personally and others by 
Demetrius, the son of Euthydemus the king of the 
Bactrians; and they took possession, not only of 
Patalena, but also, on the rest of the coast, of what 
is called the kingdom of Saraostus and Sigerdis. In 
short, Apollodorus says that Bactriana is the orna- 
ment of Ariana as a whole; and, more than that, they 
extended their empire even as far as the Seres and 
the Phryni. 

2. Their cities were Bactra (also called Zariaspa, 
through which flows a river bearing the same name 
and emptying into the Oxus), and Darapsa, and 
several others. Among these was Eucratidia, which 
was named after its ruler. The Greeks took posses- 
sion of it and divided it into satrapies, of which the 
satrapy Turiva and that of Aspionus were taken away 
from Kucratides by the Parthians. And they also 
held Sogdiana, situated above Bactriana towards the 
east between the Oxus River, which forms the 
boundary between the Bactrians and the Sogdians, 
and the Iaxartes River. And the Iaxartes forms also 
the boundary between the Sogdians and the nomads. 

3. Now in early times the Sogdians and Bactrians 
did not differ much from the nomads in their modes 
of life and customs, although the Bactrians were a 
little more civilised; however, of these, as of the 
others, Onesicritus 1 does not report their best traits, 
saying, for instance, that those who have become 
helpless because of old age or sickness are thrown out 

1 See Dictionary in Vol. I, 

4 Τουριούαν, Meineke emends to Tamupiay, perhaps rightly. 
5 For ἤθεσι Meineke reads ἔθεσι. 



βάλλεσθαι τρεφομένοις κυσὶν ἐπίτηδες πρὸς 
τοῦτο, οὺὑς ἐνταφιαστὰς καλεῖσθαι τῇ πατρώᾳ 
γλώττῃ, καὶ ὁρᾶσθαι τὰ μὲν ἔξω τείχους τῆς 
μητροπόλεως τῶν Βάκτρων καθαρά, τῶν δ᾽ ἐντὸς 
τὸ πλέον ὀστέων πλῆρες ἀνθρωπίνων᾽ καταλῦσαι 
δὲ τὸν νόμον ᾿Αλέξανδρον. τοιαῦτα δέ πως καὶ 
τὰ περὶ τοὺς Κασπίους ἱστοροῦσι" τοὺς yap 
γονέας, ἐπειδὰν ὑπὲρ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη γεγονότες 
τυγχάνωσιν, ἐγκλεισθέντας DU masa TOUTO 
μὲν οὖν ἀνεκτότερον καὶ τῷ Κείων 1 νόμῳ παρα- 
πλήσιον, καίπερ ὃν Σκυθικόν, πολὺ μέντοι Σκυθι- 
κώτερον τὸ τῶν Βακτριανῶν. καὶ δὴ εἰ 5 διαπο- 
ρεῖν ἄξιον ἣν, ἡνίκα ᾿Αλέξανδρος τοιαῦτα κατε- 
λάμβανε τἀνταῦθα, τί χρὴ εἰπεῖν * τὰ ἐπὶ τῶν 
πρώτων Περσῶν καὶ τῶν ἔτι πρότερον ἡγεμόνων, 
ὁποῖα εἰκὸς ἦν παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς νεμομίσθαι ; 

4. Φασὶ δ᾽ οὖν ὀκτὼ πόλεις τὸν ᾿Αλέξανδρον ἔν 
τε τῇ Βακτριανῇ καὶ τῇ Σογδιανῇ κτίσαι, τινὰς δὲ 
κατασκάψαι, ὧν Καριάτας μὲν τῆς Βακτριανῆς, 
ἐν ἡἣ Καλλισθένης συνελήφθη καὶ παρεδόθη 
φυλακῇ, Μαράκανδα δὲ τῆς Σογδιανῆς καὶ τὰ 
Κῦρα, ἐ ἔσχατον ὃν Κύρου κτίσμα, ἐπὶ τῴ ᾿Ιαξάρτῃ 
ποταμῷ κείμενον, ὅπερ ἣν ὅριον τῆς Περσῶν 
ἀρχῆς" κατασκάψαι δὲ τὸ κτίσμα τοῦτο, καίπερ 
ὄντα φιλόκυρον, διὰ τὰς πυκνὰς ἀποστάσεις" ἑλεῖν 
δὲ καὶ πέτρας ἐρυμνὰς σφόδρα ἐκ προδοσίας, τήν 
τε ἐν τῇ Βακτριανῇ, τὴν ἐσιμίθρου, ἐν 2 εἶχεν 
Ὀξυάρτης τὴν θυγατέρα 'Ῥωξάνην, καὶ τὴν ἐν τῇ 

1 Κείων, Kramer, for οἰκείῳ; so the later editors. 
2 εἰ, after δή, Jones inserts. 
8. εἰπεῖν, o and Corais, for ποιεῖν. 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 11. 3-4 

alive as prey to dogs kept expressly for this purpose, 
which in their native tongue are called ‘ under- 
takers,” and that while the land outside the 
walls of the metropolis of the Bactrians looks clean, 
yet most of the land inside the walls is full of human 
bones; but that Alexander broke up the custom. 
And the reports about the Caspians are similar, for 
instance, that when parents live beyond seventy 
years they are shut in and starved to death. Now 
this latter custom is more tolerable ; and it is similar 
to that of the Ceians,! although it is of Scythian 
origin ; that of the Bactrians, however, is much more 
like that of the Scythians. And so, if it was proper 
to be in doubt as to the facts at the time when 
Alexander was finding such customs there, what 
should one say as to what sort of customs were 
probably in vogue among them in the time of 
the earliest Persian rulers and the still earlier 

4. Be this as it may, they say that Alexander 
founded eight cities in Bactriana and Sogdiana, and 
that he rased certain cities to the ground, among 
which was Cariatae in Bactriana, in which Callisthenes 
was seized and imprisoned, and Maracanda and Cyra 
in Sogdiana, Cyra being the last city founded by 
Cyrus” and being situated on the Iaxartes River, 
which was the boundary of the Persian empire ; and 
that although this settlement was fond of Cyrus, he 
rased it to the ground because of its frequent 
revolts; and that through a betrayal he took also 
two strongly fortified rocks, one in Bactriana, that of 
Sisimithres, where Oxyartes kept his daughter 

ORO) ὅ..0: 2 Cyrus the Elder. 

VOL. Ve K 


Σογδιανῇ τὴν τοῦ “O€ov, οἱ δ᾽ ᾿Αριαμάζου φασί. 
τὴν μὲν οὖν Σεσιμίθρου πεντεκαίδεκα σταδίων 
ἱστοροῦσι τὸ ὕψος, ὀγδοήκοντα δὲ τὸν κύκλον" 
ἄνω δ᾽ ἐπίπεδον καὶ εὔγεων, ὅσον πεντακοσίους 
ἄνδρας τρέφειν δυναμένην, ἐ ἐν 7 καὶ ξενίας τυχεῖν 
πολυτελοῦς, καὶ γάμους ἀγαγεῖν Ῥωξάνης τῆς 
᾿Οξυάρτου θυγατρὸς τὸν ᾿Αλέξανδρον" τὴν δὲ τῆς 
Σογδιανῆς διπλασίαν τὸ ὕψος φασί. περὶ τούτους 
δὲ τοὺς τόπους καὶ τὸ τῶν Βραγχιδῶν ἀ ἄστυ ἀνε- 
C 518 λεῖν, οὺς Ξέρξην μὲν ἱδρῦσαι αὐτόθι, συνα- 
πάώραντας αὐτῷ ἑκόντας ἐκ τῆς οἰκείας, διὰ 
τὸ παραδοῦναι. τὰ χρήματα τοῦ θεοῦ τὰ ἐν 
Διδύμοις καὶ τοὺς θησαυρούς" ἐκεῖνον δ᾽ ἀνελεῖν 
μυσαττόμενον τὴν ἱεροσυλίαν καὶ τὴν προδοσίαν. 
Τὸν δὲ διὰ τῆς Σογδιανῆς ῥέοντα ποταμὸν 
καλεῖ  Ἰ]ολυτίμητον ᾿Αριστόβουλος, τῶν Μακε- 
δόνων ὄνομα 3 θεμένων (καθάπερ καὶ ἄλλα πολλὰ 
τὰ μὲν καινὰ ἔθεσαν, τὰ δὲ παρωνύμασαν), 
ἄρδοντα δὲ τὴν χώραν ἐκπίπτειν εἰς ἔρημον καὶ 
ἀμμώδη γῆν, καταπίνεσθαί τε εἰς τὴν ἄμμον, ὡς 
καὶ τὸν “Apiov τὸν δι’ ᾿Αρίων ῥέοντα. τοῦ δὲ 
Ὥχου ποταμοῦ πλησίον ὀρύττοντας εὑρεῖν ἐλαίου 
πηγὴν λέγουσιν᾽ εἰκὸς δέ, ὥσπερ νιτρώδη τινὰ 
καὶ στύφοντα ὑγρὰ καὶ ἀσφαλτώδη καὶ θειώδη 
διαρρεῖ τὴν γῆν, οὕτω καὶ λιπαρὰ εὑρίσκεσθαι, τὸ 
δὲ σπάνιον ποιεῖ τὴν παραδοξίαν. ῥεῖν δὲ τὸν 
Ὦχον οἱ μὲν διὰ τῆς Βακτριανῆς φασίν, οἱ δὲ 

1 καλεῖ, Forbiger, from conj. of Casaubon, for καί. ixy 
insert λέγει after ᾿Αριστόβουλος. xy omit the καί, and so 
Tzschucke and Corais. 

2 ὄνομα, Jones inserts, from conj. of Kramer; others, 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 11. 4-5 

Rhoxana, and the other in Sogdiana, that of Oxus, 
though some call it the rock of Ariamazes. Now 
writers report that that of Sisimithres is fifteen 
stadia in height and eighty in circuit, and that on 
top itis level and has a fertile soil which can support 
five hundred men, and that here Alexander met with 
sumptuous hospitality and married Rhoxana, the 
daughter of Oxyartes; but the rock in Sogdiana, 
they say, is twice as high as that in Bactriana. And 
near these places, they say, Alexander destroyed also 
the city of the Branchidae, whom Xerxes had settled 
there—people who voluntarily accompanied him from 
their home-land—because of the fact that they had 
betrayed to him the riches and treasures of the god 
at Didyma, Alexander destroyed the city, they add, 
because he abominated the sacrilege and the be- 

5. Aristobulus? calls the river which flows through 
Sogdiana Polytimetus, a name imposed by the Mace- 
donians (just as they imposed names on many other 
places, giving new names to some and slightly altering 
the spelling of the names of others); and watering 
the country it empties into a desert and sandy land, 
and is absorbed in the sand, like the Arius which flows 
through the country of the Arians. It is said that 
people digging near the Ochus River found a spring 
of oil. Itis reasonable to suppose that, just as nitrous ” 
and astringent and bituminous and sulphurous liquids 
flow through the earth, so also oily liquids are found ; 
but the rarity causes surprise. Accgrding to some, 
the Ochus flows through Bactriana; according to 

1 See 11. 7. 3 and foot-note. 
2 2,6. containing soda (see 11. 14. 8 and foot-note). 
3 2,6.) apparently, when one does happen to find them. 



» ᾽ 4 \ « \ “ a w , 
Tap αὐτήν, καὶ οἱ μὲν ἕτερον τοῦ ᾿Ωξου μέχρι 
τῶν ἐκβολῶν, νοτιώτερον ἐκείνου, ἀμφοτέρων δ᾽ 
» Rly / \ > \ ΄ c , 
ἐν τῇ ‘Tpkavia τὰς εἰς τὴν θάλατταν ὑπάρχειν 
, , 
ἐκρύσεις, οἱ δὲ κατ᾽ ἀρχὰς μὲν ἕτερον, συμβαλ- 
- \ fon) “ a 
New δ᾽ εἰς Ev τὸ τοῦ "Ὥξου ῥεῖθρον, πολλαχοῦ Kai 
ἕξ καὶ ἑπτὰ σταδίων ἔχοντα τὸ πλάτος. ὁ μέντοι 
n / / 
᾿Ἰαξάρτης an’ ἀρχῆς μέχρι τέλους ἕτερός ἐστι 
a \ ’ Ν \ > \ -“ , 
τοῦ ᾿Ὥξου, καὶ εἰς μὲν THY αὐτὴν τελευτῶν θάλατ- 
΄ / 
ταν, αἱ δ᾽ ἐμβολαὶ διέχουσιν ἀλλήλων, ὥς φησι 
fol ig > \ 
Πατροκλῆς, παρασάγγας ws ὀγδοήκοντα" τὸν δὲ 
παρασάγγην τὸν []ερσικὸν οἱ μὲν ἑξήκοντα στα- 
δίων φασίν, οἱ δὲ τριάκοντα ἢ" τετταράκοντα. 
ἀναπλεόντων δ᾽ ἡμῶν τὸν Νεῖλον ἄλλοτ᾽ ἄλλοις 
A ‘ 
μέτροις χρώμενοι τὰς σχοίνους ὠνόμαζον ἀπὸ 
Ul Ν a 
πόλεως ἐπὶ πόλιν, ὥστε τὸν αὐτὸν τῶν σχοίνων 
’ \ > la) \ / / lo 
ἀριθμὸν ἀλλαχοῦ μὲν μείζω παρέχειν πλοῦν, 
ἀλλαχοῦ δὲ βραχύτερον: οὕτως ἐξ ἀρχῆς παρα- 
/ cr 
δεδομένον καὶ φυλαττόμενον μέχρι νῦν. 
X \ lol rn 
6. Μέχρι μὲν δὴ τῆς Σογδιανῆς πρὸς ἀνίσχοντα 
e “ « , fo \ 
ἥλιον ἰόντι ἀπὸ τῆς Ὕρκανίας γνώριμα υπῆρξε τὰ 
’ al , - 
ἔθνη καὶ τοῖς Ἰ]έρσαις πρότερον ta elaw? τοῦ 
Ταύρου καὶ τοῖς Μακεδόσι μετὰ ταῦτα καὶ τοῖς 
τὰ ’ ᾽ oe \ 
Παρθυαίοις. τὰ δ᾽ ἐπέκεινα ἐπ᾽ εὐθείας ὅτι μὲν 
Σκυθικά ἐστιν, ἐκ τῆς ὁμοειδείας εἰκάξεται, στρα- 
“- ΄ , \ r 
τεῖαι δ᾽ ov γεγόνασιν ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἡμῖν γνώριμοι, 
καθάπερ οὐδὲ ἐπὶ τοὺς βορειοτάτους τῶν νομάδων" 
p> AR > , \ .Υ , ” 
ἐφ᾽ ods ἐπεχείρησε μὲν ὁ ᾿Αλέξανδρος ἄγειν otpa- 
1 τριάκοντα ἤ, Xylander, for τριακοσίων ; so the later editors, 

2 εἴσω, Du Theil, for ἔξω ; so Meineke and others. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. tr. 5-6 

others, alongside it. And according to some, it is a 
different river from the Oxus as far as its mouths, 
being more to the south than the Oxus, although 
they both have their outlets into the Caspian Sea 
in Hyrcania, whereas others say that it is different 
at first, but unites with the Oxus, being in many 
places as much as six or seven stadia wide. The 
laxartes, however, from beginning to end, is a 
different river from the Oxus, and although it ends 
in the same sea, the mouths of the two, according to 
Patrocles, are about eighty parasangs distant from 
one another. The Persian parasang, according to 
some, is sixty stadia, but according to others thirty 
or forty. When I was sailing up the Nile, they used 
different measures when they named the distance in 
“schoeni” from city to city, so that in some places 
the same number of “schoeni’’ meant a longer 
voyage and in others a shorter;! and thus the 
variations have been preserved to this day as handed 
down from the beginning. 

6. Now the tribes one encounters in going from 
Hyrcania towards the rising sun as far as Sogdiana 
became known at first to the Persians—I mean the 
tribes inside? Taurus—and afterwards to the Mace- 
donians and to the Parthians; and the tribes situated 
on the far side of those tribes and in a straight line 
with them are supposed, from their identity in 
kind, to be Scythian, although no expeditions have 
been made against them that I know of, any more 
than against the most northerly of the nomads, 
Now Alexander did attempt to lead an expedition 

1 On the variations in the length of the ‘‘schoenus,” see 
17. 1. 24. 
2 4.e. ‘‘north of” Taurus (see 11. 1. 9). 



τείαν ὅτε τὸν Βῆσσον μετήει καὶ τὸν Σπιτα- 
μένην, ζωγρίᾳ δ᾽ ἀναχθέντος τοῦ Βήσσου, τοῦ δὲ 
Σπιταμένους ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων διαφθαρέντος, 
ἐπαύσατο τῆς ἐπιχειρήσεως. οὐχ ὁμολογοῦσι δ᾽, 
ὅτι περιέπλευσάν τίνες ἀπὸ τῆς ᾿Ινδικῆς ἐ ἐπὶ τὴν 
Ὑρκανίαν, ὅτι δὲ δυνατὸν Ἰ]ατροκλῆς εἴρηκε. 
(519 7. Λέγεται δέ, διότε τοῦ Ταύρου τὸ τελευταῖον, 
ὃ καλοῦσιν Ἰμάϊον,} τῇ ᾿Ινδικῇ θαλάττῃ ξυνάπτον, 
οὐδὲν οὔτε προὔχει πρὸς ἕω τῆς ᾿νδικῆς μᾶλλον 
οὔτ᾽ εἰσέχει: παριόντι δ᾽ εἰς τὸ βόρειον πλευρόν, 
ἀεί TL τοῦ μήκους ὑφαιρεῖ καὶ τοῦ πλάτους ἢ 
θάλαττα, ὥστ᾽ ἀποφαίνειν μείουρον " πρὸς ἕω τὴν 
νῦν ὑπογραφομένην μερίδα τῆς ᾿Ασίας, ἣν ὁ 
Ταῦρος ἀπολαμβάνει πρὸς τὸν ὠκεανὸν τὸν 
πληροῦντα τὸ Κάσπιον πέλαγος. μῆκος δ᾽ 
ἐστὶ ταύτης τῆς μερίδος τὸ μέγιστον ἀπὸ τῆς 
Hit i θαλάττης ἐπὶ τὸν ὠκεανὸν τὸν κατὰ 
᾿ἸΙμάϊον͵ τρισμυρίων. που σταδίων, παρὰ τὴν 
ὀρεινὴν τοῦ Ταύρου τῆς πορείας οὔσης, πλάτος 
δ᾽ ἔλαττον τῶν μυρίων. εἴρηται γάρ, ὅτι περὶ 
τετρακισμυρίους σταδίους ἐστὶ τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦ 
᾿Ισσικοῦ κόλπου μέχρι τῆς ἑῴας θαλάττης τῆς 
κατὰ ᾿Ινδούς, ἐπὶ δ᾽ ᾿Ισσὸν ἀπὸ τῶν ἑσπερίων 
ἄκρων τῶν κατὰ Στήλας ἄλλοι τρισμύριοι: ἔστι 
δὲ ὁ μυχὸς τοῦ ᾿Ισσικοῦ κόλπου μικρὸν ἢ οὐδὲν 
᾿Αμισοῦ ἑωθινώτερος, τὸ δὲ ἀπὸ ᾿Αμισοῦ ἐπὶ τὴν 
Ὑρκανίαν γῆν περὶ μυρίους ἐστὶ σταδίους, παράλ- 
ληλον ὃν TO ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἰσσοῦ λεχθέντι ἐπὶ τοὺς 
Ἰνδούς. λείπεται δὴ τὸ λεχθὲν μῆκος ἐπὶ τὴν 

1 *Judiov, Meineke, for Ἵμαιον Εἰ, Ἴμεον other MSS. 
2 E has μύουρον above μείουρον ; Meineke so reads. 
3 See note of Groskurd, who would emend μυρίων to 

ἑξακισχιλίων; also Kramer’s comment. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 11. 6-7 

against these when he was in pursuit of Bessus? and 
Spitamenes, but when Bessus was captured alive and 
brought back, and Spitamenes was slain by the 
barbarians, he desisted from his undertaking. It is 
not generally agreed that persons have sailed around 
from India to Hyrcania, but Patrocles states that it 
is possible. 

7. It is said that the last part of the Taurus, which 
is called Imaius and borders on the Indian Sea, 
neither extends eastwards farther than India nor 
into it;? but that, as one passes to the northern side, 
the sea gradually reduces the length and breadth of 
the country, and therefore causes to taper towards 
the east the portion of Asia now being sketched, 
which is comprehended between the Taurus and the 
ocean that fills the Caspian Sea. The maximum 
length of this portion from the Hyrcanian Sea 
to the ocean that is opposite the Imaius is about 
thirty thousand stadia, the route being along the 
mountainous tract of the Taurus, and the breadth 
less than ten thousand; for, as has been said,® the 
distance from the Gulf of Issus to the eastern sea at 
India is about forty thousand stadia, and to Issus 
from the western extremity at the Pillars of Heracles 
thirty thousand more. The recess of the Gulf of 
Issus is only slightly, if at all, farther east than 
Amisus, and the distance from Amisus to the 
Hyrcanian land is about ten thousand stadia, being 
parallel to that of the above-mentioned distance 
from Issus to India. Accordingly, there remain 
thirty thousand stadia as the above-mentioned length 

1 Satrap of Bactria under Darius III. 

3 To understand this discussion, see Map in Vol. I. 

3 See 2. 1. 3 ff. 
4 See, and compare, 1. 4. 5, 2.1.35, 2.4.3, and 11. 1. 3. 



ἕω τῆς περιωδευμένης νυνὶ μερίδος ot τρισμύριοι 
στάδιοι. πάλιν δὲ τοῦ πλάτους τοῦ μεγίστου 
τῆς οἰκουμένης ὄντος περὶ τρισμυρίους σταδίους, 
χλαμυδειδοῦς οὔσης, τὸ διάστημα τοῦτο ἐγγὺς ἂν 
εἴη τοῦ μεσημβρινοῦ τοῦ διὰ τῆς Ὑρκανίας 
θαλάττης γραφομένου, καὶ τῆς Περσικῆς, εἴπερ ἐστὶ 
τὸ “μῆκος τῆς οἰκουμένης ἑπτὰ μυριάδες" εἰ οὖν 
ἀπὸ τῆς Ὑρκανίας ἐπὶ ᾿Αρτεμίταν τὴν ἐν τῇ 
Βαβυλωνίᾳ στάδιοί εἰσιν ὀκτακισχίλιοι, καθάπερ 
εἴρηκεν ᾿Απολλόδωρος ἐ ἐκ τῆς ᾿ΔΑρτεμίτας," ἐκεῖθεν 
δ᾽ ἐπὶ τὸ στόμα τῆς κατὰ Πέρσας θαλάττης ἄλλο 
τοσοῦτόν ἐστι, καὶ πάλιν τοσοῦτον ἢ μικρὸν 
ἀπολεῖπον εἰς τὰ ἀνταίροντα τοῖς ἄκροις τῆς 
Αἰθιοπίας, λοιπὸν ἂν εἴη τοῦ πλάτους τῆς οἰκου- 
μένης τοῦ λεχθέντος ἀπὸ τοῦ μυχοῦ τῆς Ὑρκανίας 
θαλάττης ἐπὶ τοῦ στόματος αὐτῆς ὅσον εἰρήκα- 
μεν. μειούρου δ᾽ ὄντος τοῦ τμήματος τούτου τῆς 
γῆς ἐπὶ τὰ πρὸς ἕω μέρη, γίνοιτ᾽ ἂν τὸ σχῆμα 
προσόμοιον μαγειρικῇ κοπίδι, τοῦ μὲν ὄρους ἐπ᾽ 
εὐθείας ὄντος, καὶ νοουμένου κατὰ τὴν ἀκμὴν τῆς 
κοπίδος, τῆς δ᾽ ἀπὸ τοῦ στόματος τοῦ Ὑρκανίου 
παραλίας ἐπὶ Τάμαρον κατὰ θάτερον πλευρὸν εἰς 
περιφερῆ καὶ μείουρον γραμμὴν ἀπολῆγον. 

8. ᾿Επεμνηστέον. δὲ καὶ τῶν παραδόξων. ἐνίων, 
ἃ θρυλοῦσι περὶ τῶν τελέως βαρβάρων, οἷον τῶν 
περὶ τὸν Καύκασον καὶ τὴν ἄλλην ὀρεινήν. τοῖς 

C 520 μὲν yap νόμιμον εἶναί φασι τὸ τοῦ Εὐριπίδου, 

τὸν φύντα θρηνεῖν, εἰς ὅσ᾽ ἔρχεται κακά, 
τὸν δ᾽ αὖ θανόντα καὶ πόνων πεπαυμένον 
χαίροντας εὐφημοῦντας ἐκπέμπειν δόμων" 
1 τοῦ μεγίστου, Corais, for τῆς μεγίστης ; so the later editors. 

2 *Apteutras, Xylander, for “Apreunotas Cx, ᾿Αρτεμισίας 
other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. τι. 7-8 

towards the east of the portion now described. 
Again, since the maximum breadth of the inhabited 
world, which is chlamys-shaped,’ is about thirty 
thousand stadia, this distance would be measured 
near the meridian line drawn through the Hyrcanian 
and Persian Seas, if it be true that the length of 
the inhabited world is seventy thousand stadia. 
Accordingly, if the distance from MHyrcania to 
Artemita in Babylonia is eight thousand stadia, as 
is stated by Apollodorus of Artemita, and the 
distance from there to the mouth of the Persian Sea 
another eight thousand, and again eight thousand, 
or a little less, to the places that lie on the same 
parallel as the extremities of Ethiopia, there would 
remain of the above-mentioned breadth of the in- 
habited world the distance which I have already 
given,” from the recess of the Hyrcanian Sea to the 
mouth of that sea. Since this segment of the earth 
tapers towards the eastern parts, its shape would be 
like a cook’s knife, the mountain being in a straight 
line and conceived of as corresponding to the edge 
of the knife, and the coast from the mouth of the 
Hyrcanian Sea to Tamarum as corresponding to the 
other side of the knife, which ends in a line that 
curves sharply to the point. 

8. I must also mention some strange customs, every- 
where talked about, of the utterly barbarous tribes ; 
for instance, the tribes round the Caucasus and the 
mountainous country in general. What Euripides 
refers to is said to be a custom among some of them, 
“to lament the new-born babe, in view of all the 
sorrows it will meet in life, but on the other hand 
to carry forth from their homes with joy and bene- 
dictions those who are dead and at rest from their 

1 See Vol. I, p. 435, note ὃ, 2 Six thousand (2. 1. 17). 


ἑτέροις δὲ μηδένα ἀποκτείνειν τῶν ἐξαμαρτόντων 
τὰ μέγιστα, ἀλλ᾽ ἐξορίζειν μόνον μετὰ τῶν τέκνων, 
ὑπεναντίως τοῖς Δέρβιξι: καὶ γὰρ ἐπὶ μικροῖς 
οὗτοι σφάττουσι. σέβονται δὲ [ἣν οἱ “Δέρβικες" 
θύουσι δ᾽ οὐδὲν θῆλυ οὐδὲ ἐσθίουσι" τοὺς δὲ ὑπὲρ 
ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη γεγονότας σφάττουσι, ἀναλίσ- 
κουσι δὲ τὰς σάρκας. οἱ ἄγχιστα γένους" τὰς δὲ 
γραίας ἀπάγχουσιν, εἶτα θάπτουσι: τοὺς δὲ ἐντὸς 
ἑβδομήκοντα ἐτῶν ἀποθανόντας οὐκ ἐσθίουσιν, 
ἀλλὰ θάπτουσι. Σίγιννοι δὲ τᾶλλα μὲν περσί- 
ζουσιν, ἱππαρίοις δὲ χρῶνται μικροῖς, δασέσιν, 
ἅπερ ἱππότην ὀχεῖν μὲν οὐ δύνανται, τέθριππα δὲ 
ζευγνύουσιν: ἡνιοχοῦσι δὲ γυναῖκες, ἐκ παίδων 
ἠσκημέναι, ἡ δ᾽ ἄριστα ἡνιοχοῦσα συνοικεῖ ᾧ 
βούλεται. τινὰς δ᾽ ἐπιτηδεύειν φασίν, ὅπως ὡς 
μακροκεφαλώτατοι φανοῦνται, καὶ ,“προπεπτω- 
κότες τοῖς μετώποις, ὥσθ᾽ ὑπερκύπτειν τῶν 
γενείων. Ταπύρων:; δ᾽ ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ τοὺς μὲν 
ἄνδρας μελανειμονεῖν καὶ μακροκομεῖν, τὰς δὲ 
γυναῖκας λευχειμονεῖν καὶ ᾿βραχυκομεῖν' οἰκοῦσι 
δὲ μεταξὺ Δερβίκων καὶ Ὑρκανῶν"" καὶ ὁ 
ἀνδρειότατος κριθεὶς γαμεῖ ἣν βούλεται. Kao- 
πιοι δὲ τοὺς ὑπὲρ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη λιμοκτονή- 
σαντες εἰς τὴν ἐρημίαν ἐκτιθέασιν, ἄπωθεν δὲ 
σκοπεύοντες ἐὰν μὲν ὑπ᾽ ὀρνίθων κατασπωμένους 
ἀπὸ τῆς κλίνης ἴδωσιν, εὐδαιμονίζουσι, ἐὰν δὲ 
ὑπὸ θηρίων ἢ κυνῶν, ἧττον, ἐὰν δ᾽ ὑπὸ μηδενός, 

1 Ταπύρων, Corais, for Ταπυρίων ; so Meineke. 
2 οἰκοῦσι δέ. .. Ὑρκανῶν appears to be a gloss from 1], 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 11. 8 

troubles” ;1 and it is said to be a custom among 
others to put to death none of the greatest criminals, 
but only to cast them and their children out of their 
borders—a custom contrary to that of the Derbices, 
for these slaughter people even for slight offences. 
The Derbices worship Mother Earth; and they do 
not sacrifice, or eat, anything that is female; and 
when men become over seventy years of age they are 
slaughtered, and their flesh is consumed by their 
nearest of kin; but their old women are strangled 
and then buried. However, the men who die under 
seventy years of age are not eaten, but only buried. 
The Siginni imitate the Persians in all their customs, 
except that they use ponies that are small and 
shaggy, which, though unable to carry a horseman, are 
yoked together in a four-horse team and are driven 
by women trained thereto from childhood ; and the 
woman who drives best cohabits with whomever she 
wishes. Others are said to practise making their 
heads appear as long as possible and making their 
foreheads project beyond their chins. It is a custom 
of the Tapyri for the men to dress in black and 
wear their hair long, and for the women to dress in 
white and wear their hair short. They live between 
the Derbices and the Hyrcanians. And he who is 
adjudged the bravest marries whomever he wishes. 
The Caspians starve to death those who are over 
seventy years of age and place their bodies out in 
the desert; and then they keep watch from a dis- 
tance, and if they see them dragged from their 
biers by birds, they consider them fortunate, and 
if by wild beasts or dogs, less so, but if by nothing, 
they consider them cursed by fortune. 

1 Frag. Cresphontes 449 (Nauck), 

C 521 



1. ᾿Επεὶ δὲ τὰ βόρεια μέρη τῆς ᾿Ασίας ποιεῖ ὁ 
Ταῦρος, ἃ δὴ καὶ ἐντὸς τοῦ Ταύρου καλοῦσιν, 
εἰπεῖν προειλόμεθα πρῶτον περὶ τούτων' - τούτων 
δ᾽ ἐστὶ καὶ τὰ ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσιν αὐτοῖς ἢ ὅλα 
ἢ τὰ πλεῖστα. ὅσα μὲν τῶν Κασπίων πυλῶν 
ἑωθινώτερά ἐστιν, ἁπλουστέραν “ἔχει τὴν περιή- 
γησιν διὰ τὴν ἀγριότητα, οὐ πολύ τε ἂν 
διαφέροι τοῦδε ἢ τοῦδε τοῦ κλίματος συγκα- 
ταλεχθένται' τὰ δ᾽ ἑσπέρια πάντα δίδωσιν 
εὐπορίαν τοῦ λέγειν περὶ αὐτῶν, ὥστε δεῖ προά- 
yew ἐπὶ τὰ παρακείμενα ταῖς Κασπίαις πύλαις. 
παράκειται δὲ ἡ Μηδία πρὸς δύσιν, χώρα καὶ 
πολλὴ καὶ δυναστεύσασά ποτε καὶ ἐν “μέσῳ τῷ 
Ταύρῳ κειμένη, πολυσχιδεῖ κατὰ ταῦτα ὑπάρχοντι 
τὰ μέρη καὶ αὐλῶνας ἐμπεριλαμβάνοντι μεγάλους, 
καθάπερ καὶ τῇ ᾿Αρμενίᾳ τοῦτο συμβέβηκε. 

2. Τὸ γὰρ ὄρος τοῦτο ἄρχεται μὲν ἀπὸ τῆς 
Καρίας καὶ Λυκίας, ἀλλ᾽ ἐνταῦθα μὲν οὔτε 
πλάτος οὔτε ὕψος ἀξιόλογον δείκνυσιν, ἐξαίρεται 
δὲ πολὺ πρῶτον κατὰ τὰς Χελιδονίας" αὗται δ᾽ 
εἰσὶ νῆσοι κατὰ τὴν ἀρχὴν τῆς Ιαμφύλων 
παραλίας" ἐπὶ δὲ τὰς ἀνατολὰς ἐκτεινόμενον 5 
αὐλῶνας μακροὺς ὃ ἀπολαμβάνει τοὺς τῶν Κι- 
λίκων" εἶτα τῇ μὲν τὸ ᾿Αμανὸν ἀ ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ σχίξεται, 
τῇ δὲ ὁ ᾿Αντίταυρος, ἐν ᾧ τὰ Κόμανα ἵδρυται τὰ 
ἐν τοῖς ἄνω λεγομένοις Καππάδοξιν. οὗτος μὲν 

1 περὶ τούτων, Tzschucke, for περὶ τούτου oz; other MSS. 

omit the words. 
2 ἐκτεινόμενον, Meineke, for ἐκτεινόμενος, from correction 

in D. 

GEOGRAPHY, τι. 12. 1-2 


1. Stnce the northern parts of Asia are formed 
by the Taurus,—I mean the parts which are also 
ealled “ Cis-Tauran”’ Asia,! I have chosen to describe 
these first. These include all or most of the regions 
in the mountains themselves. All that lie farther 
east than the Caspian Gates admit of a simpler 
description because of the wildness of their inhabi- 
tants; and it would not make much difference 
whether they were named as belonging to this 
“clima” 2 or that, whereas all that lie to the west 
afford abundant matter for description, and therefore 
I must proceed to the parts which are adjacent to 
the Caspian Gates. Adjacent to the Caspian Gates 
on the west is Media, a country at one time both 
“extensive and powerful, and situated in the midst of 
the Taurus, which is split into many parts in the 
region of Media and contains large valleys, as is 
also the case in Armenia. 

2. For this mountain has its beginning in Caria 
and Lycia; there, indeed, it has neither any con- 
siderable breadth nor height, but it first rises to a 
considerable height opposite the Chelidoniae, which 
are islands at the beginning of the coast of Pam- 
phylia, and then stretching towards the east encloses 
long valleys, those in Cilicia, and then on one side 
the Amanus Mountain splits off it and on the other 
the Antitaurus Mountain, in which latter is situated 
Comana, in Upper Cappadocia, as it is called. Now 

1 See 11. 1. 1-5. 2 See Vol. I, p. 22, foot-note 2. 

3 μακρούς Εἰ, μικράς oz, μικρούς other MSS. 


οὖν ἐν τῇ Καταονίᾳ τελευτᾷ, τὸ δὲ ᾿Αμανὸν 6 ὄρος 
μέχρι τοῦ Εὐφράτου καὶ τῆς Μελιτηνῆς πρόεισι, 
καθ᾽ ἣν ἡ Κομμαγηνὴ τῇ Καππαδοκίᾳ παρά- 
κειται" ἐκδέχεται δὲ τὰ πέραν τοῦ Εὐφράτου ¢ ὄρη, 
συνεχῆ μὲν τοῖς προειρημένοις, πλὴν ὅσον δια- 
κόπτει ῥέων διὰ μέσων ὁ ποταμός" πολλὴν δ᾽ 
ἐπίδοσιν λαμβάνει εἰς τὸ ὕψος καὶ τὸ πλάτος καὶ 
τὸ πολυσχιδές. τὸ δ᾽ οὖν νοτιώτατον μάλιστά 
ἐστιν ὁ Ταῦρος, ὁρίζων τὴν ᾿Αρμενίαν ἀπὸ τῆς 

3. ᾿Ἐντεῦθεν δὲ ἀμφότεροι ῥέουσιν οἱ τὴν 
Μεσοποταμίαν ἐγκυκλούμενοι ποταμοὶ καὶ συ- 
sg > / , \ A 4 , 
νάπτοντες ἀλλήλοις ἐγγὺς κατὰ τὴν Βαβυλωνίαν, 

- " ΄ ᾽ \ \ , , 
εἶτα ἐκδιδόντες εἰς τὴν κατὰ Πέρσας θάλατταν, 
" , / ‘ , Μ Ν \ , 
6 τε Εὐφράτης καὶ Τίγρις. ἔστι δὲ καὶ μείζων 
e > / \ , a , a 
ὁ Εὐφράτης καὶ πλείω διέξεισι χώραν σκολιῷ 
τῷ ῥείθρῳ, τὰς πηγὰς ἔχων ἐν τῷ προσβόρῳ 
μέρει τοῦ Ταύρου, ῥέων δ᾽ ἐπὶ δύσιν διὰ τῆς 
᾿Αρμενίας τῆς μεγάλης καλουμένης μέχρι By 
μικρᾶς, ἐν δεξιᾷ ἔχων ταύτην, ἐν ἀριστερᾷ 
τὴν ᾿Ακιλισηνήν"" εἶτ᾽ ἐπιστρέφει πρὸς νότον, 
συνάπτει δὲ κατὰ τὴν ἐπιστροφὴν τοῖς Καππα- 
δόκων ὁρίοις" δεξιᾷ δὲ ταῦτα ἀφεὶς καὶ τὰ τῶν 
Κομμαγηνῶν, ἀριστερᾷ δὲ τὴν ᾿Ακιλισηνὴν καὶ 
Σωφηνὴν τῆς μεγάλης ᾿Αρμενίας πρόεισιν ἐπὶ τὴν 
τ' , \ ΄ ΄ Μ > \ 
Συρίαν καὶ λαμβάνει πάλιν ἄλλην ἐπιστροφὴν 
’ \ , A Ν Ἁ , 
εἰς τὴν Βαβυλωνίαν καὶ τὸν Llepotxov κόλπον. 
ὁ δὲ Τίγρις ἐκ τοῦ νοτίου μέρους τοῦ αὐτοῦ 
ὄρους ἐνεχθεὶς ἐπὶ τὴν Σελεύκειαν συνάπτει τῷ 
Εὐφράτῃ πλησίον καὶ ποιεῖ τὴν Μεσοποταμίαν 
πρὸς αὐτόν, εἶτ᾽ ἐκδίδωσι καὶ αὐτὸς εἰς τὸν 
> \ , / wad / e \ lal 
αὐτὸν κόλπον. διέχουσι δὲ ἀλλήλων αἱ πηγαὶ TOD 

GEOGRAPHY, τι. 12. 2-3 

the Antitaurus ends in Cataonia, whereas the 
mountain Amanus extends to the Euphrates River 
and Melitiné, where Commagené lies adjacent to 
Cappadocia, And it is succeeded in turn by the 
mountains on the far side of the Euphrates, which 
are continuous with those aforementioned, except 
that they are cleft by the river that flows through 
the midst of them. Here its height and breadth 
greatly increase and its branches are more numerous. 
At all events, the most southerly part is the Taurus 
proper, which separates Armenia from Mesopotamia, 

3. Thence flow both rivers, I mean the Euphrates 
and the Tigris, which encircle Mesopotamia and 
closely approach each other in Babylonia and then 
empty into the Persian Sea. The Euphrates is not 
only the larger of the two rivers, but also, with its 
winding stream, traverses more country, having its 
sources in the northerly region of the Taurus, and 
flowing towards the west through Greater Armenia, 
as it is called, to Lesser Armenia, having the latter 
on its right and Acilisené on the left. It then 
bends towards the south, and at its bend joins the 
boundaries of Cappadocia; and leaving these and 
the region of Commagené on the right, and Acilisené 
and Sophené in Greater Armenia on the left, it runs 
on to Syria and again makes another bend into 
Babylonia and the Persian Gulf. The Tigris, run- 
ning from the southerly part of the same mountain 
to Seleuceia, approaches close to the Euphrates and 
with it forms Mesopotamia, and then flows into the 
same gulf as the Euphrates. .The sources of the 

1 ᾿Ακιλισηνήν in margin of Εἰ, Λισηνήν MSS., Βασιλισηνήν 
Epit., Casaubon and Corais. 



TE Εὐφράτου καὶ τοῦ Τίγριος περὶ δισχιλίους καὶ 
πεντακοσίους σταδίους. 
4. ᾿Απὸ δ᾽ οὖν τοῦ Ταύρου πρὸς ἄρκτον 
ἀποσχίδες πολλαὶ γεγόνασι, “μία μὲν ἡ τοῦ 
καλουμένου ᾿Αντιταύρου" καὶ γὰρ ἐνταῦθα οὕτως 
ὠνομάζετο ὁ τὴν Σωφηνὴν ἀπολαμβάνων ἐν 
αὐλῶνι μεταξὺ κειμένῳ αὐτοῦ τε καὶ τοῦ Tav- 
ρου. πέραν δὲ τοῦ Εὐφράτου κατὰ τὴν μικρὰν 
᾿Αρμενίαν ἐφεξῆς τῷ ᾿Αντιταύρῳ πρὸς ἄρκτον 
ἐπεκτείνεται μέγα ὄρος καὶ πολυσχιδές" καλοῦσι 
δὲ τὸ μὲν αὐτοῦ Ι]αρυάδρην, τὸ δὲ Μοσχικὰ 
ὄρη, τὸ δ᾽ ἄλλοις ὀνόμασι" ταῦτα δ᾽ ἀπολαμβάνει 
τὴν ᾿Αρμενίαν ὅλην μέχρι ᾿Ιβήρων καὶ ᾿Αλβανῶν. 
εἶτ᾽ ἄλλ᾽ ἐπανίσταται πρὸς ἕω, τὰ ὑπερκείμενα 
C 522 τῆς Κασπίας θαλάττης μέχρι Μηδίας, τῆς τε 
᾿Ατροπατίου καὶ τῆς μεγάλης" καλοῦσι δὲ καὶ 
ταῦτα τὰ μέρη πάντα τῶν ὀρῶν Παραχοάθραν 
καὶ τὰ HEX pt TOV Κασπίων πυλῶν καὶ ἐπέκεινα 
ἔτι πρὸς ταῖς ἀνατολαῖς τὰ συνάπτοντα τῇ ᾿Αρίᾳ. 
τὰ μὲν δὴ πρόσβορα ὄρη οὕτω ee τὰ δὲ 
νότια τὰ πέραν τοῦ Εὐφράτου, ἀπὸ" τῆς Καππα- 
δοκίας καὶ τῆς Κομμαγηνῆς πρὸς ἕω τείνοντα, 
κατ᾿ ἀρχὰς RE αὐτὸ τοῦτο καλεῖται Ταῦρος, 
διορίξων τὴν Σωφηνὴν καὶ τὴν ἄλλην ᾿Αρμενίαν 
ἀπὸ τῆς Μεσοποταμίας" τινὲς δὲ Topévaia ὄρη 
καλοῦσιν. ἐν δὲ τούτοις ἐστὶ καὶ τὸ Μάσιον, τὸ 
ὑπερκείμενον τῆς Νισίβιος ὄρος καὶ τῶν Trypa- 
νοκέρτων. ἔπειτα ἐξαίρεται πλέον καὶ καλεῖται 
Νιφάτης: ἐνταῦθα «δέ που καὶ αἱ ὃ τοῦ Τίγριος 
Παρυάδρην, Tzschucke, for Πολυάρρην ; so the later editors. 

ἀπό, Groskurd inserts ; owz καί. 
at, after καί, the editors insert. 

o 1 = 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 12. 3-4 

Euphrates and the Tigris are about two thousand 
five hundred stadia distant from each other, 

’ 4, Now the Taurus has numerous branches towards 
the north, one of which is that of the Antitaurus, 
as it is called, for there too the mountain which 
encloses Sophené in a valley situated between itself 
and the Taurus was so named. On the far side of 
the Euphrates, near Lesser Armenia and next to the 
Antitaurus towards the north, there stretches a 
large mountain with many branches, one of which 
is called Paryadres, another the Moschian Moun- 
tains, and another which is called by various names ; 
and these comprehend the whole of Armenia as far 
as Iberia and Albania. Then other mountains rise 
towards the east, I mean those which lie above the 
Caspian Sea, extending as far as Media, not only the 
Atropatian Media but also the Greater Media. Not 
only all these parts of the mountains are called 
Parachoathras, but also those which extend to the 
Caspian Gates and those which extend still farther 
towards the east, I mean those which border on 
Aria. The mountains on the north, then, bear 
these names, whereas those on the south, on the 
far side of the Euphrates, in their extent towards 
the east from Cappadocia and Commagené, are, 
at their beginning, called Taurus proper,! which 
separates Sophené and the rest of Armenia from 
Mesopotamia; by some, however, these are called 
the Gordyaean Mountains, and among these belongs 
also Masius, the mountain which is situated above 
Nisibis and Tigranocerta. Then the Taurus rises 
higher and bears the name Niphates; and some- 
where here are the sources of the Tigris, on 

(Oe alae 


πηγαὶ κατὰ τὸ νότιον τῆς ὀρεινῆς πλευρόν' εἶτ᾽ 
ἀπὸ τοῦ Νιφάτου μᾶλλον ἐ ἔτι καὶ μᾶλλον ἡ ῥάχις 
ἐκτεινομένη τὸ Ζάγριον ὄρος ποιεῖ, τὸ διόριξον τὴν 
Μηδίαν καὶ τὴν Βαβυλωνίαν: μετὰ δὲ τὸ Ζάγριον 
ἐκδέχεται ὑπὲρ μὲν τῆς Βαβυλωνίας ἥ τε τῶν 
᾿Ἐλυμαίων ὀρεινὴ καὶ ἡ τῶν Παραιτακηνῶν, ὑπὲρ 
δὲ τῆς Μηδίας ἡ τῶν Κοσσαίων" ἐν μέσῳ δ᾽ ἐστὶν 
ἡ Μηδία καὶ ἡ ᾿Δρμενία, πολλὰ μὲν ὄρη περι- 
λαμβάνουσα, πολλὰ δὲ ὀροπέδια, ὡσαύτως δὲ 
πεδία καὶ αὐλῶνας μεγάλους, συχνὰ δὲ καὶ ἔθνη 
τὰ περιοικοῦντα, μικρώ, ὀρεινὰ καὶ λῃστρικὰ τὰ 
πλείω. οὕτω μὲν τοίνυν τίθεμεν ἐντὸς τοῦ Ταύ- 
; τ ρον ΚΟ ee i 
pov τήν Te Μηδίαν, ἧς εἰσὶ καὶ αἱ Κάσπιοι πύλαι, 
καὶ τὴν ᾿Αρμενίαν. 

5. Ka?’ ἡμᾶς μὲν τοίνυν προσάρκτια ἂν εἴη 
τὰ ἔθνη ταῦτα, ἐπειδὴ καὶ ἐντὸς τοῦ Ταύρου, 
᾿Ερατοσθένης δέ, πεποιημένος τὴν διαίρεσιν εἰς 
τὰ νότια μέρη καὶ τὰ προσάρκτια καὶ τὰς ὑπ᾽ 
αὐτοῦ λεγομένας σφραγῖδας, τὰς μὲν βορείους 
καλῶν, τὰς δὲ νοτίους, ὅρια ἀποφαίνει τῶν 
κλιμάτων ἀμφοῖν τὰς Κασπίους πύλας" εἰκότως 
οὖν τὰ νοτιώτερα, πρὸς ἕω τείνοντα, ἷ τῶν Κασπίων 
πυλῶν νότια ἂν ἀποφαίνοι, ὧν ἐστὶ καὶ ἡ Μηδία 
καὶ ἡ ᾿Αρμενία, τὰ δὲ βορειότερα πρόσβορα, κατ᾽ 
ἄλλην καὶ ἄλλην διάταξιν τούτου συμβαίνοντος. 
τάχα δὲ οὐκ ἐπέβαλε τούτῳ, διότι ἔξω τοῦ 'Γαύρου 
πρὸς νότον οὐδέν ἐστιν οὔτε τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας μέρος 
οὔτε τῆς Μηδίας. 

1 πρὸς ἕω τείνοντα, Kramer suspects, Meineke ejects. 

1 See 2. 1. 35 and note on ‘‘Sphragides.” 
2 See Vol. I., p. 22, foot-note 2. 

GEOGRAPHY, 11. 12. 4-5 

the southern side of the mountainous country. 
Then from the Niphates the mountain-chain ex- 
tends still farther and farther and forms the moun- 
tain Zagrus which separates Media and Babylonia. 
After the Zagrus there follows, above Babylonia, 
the mountainous country of the Elymaei and that 
of the Paraetaceni, and also, above Media, that of 
the Cossaei. In the middle are Media and Armenia, 
which comprise many mountains, many plateaus, 
and likewise many low plains and large valleys, and 
also numerous tribes that live round among the 
mountains and are small in numbers and range the 
mountains and for the most part are given to 
brigandage. Thus, then, I am placing inside the 
Taurus both Media, to which the Caspian Gates 
belong, and Armenia. 

5. According to the way in which I place them, 
then, these tribes would be towards the north, since 
they are inside the Taurus, but Eratosthenes, who 
is the author of the division of Asia into “ Southern 
Asia”’ and “Northern Asia” and into “ Sphragides,” 1 
as he calls them, calling some of the “sphragides ” 
“northern” and others “southern,” represents the 
Caspian Gates as a boundary between the two 
“‘climata” ;? reasonably, therefore, he might repre- 
sent as ‘‘ southern” the parts that are more southerly, 
stretching towards the east,’ than the Caspian Gates, 
among which are Media and Armenia, and the more 
northerly as “northern,” since this is the case no 
matter what distribution into parts is otherwise made 
of the country. But perhaps it did not strike Erato- 
sthenes that no part either of Armenia or of Media 
lay outside the Taurus. 

3 «Stretching towards the east” seems to be an inter 
polation (see critical note). 



Ἢ δὲ Μηδία δίχα διήρηται: καλοῦσι δὲ τὴν 
μὲν μεγάλην, ἧς μητρόπολις τὰ ᾿Εκβάτανα, με- 
γάλη πόλις καὶ τὸ βασίλειον ἔχουσα τῆς Μήδων 
ἀρχῆς (διατελοῦσι δὲ καὶ νῦν οἱ Παρθυαῖοι τούτῳ 
χρώμενοι βασιλείῳ, καὶ θερίξζουσί γε ἐνταῦθα οἱ 
βασιλεῖς, ψυχρὰ γὰρ ἡ Μηδία; τὸ δὲ χειμάδιόν 
ἐστιν αὐτοῖς ἐν Σελευκείᾳ τῇ ἐπὶ τῷ Τίγριδι 
πλησίον Βαβυλῶνοεο), ἡ δ᾽ ἑτέρα μερίς ἐστιν ἡ 

C 523 ᾿Ατροπάτιος Μηδία, τοὔνομα δ᾽ ἔσχεν ἀπὸ τοῦ 
ἡγεμόνος ᾿Ατροπάτου, ὃς ἐκώλυσεν ὑπὸ τοῖς 
Μακεδόσι γίνεσθαι καὶ ταύτην, μέρος οὖσαν 
μεγάλης Μηδίας" καὶ δὴ καὶ βασιλεὺς ἀναγο- 
ρευθεὶς ἰδίᾳ συνέταξε καθ᾽ αὑτὴν τὴν χώραν 
ταύτην, καὶ ἡ διαδοχὴ σώζεται μέχρι νῦν ἐξ 
ἐκείνου, πρός τε τοὺς ᾿Αρμενίων βασιλέας ποιησα- 
μένων ἐπιγαμίας τῶν ὕστερον καὶ Σύρων καὶ μετὰ 
ταῦτα Παρθυαίων. 

2. Κεῖται δὲ ἡ χώρα τῇ μὲν ᾿Αρμενίᾳ καὶ τῇ 
Ματιανῇ πρὸς ἕω, τῇ δὲ μεγάλῃ Μηδίᾳ πρὸς 
δύσιν, πρὸς ἄρκτον δ᾽ ἀμφοτέραις: τοῖς δὲ περὶ 
τὸν μυχὸν τῆς Ὑρκανίας θαλάττης καὶ τῇ 
Ματιανῇ ἀπὸ νότου παράκειται. ἔστι δ᾽ οὐ 
μικρὰ κατὰ τὴν δύναμιν, ὥς φησιν ᾿Απολλωνίδης, 
ἥ γε καὶ ὃ “μυρίους ἱππέας δύναται παρέχεσθαι, 
πεζῶν δὲ τέτταρας μυριάδας. λίμνην δ᾽ ἔχει τὴν 
Καπαῦτα,3 ἐν ἣ ἅλες ἐπανθοῦντες πήττονται" εἰσὶ 

᾿ τῇ Ματιανῇ, Kramer, for τῆς Ματιάνης ; so Meineke. 

2 κατά before μυρίους, z and Corais omit. 

8 Καπαῦτα, conj. of C. Miiller (Καπαῦταν, Kramer and 
others), for Σπαῦτα ; so Tozer (see his note). 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 13. 1-2 


1. Menta is divided into two parts. One part of 
it is called Greater Media, of which the metropolis 
is Ecbatana, a large city containing the royal residence 
of the Median empire (the Parthians continue to use 
this as a royal residence even now, and their kings 
spend at least their summers there, for Media is a 
cold country; but their winter residence is at 
Seleuceia, on the Tigris near Babylon). ‘The other 
part is Atropatian Media, which got its name from 
the commander! Atropates, who prevented also this 
country, which was a part of Greater Media, from 
becoming subject to the Macedonians. Furthermore, 
after he was proclaimed king, he organised this 
country into a separate state by itself, and his 
succession of descendants is preserved to this day, 
and his successors have contracted marriages with 
the kings of the Armenians and Syrians and, in 
later times, with the kings of the Parthians. 

2. This country lies east of Armenia and Matiané, 
west of Greater Media, and north of both; and it 
lies adjacent to the region round the recess of the 
Hyrcanian Sea and to Matiané on the south, It is 
no small country, considering its power, as Apol- 
lonides? says, since it can furnish as many as ten 
thousand horsemen and forty thousand foot-soldiers. 
It has a harbour, Capauta,® in which salts efloresce 
and solidify, These salts cause itching and are 

1 Τῇ the battle of Arbela, 331 B.c. 
2 Vol III., p. 234, foot-note 2. 
8 Now Lake Urmi (see 1]. 14. 8 and note on ‘‘ Blue”). 



δὲ κνησμώδεις καὶ ἐπαλγεῖς, ἔλαιον δὲ TOD πάθους 
ἄκος, ὕδωρ δὲ γλυκὺ τοῖς καπυρωθεῖσιν | ἱματίοις, 
εἴ τις κατ᾽ ἄγνοιαν βάψειεν εἰς αὐτὴν πλύσεως 
χάριν. ἔχουσι δ᾽ ἰσχυροὺς γείτονας τοὺς ’Appe- 
νίους καὶ τοὺς Παρθυαίους, ὑφ᾽ ὧν περικόπτονται 
πολλάκις. ἀντέχουσι δ᾽ ὅμως καὶ ἀπολαμβάνουσι 
τὰ ἀφαιρεθέντα, καθάπερ τὴν Συμβάκην ἀπέλαβον 
παρὰ τῶν ᾿Αρμενίων, ὑπὸ Ῥωμαίοις γεγονότων, 
καὶ αὐτοὶ προσεληλύθασι τῇ φιλίᾳ τῇ πρὸς 
Καίσαρα" θεραπεύουσι δ᾽ ἅμα καὶ τοὺς ἸΤ]αρ- 

3. Βασίλειον δ᾽ αὐτῶν θερινὸν μὲν ἐν πεδίῳ 
€ , / \ \ 
ἱδρυμένον Πάξακα" χειμερινὸν be? ἐν φρουρίῳ 
ἐρυμνῷ Οὔερα, ὃ ὅπερ ᾿Αντώνιος ἐπολιόρκησε κατὰ 
τὴν ἐπὶ Παρθυαίους στρατείαν. διέχει δὲ τοῦτο 
τοῦ ᾿Αράξου ποταμοῦ τοῦ ὁρίζοντος τήν Te ᾽Αρμε- 
νίαν καὶ τὴν ᾿Ατροπατηνὴν σταδίους δισχιλίους 
καὶ τετρακοσίους, ὥς φησιν ὁ Δέλλεος," ὁ τοῦ 
᾿Αντωνίου φίλος, συγγράψας τὴν ἐπὶ “Ιαρθυαίους 
αὐτοῦ στρατείαν, ἐν ἡ παρῆν καὶ αὐτὸς ἡγεμονίαν 
ἔχων. ἔστι δὲ τῆς “χώρας ταύτης τὰ μὲν ἄχλα 
εὐδαίμονα χωρία, ἡ δὲ προσάρκτιος ὀρεινὴ καὶ 
τραχεῖα καὶ ψυχρά, Καδουσίων κατοικία τῶν 
ὀρεινῶν καὶ ᾿Αμάρδων καὶ Ταπύρων καὶ Κυρτίων 
καὶ ἄλλων τοιούτων, οἱ μετανάσται εἰσὶ καὶ 
λῃστρικοί. καὶ γὰρ ὁ Ζάγρος καὶ ὁ Νιφάτης 
κατεσπαρμένα ἔχουσι τὰ ἔθνη ταῦτα, καὶ οἱ ἐν τῇ 
Περσίδι Κύρτιοι καὶ Μάρδοι (καὶ γὰρ οὕτω 
λέγονται οἱ ᾿Αμαρδοι) καὶ οἱ ἐν τῇ ᾿Αρμενίᾳ μέχρι 
νῦν ὁμωνύμως προσαγορευόμενοι τῆς αὐτῆς εἰσὶν 

1 For καπυρωθεῖσιν, C. Miiller conj. καταρρυπωθεῖσιν 
(‘‘ soiled ”), 

GEOGRAPHY, τι. 13. 2-3 

painful, but this effect is relieved by olive-oil; and 
the water restores weathered garments, if perchance 
through ignorance one should dip them in it to 
wash them. They have powerful neighbours in the 
Armenians and the Parthians, by whom they are 
often plundered. But still they hold out against 
them and get back what has been taken away from 
them, as, for example, they got back Symbacé from 
the Armenians when the latter became subject to 
the Romans; and they themselves have attained to 
friendship with Caesar. But they are also paying 
court to the Parthians at the same time. 

3. Their royal summer palace is situated in a 
plain at Gazaca, and their winter palace in a fortress 
called Vera, which was besieged by Antony on his 
expedition against the Parthians. This fortress is 
distant from the Araxes, which forms the boundary 
between Armenia and Atropatené, two thousand four 
hundred stadia, according to Dellius, the friend of 
Antony, who wrote an account of Antony’s expedition 
against the Parthians, on which he accompanied 
Antony and was himself a commander. All regions 
of this country are fertile except the part towards 
the north, which is mountainous and rugged and 
cold, the abode of the mountaineers called Cadusii, 
Amardi, Tapyri, Cyrtii and other such peoples, who 
are migrants and predatory; for the Zagrus and 
Niphates mountains keep these tribes scattered ; 
and the Cyrtii in Persis, and the Mardi (for the 
Amardi are also thus called), and those in Armenia 
who to this day are called by the same name, are of 
the same character. 

2 Τάζακα, Groskurd, for Γάζα καί ; so the later editors. 
3 χειμερινὸν δέ, Groskurd inserts ; so Meineke. 
4 Δέλλιος, Casaubon, for ᾿Αδέλφιος ; so the later editors. 



4. Οἱ δ᾽ οὖν Καδούσιοι πλήθει τῷ πεζῷ μικρὸν 
ἀπολείπονται τῶν ᾿Αριανῶν, ἀκοντισταὶ δ᾽ εἰσὶν 
ἄριστοι, ἐν δὲ τοῖς τραχέσιν ἀνθ᾽ ἱππέων πεζοὶ 

C 524 διαμάχονται. ᾿Αντωνίῳ δὲ χαλεπὴν τὴν dy 
τείαν ἐποίησεν οὐχ ἡ τῆς χώρας φύσις, ἀλλ᾽ 
τῶν ὁδῶν ἡγεμών, ὁ τῶν ᾿Αρμενίων ἀμοῦδενς 
᾿Αρταουάσδης, ὃ ὃν εἰκῆ 1 ἐκεῖνος, ἐπιβουλεύοντα 
αὐτῷ, σύμβουλον ἐ ἐποιεῖτο καὶ κύριον τῆς περὶ τοῦ 
πολέμου γνώμης" ἐτιμωρήσατο μὲν οὖν αὐτόν, 
ἀλλ᾽ ὀψέ, ἡνίκα πολλῶν αἴτιος κατέστη κακῶν 
“Ῥωμαίοις καὶ αὐτὸς καὶ ἐκεῖνος, ὅστις τὴν ἀπὸ 
τοῦ Ζεύγματος ὁδὸν τοῦ κατὰ τὸν Kudparny 
μέχρι τοῦ ἅψασθαι τῆς ᾿Ατροπατηνῆς ὀκτακισ- 

λίων σταδίων ἐποίησε, πλέον ἢ διπλασίαν τῆς 
εὐθείας, διὰ ὀρῶν καὶ ἀνοδιῶν καὶ κυκλοπορίας. 

5. Ἢ δὲ μεγάλη Μηδία τὸ μὲν παλαιὸν τῆς 
Εν ,ἦγήσατο πάσης, καταλύσασα “τὴν τῶν 
Σύρων ἀρχήν' ὕστερον. δ᾽ ὑπὸ Κύρου καὶ Περσῶν 
ἀφαιρεθεῖσα τὴν τοσαύτην ἐξουσίαν ἐ ἐπὶ ᾿Αστυά- 
you, διεφύλαττεν ὅμως πολὺ τοῦ πατρίου ἀξιώμα- 
τος, καὶ ἣν τὰ ἭΝ κβάτανα χειμάδιον " τοῖς Πέρσαις, 
ὁμοίως Pe: καὶ τοῖς ἐκείνους καταλύσασι Μακεδόσι 
τοῖς τὴν Συρίαν ἔχουσι καὶ νῦν ἔτει τοῖς ΠΠαρθυαίων 
βασιλεῦσι τὴν αὐτὴν παρέχεται χρείαν τε καὶ 

6. ρίξεται δ᾽ ἀπὸ μὲν τῆς ἕω τῇ τε Παρθυαίᾳ 
καὶ τοῖς Κοσσαίων ὄρεσι, ληστρικῶν ἀνθρώπων, 
οἱ τοξότας μυρίους καὶ τρισχιλίους παρέσχοντό 

1 εἰκῆ, Meineke, for εἰκός, which oz omit. 

2 χειμάδιον must be an error for θερινὸν βασίλειον, or simply 
βασίλειον, unless certain words (see Corais) have fallen out of 

the text which make χειμάδιον apply to Seleuceia (see 
11. 19..}ἡ; 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 13. 4-6 

4. The Cadusii, however, are but little short of the 
Ariani in the number of their foot-soldiers ; and their 
javelin-throwers are excellent ; and in rugged places 
foot-soldiers instead of horsemen’ do the fighting. 
It was not the nature of the country that made the 
expedition difficult for Antony, but his guide Arta- 
vasdes, the king of the Armenians, whom, though 
plotting against him, Antony rashly made _ his 
counsellor and master of decisions respecting the 
war. Antony indeed punished him, but too late, 
when the latter had been proved guilty of numerous 
wrongs against the Romans, not only he himself, but 
also that other guide, who made the journey from 
the Zeugma on the Euphrates to the borders of 
Atropatené eight thousand stadia long, more than 
twice the direct journey, guiding the army over 
mountains and roadless regions and circuitous routes. 

5. In ancient times Greater Armenia ruled the 
whole of Asia, after it broke up the empire of the 
Syrians, but later, in the time of Astyages, it was 
deprived of that great authority by Cyrus and the 
Persians, although it continued to preserve much of 
its ancient dignity; and Ecbatana was winter resi- 
dence! for the Persian kings, and likewise for the 
Macedonians who, after overthrowing the Persians, 
oceupied Syria; and_ still to-day it affords the 
kings of the Parthians the same advantages and 

6. Greater Media is bounded on the east by 
Parthia and the mountains of the Cossaei, a _pre- 
datory people, who once supplied the Elymaei, with 

* Apparently an error of the copyist for ‘‘ summer 
residence” or ‘‘royal residence” (cf. § 1 above and § 6 



/ »" , ‘4 
ποτε ᾿Ελυμαίοις, συμμαχοῦντες ἐπὶ Σουσίους καὶ 
Βαβυλωνίους. Νέαρχος δέ φησι, τεττάρων ὄντων 
λῃστρικῶν ἐθνῶν, ὧν Μώρδοι μὲν Ilépcats προσ- 
εχεῖς ἦσαν, Οὔξιοι δὲ καὶ ᾿λυμαῖοι τούτοις τε 

\ / -“ Ν , ’ A 
καὶ Σουσίοις, Κοσσαῖοι δὲ Μήδοις, πάντας μὲν 
φόρους πράττεσθαι τοὺς βασιλέας, ἹΚΚοσσαίους δὲ 

\ lal ,ὔ ξ / e A ΄ 
καὶ δῶρα λαμβάνειν, ἡνίκα ὁ βασιλεὺς θερίσας 
3 , / > \ / , 
ἐν ᾿Εκ βατάνοις eis τὴν Βαβυλωνίαν καταβαίνοι" 
καταλῦσαι δ᾽ αὐτῶν τὴν πολλὴν τόλμαν ᾿Αλέξαν- 

δρον, ἐπιθέμενον χειμῶνος. τούτοις τε δὴ ἀφο- 
ρίζεται πρὸς ἕω καὶ ἔτι τοῖς Tlapartaxnvois, οἱ 
συνάπτουσι Ilépoais, ὀρεινοὶ καὶ αὐτοὶ καὶ 
λῃστρικοί: ἀπὸ δὲ τῶν ἄρκτων τοῖς ὑπεροικοῦσι 
τῆς Ὑρκανίας θαλάττης Καδουσίοις καὶ τοῖς 
» “a ΨΜ ὃ / θ 4 Ἄγ Ἷ 1 δὲ a 
ἄλλοις, ods ἄρτι διήλθομεν: πρὸς votov! δὲ τῇ 
᾿ Απολλωνιάτιδι, ἣν Sura νὴν ἐκάλουν οἱ παλαιοί, 
4) ἢ 
καὶ τῷ Ζάγρῳ, καθ᾽ ὃ ἡ ΜΙασσαβατικὴ κεῖται, 
τῆς Μηδίας οὖσα, οἱ δὲ τῆς eee φασί: πρὸς 
δύσιν δὲ τοῖς ᾿Ατροπατίοις 5 καὶ τῶν ᾿Αρμενίων 

, > \ Ν 1" a4 , , 
τισίν. εἰσὶ δὲ Kal Ἑλληνίδες πόλεις, κτίσματα 
τῶν Μακεδόνων ἐν τῇ Μηδίᾳ, ὧν Λαοδίκειά τε καὶ 
᾿Απάμεια καὶ ἡ πρὸς Ῥάγαις 5 καὶ αὐτὴ “Paya, τὸ 
τοῦ Νικάτορος κτίσμα' ὃ ἐκεῖνος μὲν Ἰυὐρωπὸν 
ὠνόμασε, Ἰ]άρθοι δὲ ᾿Αρσακίαν, νοτιωτέραν οὗσαν 
τῶν Κασπίων πυλῶν πεντακοσίοις που σταδίοις, 

7 ὥς φησιν ᾿Απολλόδωρος ᾿Αρτεμιτηνύός. 

1 E has ἕω instead of νότον. 

* ᾿Ατροπατίοις Εἰ, ᾿Ατραπίοις other MSS. 

ἢ Ἡρακλεία (the name of the city to which Strabo refers, 
see 11. 9. 1) is inserted after Ῥάγαις by Meineke, who follows 
conj. of Groskurd and Kramer. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 13. 6 

whom they were allies in the war against the Susians 
and Babylonians, with thirteen ἐπ τς bowmen. 
Nearchus! says that there were four predatory 
tribes and that of these the Mardi were situated 
next to the Persians; the Uxii and Elymaei next 
to the Mardi and the Susians; and the Cossaei next 
to the Medians; and that whereas all four exacted 
tribute from the kings, the Cossaei also received 
gifts at the times when the king, after spending 
the summer in Ecbatana, went down into Babylonia ; 
but that Alexander put an end to their great 
audacity when he attacked them in the winter time. 
So then, Greater Media is bounded on the east by 
these tribes, and also by the Paraetaceni, who 
border on the Persians and are themselves likewise 
mountaineers and predatory; on the north by the 
Cadusii who live above the Hyrcanian Sea, and by 
the other tribes which I have just described ; on the 
south by Apollioniatis, which the ancients called 
Sitacené, and by the mountain Zagrus, at the place 
where Massabaticé is situated, which belongs to 
Media, though some say that it belongs to Elymaea ; 
and on the west by the Atropatii and certain of the 
Armenians. There are also some Greek cities in 
Media, founded by the Macedonians, among which 
are Laodiceia, Apameia and the city” near ‘Rhagae, 
and παρὰ 3 itself, which was founded by Nieator.4 
By him it was named Europus, but by the Parthians 
Arsacia; it lies about five hundred stadia to the 
south of the Caspian Gates, according to Apollodorus 
of Artemita. 

1 See Dictionary in Vol. I. 2 Heracleia (see 11. 9. 1). 
8 The name is spelled both in plural and in singular. 
4 Seleucus Nicator, King of Syria 312-280 B.c. 



7. Ἣ πολλὴ μὲν οὖν ὑψηλή ἐστι καὶ ψυχρά, 
τοιαῦτα δὲ καὶ τὰ ὑπερκείμενα τῶν ᾿Εκβατάνων 
ὄρη καὶ τὰ περὶ τὰς ‘Payas Kal Tas Κασπίους 
πύλας καὶ καθόλου τὰ fo ας μέρη τὰ ἐν- 
τεῦθεν μέχρι. πρὸς τὴν Ματιανὴν καὶ τὴν "Appe- 
νίαν, ἡ δ᾽ ὑπὸ ταῖς Κασπίοις πύλαις ἐν ταπειτοῖς 
ἐδάφεσι καὶ κοίλοις οὖσα εὐδαίμων. σφόδρα ἐστὶ 
καὶ πάμφορος πλὴν ἐλαίας" εἰ δὲ καὶ φύεταί που, 
ἀλιπής τέ ἐστι καὶ ξηρά: ἱππόβοτος δὲ καὶ αὕτη 
ἐστὶ διαφερόντως καὶ ἡ ᾿Αρμενία, καλεῖται δέ τις 
καὶ λειμὼν Ἱππόβοτος, ὃ ὃν καὶ διεξίασιν οἱ ἐκ τῆς 
Περσίδος καὶ Bapuhous els Κασπίους πύλας 
ὁδεύοντες, ἐν ἧ πέντε ἢ μυριάδας t ἵππων θηλείων 
νέμεσθαί φασιν ἐπὶ τῶν Περσῶν, εἶναι δὲ τὰς 
ἀγέλας ταύτας βασιλικάς. τοὺς δὲ Νησαίους 3 
ἵππους, οἷς ἐχρῶντο οἱ βασιλεῖς ἀρίστοις οὖσι 
καὶ μεγίστοις, οἱ μὲν ἐνθένδε λέγουσι. τὸ γένος, οἱ 
δ᾽ ἐξ "Appevias: ἰδιόμορφοι δέ εἰσιν, ὥσπερ καὶ οἱ 
Παρθικοὶ λεγόμενοι νῦν Tapa TOUS ᾿Ελλαδικοὺς 
καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους τοὺς παρ᾽ ἡμῖν. καὶ τὴν βοτάνην 
δὲ τὴν μάλιστα τρέφουσαν τοὺς ἵππους ἀπὸ τοῦ 
πλεονάζειν ἐνταῦθα ἰδίως Μηδικὴν καλοῦμεν. 
φέρει δὲ καὶ “σίλφιον ἡ χώρα, ag’ οὗ ὁ Μηδικὸς 
καλούμενος ὀπός, ἐπὶ τοῦ πολὺ λειπόμενος τοῦ 
Κυρηναϊκοῦ, ἔστι δ᾽ ὅτε καὶ διαφέρων ἐ ἐκείνου, εἴτε 
παρὰ τὰς τῶν τόπων διαφοράς, εἴτε τοῦ “φυτοῦ 
κατ᾽ εἶδος ἐξαλλάττοντος, εἴτε καὶ παρὰ τοὺς 

1 rw have Ταντιανήν. 

2 For πέντε, Wesseling (note on Diodorus 17. 110), com- 

paring Arrian 7. 13, conj. πεντεκαίδεκα. 
3 E has Νισαίους“. 
4 ἐπὶ τό, Jones inserts before πολύ; Stephanus Byz. (s.v. 
Μηδία) reads οὐ πολύ. 

GEOGRAPHY, 11. 13.7 

7. Now most of the country is high and cold; 
and such, also, are the mountains which lie above 
Ecbatana and those in the neighbourhood of Rhagae 
and the Caspian Gates, and in general the northerly 
regions extending thence to Matiané and Armenia; 
but the region below the Caspian Gates, consisting 
of low-lying lands and hollows, is very fertile and 
productive of everything but the olive; and even if 
the olive is produced anywhere, it is dry and yields 
no oil. This, as well as Armenia, is an exception- 
ally good ‘‘horse-pasturing’’} country ; and a 
certain meadow there is called “ Horse-pasturing,”’ 
and those who travel from Persis and Babylon to 
Caspian Gates pass through it; and in the time of 
the Persians it is said that fifty thousand mares were 
pastured in it and that these herds belonged to the 
kings. As for the Nesaean horses, which the kings 
used because they were the best and the largest, 
some writers say that the breed came from here, 
while others say from Armenia. They are cha- 
racteristically different in form, as are also the 
Parthian horses, as they are now called, as compared 
with the Helladic and the other horses in our 
country. Further, we call the grass that makes the 
best food for horses by the special name “ Medic,” 
from the fact that it abounds there. The country 
also produces silphium ; whence the “ Medic”’ juice, 
as it is called, which in general is inferior to the 
“Cyrenaic’’ juice, but sometimes is even superior 
to it, either owing to regional differences, or be- 
cause of a variation in the species of the plant, or 
even owing to the people who extract and prepare 

1 « Hippobotos,” a Homeric epithet of Argos (6... Qd. 
4. 99). 

C 526 


ὀπίζοντας καὶ σκευάζοντας, ὥστε συμμένειν πρὸς 
τὴν ἀπόθεσιν καὶ τὴν χρείαν. 

8. Τοιαύτη μέν τις ἡ χώρα" τὸ δὲ μέγεθος 
πάρισός πώς ἐστιν εἰς πλάτος καὶ μῆκος" δοκεῖ 
δὲ μέγιστον εἶναι πλάτος 1 τῆς Μηδίας τὸ ἀπὸ τῆς 
τοῦ Ζάγρου ὑπερθέσεως, ἥπερ καλεῖται Μηδικὴ 
πύλη, εἰς Κασπίους πύλας διὰ τῆς Σιγριανῆς 
σταδίων τετρακισχιλίων ἑκατόν. τῷ δὲ μεγέθει 
καὶ τῇ δυνάμει τῆς χώρας ὁμολογεῖ καὶ ἡ περὶ 
τῶν φόρων ἱστορία: τῆς γὰρ Καππαδοκίας παρε- 
χούσης τοῖς Πέρσαις κατ᾽ ἐνιαυτὸν πρὸς τῷ 
ἀργυρικῷ τέλει ἵππους χιλίους καὶ πεντακοσίους, 

ἡμιόνους δὲ δισχιλίους, προβάτων δὲ πέντε μυ- 
ριάδας, διπλάσια σχεδόν τι τούτων ἐτέλουν οἱ 

9. "En? δὲ τὰ πολλὰ μὲν τὰ αὐτὰ τούτοις τε 
καὶ τοῖς ᾿Αρμενίοις, διὰ τὸ καὶ τὴν χώραν παρα- 
πλησίαν εἶναι. τοὺς μέντοι Μήδους ἀρχηγέτας 
εἶναί φασι καὶ τούτοις καὶ ἔτι πρότερον Πέρσαις 
τοῖς ἔχουσιν αὐτοὺς καὶ διαδεξαμένοις τὴν τῆς 
᾿Ασίας ἐξουσίαν. ἡ γὰρ νῦν λεγομένη Περσικὴ 
στολὴ καὶ ὁ τῆς τοξικῆς καὶ ἱππικῆς ζῆλος καὶ ἡ 
περὶ τοὺς βασιλέας θεραπεία καὶ κόσμος καὶ 
σεβασμὸς θεοπρεπὴς παρὰ τῶν ἀρχομένων εἰς τοὺς 
Πέρσας παρὰ Μήδων ἀφίκται. καὶ ὅτι τοῦτ᾽ 
ἀληθές, ἐκ τῆς ἐσθῆτος μάλιστα δῆλον: τιάρα 
γάρ τις καὶ κίταρις καὶ πῖλος καὶ χεριδωτοὶ 

1 πλάτος, Meineke emends to μῆκος, presumably in view of 

Strabo’s general use of the two terms (see 2. 1. 32). 
2 ἔθη oz, ἔθηκε other MSS. 

1 2.6. robe (cf. Lat. “ stola ”). 

GEOGRAPHY, 11. 13. 7-9 

the juice in such a way as to conserve its strength 
for storage and for use. 

8. Such is the nature of the country. As for its 
size, its length and breadth are approximately equal. 
The greatest breadth of Media seems to be that 
from the pass that leads over the Zagrus, which is 
called Medic Gate, to the Caspian Gates through 
Sigriané, four thousand one hundred stadia. The 
reports on the tributes paid agree with. the size and 
the power of the country ; for Cappadocia paid the 
Persians yearly, in addition to the silver tax, fifteen 
hundred horses, two thousand mules, and fifty thou- 
sand sheep, whereas Media paid almost twice as 
much as this. 

9. As for customs, most of theirs and of those of 
the Armenians are the same, because their countries 
are similar. The Medes, however, are said to have 
been the originators of customs for the Armenians, 
and also, still earlier, for the Persians, who were 
their masters and their successors in the supreme 
authority over Asia. For example, their “ Persian” 
stolé,! as it is now called, and their zeal for archery 
and horsemanship, and the court they pay to their 
kings, and their ornaments, and the divine reverence 
paid by subjects to kings, came to the Persians from 
the Medes. And that this is true is particularly 
clear from their dress; for tiara,” citaris,? pilus,4 
tunics with sleeves reaching to the hands, and 

3 The royal tiara was high and erect and encircled with a 
diadem, while that of the people was soft and fell over on 
one side. 

8 A kind of Persian head-dress. Aristophanes (Birds 497) 
compares a cock’s comb to it. 

.* A felt skull-cap, like a fez. 



χιτῶνες καὶ avakupides ἐν μὲν τοῖς ψυχροῖς 
τόποις καὶ προσβόύροις, ἐπιτήδειά ἐστι φορήματα, 
οἷοί εἰσιν οἱ Μηδικοί" ἐν δὲ τοῖς νοτίοις ἥκιστα: 
οἱ δὲ Πέρσαι τὴν πλείστην οἴκησιν ἐπὶ τῇ 
ΕὉ ρυθρᾷ θαλάττῃ κέκτηνται, μεσημβρινώτεροι 
καὶ Βαβυλωνίων ὄ ὄντες καὶ Σουσίων" μετὰ δὲ τὴν 
κατάλυσιν τὴν τῶν Μήδων προσεκτήσαντό τινα 
καὶ τῶν προσαπτομένων Μηδίᾳ. ἀλλ’ οὕτως 
ἐφάνη σεμνὰ καὶ τοῦ βασιλικοῦ προσχήματος 
οἰκεῖα τὰ ἔθη τοῖς νικήσασι καὶ! τὰ τῶν νικη- 
θέντων, ὥστ᾽ ἀντὶ γυμνητῶν καὶ ψιλῶν θηλυ- 
στολεῖν ὑπέμειναν, καὶ κατηρεφεῖς εἶναι τοῖς 

10. Τινὲς δὲ Μήδειαν καταδεῖξαι τὴν ἐσθῆτα 
ταύτην φασί, δυναστεύσασαν ἐν τοῖς τόποις, 
καθάπερ καὶ Ἰάσονα, καὶ ἐπικρυπτομένην τὴν 
ὄψιν, ὅτε ἀντὶ τοῦ βασιλέως ἐξίοι" τοῦ μὲν" 
᾿Ιάσονος ὑπομνήματα εἶναι τὰ ᾿Ιασόνια ἡρῷα, 
τιμώμενα σφόδρα ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων (ἔστι δὲ 
καὶ ὄρος μέγα ὑπὲρ τῶν Κασπίων πυχῶν ἐν 
ἀριστερᾷ, καλούμενον ᾿Ιασόνιον), τῆς δὲ Μηδείας 
τὴν ἐσθῆτα καὶ τοὔνομα τῆς χώρας. λέγεται 
δὲ καὶ Μῆδος, υἱὸς αὐτῆς, διαδέξασθαι τὴν ἀρχὴν 
καὶ τὴν χώραν ἐπώνυμον αὑτοῦ καταλιπεῖν. 
ὁμολογεῖ δὲ τούτοις καὶ τὰ κατὰ τὴν ᾿Αρμενίαν 
᾿Ιασόνια καὶ τὸ τῆς χώρας ὄνομα καὶ ἄλλα πλείω, 
περὶ ὧν ἐροῦμεν. 

11. Καὶ τοῦτο δὲ Μηδικόν, τὸ βασιλέα αἱρεῖσθαι 
τὸν ἀνδρειότατον, ἀλλ᾽ οὐ πᾶσιν, ἀλλὰ τοῖς 
ὀρείοις: μᾶλλον δὲ τὸ τοῖς βασιλεῦσι πολλὰς 

1 καί, before τά, oz and Meineke omit. - 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 13. 9-11 

trousers, are indeed suitable things to wear in cold 
and northerly regions, such as the Medes wear, but 
by no means in southerly regions ; and most of the 
settlements possessed by the Persians were on the 
Red Sea, farther south than the country of the Baby- 
lonians and the Susians. But after the overthrow 
of the Medes the Persians acquired in addition 
certain parts of the country that reached to Media. 
However, the customs even of the conquered looked 
to the conquerors so august and appropriate to royal 
pomp that they submitted to wear feminine robes 
instead of going naked or lightly clad, and to cover 
their bodies all over with clothes. 

10. Some say that Medeia introduced this kind 
of dress when she, along with Jason, held dominion 
in this region, even concealing her face whenever 
she went out in public in place of the king; and 
that the Jasonian hero-chapels, which are much 
revered by the barbarians, are memorials of Jason 
(and above the Caspian Gates on the left is a large 
mountain called Jasonium), whereas the dress and 
the name of the country are memorials of Medeia. 
It is said also that Medus her son succeeded to the 
empire and left his own name to the country. In 
agreement with this are the Jasonia of Armenia and 
the name of that country! and several other things 
which I shall discuss. 

11. This, too, is a Medic custom—to choose the 
bravest man as king; not, however, among all 
Medes, but only among the mountaineers. More 
general is the custom for the kings to have many 

1 See 11. 4. 8. 

2 Meineke inserts οὖν after μέν, 


- a lal ΕῚ > / “ , \ 
εἶναι γυναῖκας. τοῖς δ᾽ ὀρείοις τῶν Μήδων καὶ 
πᾶσιν ἔθος τοῦτο, ἐλάττους δὲ τῶν πέντε οὐκ 
ἔξεστιν: ὡς δ᾽ αὕτως τὰς γυναῖκάς φασιν ἐν 
καλῷ τίθεσθαι ὅτι πλείστους νέμειν ἄνδρας," τῶν 
πέντε δὲ ἐλάττους συμφορὰν ἡγεῖσθαι. τῆς δ᾽ 
ἄλλης Μηδίας εὐδαιμονούσης τελέως, λυπρά ἐστιν 
ἡ προσάρκτιος ὀρεινή" σιτοῦνται γοῦν ἀπὸ ἀκρο- 
δρύων, ἔκ τε μήλων ξηρῶν κοπέντων ποιοῦνται 
/ » \ > > 4 / A 
μάζας, ἀπὸ δ᾽ ἀμυγδάλων φωχθέντων ἄρτους, 
> \ c ~ a >, > / / \ 
ἐκ δὲ ῥιζῶν τινῶν οἶνον ἐκθλίβουσι, κρέασι δὲ 
χρῶνται θηρείοις, ἥμερα δὲ οὐ τρέφουσι θρέμ- 
ματα. τοσαῦτα καὶ περὶ Μήδων φαμέν: περὶ 
δὲ τῶν νομίμων Σ κοινῇ τῆς συμπάσης Μηδίας, 
: \ 2 \ 3 a Il a / ὃ \ \ 
ἐπειδὴ ταὐτὰ 3 τοῖς ἹΠερσικοῖς γεγένηται διὰ τὴν 
τῶν Περσῶν ἐπικράτειαν, ἐν τῷ περὶ ἐκείνων 
λόγῳ φήσομεν." 


1. Τῆς δ᾽ ᾿Αρμενίας τὰ μὲν νότια προβέβληται 
τὸν Ταῦρον, διείργοντα αὐτὴν ἀφ᾽ ὅλης τῆς μεταξὺ 
Εὐφράτου καὶ τοῦ Τίγριος, ἣν Μεσοποταμίαν 
καλοῦσι, τὰ δὲ ἑωθινὰ τῇ Μηδίᾳ συνάπτει τῇ 
μεγάλῃ καὶ τῇ ᾿Ατροπατηνῇ: προσάρκτια δέ 

1 ὅτι πλείστας νέμειν τοὺς ἄνδρας Groskurd, and so Meineke, 
omitting the τούς ; Kramer conj. ὅτι πλείστας ἔχοντας νέμειν 
ἄνδρας (see Kramer’s note, and C. Miiller’s Ind. Var. Lect. 
p. 1018). 

2 νομίμων margin of x and the editors, for νομαδικῶν. 

8 ταὐτά, Corais, for ταῦτα ; so the later editors. 

4 φήσομεν, Casaubon, for θήσομεν ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 13. 11-14. 1 

wives; this is the custom of the mountaineers of the 
Medes, and all Medes, and they are not permitted to 
have less than five; likewise, the women are said 
to account it an honourable thing to have as many 
husbands as possible and to consider less than five 
a calamity.1 But though the rest of Media is 
extremely fertile, the northerly mountainous part 
has poor soil; at any rate, the people live on the 
fruits of trees, making cakes out of apples that are 
sliced and dried, and bread from roasted almonds ; 
and they squeeze out a wine from certain roots ; and 
they use the meat of wild animals, but do not breed 
tame animals. Thus much I add concerning the 
Medes. As for the institutions in common use 
throughout the whole of Media, since they prove to 
have been the same as those of the Persians because 
of the conquest of the Persians, I shall discuss them 
in my account of the latter. 


1. As for Armenia, the southern parts of it have 
the Taurus situated in front of them,? which sepa- 
rates it from the whole of the country between the 
Euphrates and the Tigris, the country called 
Mesopotamia; and the eastern parts border on 
Greater Armenia and Atropatené; and on the north 

1 So the Greek ofall MSS. ; but the editors since Du Theil 
regard the Greck text as corrupt, assuming that the women 
in question did not have plural husbands. Accordingly, 
some emend the text to make it say, ‘‘ for their husbands to 
have as many wives as possible and consider less than five a 
calamity ” (see critical note). 

2 The Greek implies that Armenia is protected on the south 
by the Taurus. 



ἐστι τὰ ὑπερκείμενα τῆς Κασπίας θαλάττης ὄρη 
τὰ τοῦ Παραχοάθρα καὶ ᾿Αλβανοὶ καὶ Ἴβηρες 
καὶ ὁ Καύκασος ἐγκυκλούμενος τὰ ἔθνη ταῦτα 
καὶ συνάπτων τοῖς ᾿Αρμενίοις, συνάπτων δὲ καὶ 
τοῖς Μοσχικοῖς ὄρεσι καὶ Κολχικοῖς μέχρι τῶν 
καλουμένων Τιβαρανῶν' ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ἘΡΠΈΗΠΕ 
ταῦτα ἐστι τὰ ἔθνη καὶ ὁ Παρυάδρης ' καὶ ὁ 
Σκυδίσης μέχρι τῆς ,μικρᾶς ᾿Αρμενίας καὶ τῆς 
τοῦ Εὐφράτου ποταμίας, ἣ διείργει τὴν ᾿Αρμενίαν 
ἀπὸ τῆς Καππαδοκίας καὶ τῆς Κομμαγηνῆς. 

2. ‘O yap Εὐφράτης ἀπὸ τῆς βορείου πλευρᾶς 
τοῦ Ταύρου τὰς ἀρχὰς ἔχων τὸ μὲν πρῶτον ῥεῖ 
πρὸς δύσιν διὰ τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας, εἶτ᾽ ἐπιστρέφει 
πρὸς νότον καὶ διακόπτει τὸν Tavpov μεταξὺ τῶν 
᾿Αρμενίων τε καὶ Καππαδόκων καὶ Κομμαγηνῶν, 
ἐκπεσὼν δ᾽ ἔξω καὶ γενόμενος κατὰ τὴν Συρίαν 
ἐπιστρέφει πρὸς χειμερινὰς ἀνατολὰς μέχρι Βαβυ- 
λῶνος καὶ ποιεῖ τὴν Μεσοποταμίαν πρὸς τὸν 
Τίγριν' ἀμφότεροι δὲ τελευτῶσιν εἰς τὸν Περσικὸν 
κόλπον. τὰ μὲν δὴ κύκλῳ τοιαῦτα, ὀρεινὰ σχεδόν 
τι πάντα καὶ τραχέα, πλὴν τῶν πρὸς τὴν Μηδίαν 
κεκλιμένων ὀλίγων. πάλιν δὲ τοῦ λεχθέντος 
Ταύρου τὴν ἀρχὴν λαμβάνοντος απὸ τῆς περαίας 
τῶν Κομμα γηνῶν καὶ τῶν Μελετηνῶν, ἣν ὁ 
Βὐφράτης ποιεῖ, Μάσιον μέν ἐστι τὸ ὑπερκείμενον 
ὄρος τῶν ἐν τῇ Μεσοποταμίᾳ Μυγδόνων ἐ ἐκ νότου, 
ἐν οἷς ἡ ee ἐστιν" ἐκ δὲ τῶν πρὸς ἄρκτον > 
μερῶν ἡ 3 Σωφηνὴ κεῖται μεταξὺ τοῦ τε Μασίου 
καὶ τοῦ ᾿Αντιταύρου. οὗτος δ᾽ ἀπὸ τοῦ ὐφράτου 

1 Ὁ Baas is the reading of the MSS. 

2 πρὺς ἄρκτον, Kramer, for πρὺς ἄρκτων Τὶ, προσάρκτων other 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 14. 1-2 

are the mountains of Parachoathras that lie above the 
Caspian Sea, and Albania, and Iberia, and the 
Caucasus, which last encircles these nations and 
borders on Armenia, and borders also on _ the 
Moschian and Colchian mountains as far as the 
Tibarani, as they are called; and on the west are 
these nations and the mountains Paryadres and 
Scydises in their extent to Lesser Armenia and the 
river-land of the Euphrates, which latter separates 
Armenia from Cappadocia and Commagené, 

2. For the Euphrates, having its beginnings on the 
northern side of the Taurus, flows at first towards 
the west through Armenia, and then bends towards 
the south and cuts through the Taurus between 
Armenia, Cappadocia, and Commagené, and then, 
after falling outside the Taurus and reaching the 
borders of Syria, it bends towards the winter-sun- 
rise} as far as Babylon, and with the Tigris forms 
Mesopotamia; and both rivers end in the Persian 
Gulf. Such, then, is our circuit of Armenia, almost 
all parts being mountainous and rugged, except the 
few which verge towards Media. But since the 
above-mentioned Taurus? takes a new beginning 
on the far side of the Euphrates opposite Commagené 
and Melitené, countries formed by that river, Mt. 
Masius is the mountain which lies above the 
Mygdonians of Mesopotamia on the south, in whose 
country is Nisibis, whereas Sophené is situated in 
the northern parts, between Masius and Antitaurus. 
The Antitaurus takes its beginning at the Euphrates 

1 See Vol. I, p. 105, note 2. 
3 (Oar, We Wee 4. 

3 ἡ xz and the editors insert. 



Kal τοῦ Ταύρου τὴν ἀρχὴν λαβὼν τελευτᾷ πρὸς 
τὰ ἑῷα τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας, ἀπολαμβάνων μέσην τὴν 
Σωφηνήν, ἐκ θατέρου δὲ μέρους ἔχων τὴν ᾿Ακιλι- 
σηνὴν μεταξὺ ἱδρυμένην τοῦ ee τε καὶ 
τῆς ον Εὐφράτου ποταμίας," πρὶν ἢ κάμπτειν 
αὐτὴν 3 ἐπὶ νότον. βασίλειον δὲ τῆς Σωφηνῆς 
Καρκαθιόκερτα. τοῦ δὲ Μασίου ὑπέρκειται πρὸς 
ἕω πολὺ κατὰ τὴν Γορδυηνὴν 4 ὁ] Νιφάτης, εἶθ᾽ ὁ 
ἼΑβος, ἀφ᾽ οὗ καὶ ὁ “Εὐφράτης ῥεῖ καὶ ὁ ᾿Αράξης, 
ὁ μὲν πρὸς δύσιν, ὁ δὲ πρὸς ἀνατολάς" εἶθ᾽ ὁ 
Νίβαρος μέχρι τῆς Μηδίας παρατείνει. 

3. ‘O μὲν οὖν Εὐφράτης εἴρηται ὃν τρόπον 
ῥεῖ" ὁ δὲ ᾿Αράξης, πρὸς τὰς ἀνατολὰς ἐνεχθεὶς 
μέχρι τῆς ᾿Ατροπατηνῆς, κάμπτει πρὸς δύσιν καὶ 
πρὸς ἄρκτους καὶ παραρρεῖ τὰϑ ᾿Αξαρα πρῶτον, 
εἶτ᾽ ᾿Αρτάξατα, πόλεις ᾿Αρμενίων" ἔπειτα διὰ 
τοῦ ᾿Αραξηνοῦ πεδίου πρὸς τὸ Κάσπιον ἐκδίδωσι 

C528 4. ᾿Εν αὐτῇ δὲ τῇ ᾿Αρμενίᾳ πολλὰ μὲν ὄρη, 
πολλὰ δὲ ὀροπέδια, ἐν οἷς οὐδ᾽ ἄμπελος φύεται 
ῥᾳδίως, πολλοὶ δ᾽ αὐλῶνες, οἱ μὲν μέσως, οἱ δὲ 
καὶ σφόδρα εὐδαίμονες, καθάπερ τὸ ᾿Αραξηνὸν 
πεδίον, δι’ οὗ ὁ ᾿ΔΑράξης ποταμὸς ῥέων εἰς τὰ 
ἄκρα τῆς ᾿Αλβανίας καὶ τὴν Κασπίαν ἐκπέπτει 
θάλασσαν. καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα ἡ Σακασηνή, καὶ 
αὐτὴ τῇ ᾿Αλβανία πρόσχωρος καὶ τῷ Κύρῳ 
ποταμῷ, εἶθ᾽ ἡ Γωγαρηνή πᾶσα γὰρ ἡ χώρα 

1 »Αντιταύρου, Du Theil, for Ταύρου ; so Casaubon and C. 

2 ποταμίας, Corais from conj. of Salmasius, for μεσοπο- 
ταμίας ; so the later editors. 

3 xz, Tzschucke, and Corais read αὐτόν, 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 14. 2-4 

and the Taurus and ends towards the eastern parts 
of Armenia, thus on one 5146 1 enclosing the middle 
of Sophené,? and having on its other side Acilisené, 
which is situated between the Antitaurus*? and the 
river-land* of the Euphrates, before that river 
bends towards the south. The royal city of Sophené 
is Careathiocerta. Above Mt. Masius, far towards 
the east opposite Gordyené, lies Mt. Niphates; and 
then comes Mt. Abus, whence flow both the Euphrates 
and the Araxes, the former towards the west and 
the latter towards the east; and then Mt. Nibarus, 
which stretches as far as Media. 

3. I have already described the course of the 
Euphrates. As for the Araxes, it first flows towards 
the east as far as Atropatené, and then bends to- 
wards the west and towards the north and flows 
first past Azara and then past Artaxata, Armenian 
cities, and then, passing through the Araxene Plain, 
empties into the Caspian Sea. 

4. In Armenia itself there are many mountains 
and many plateaus, in which not even the vine can 
easily grow; and also many valleys, some only 
moderately fertile, others very fertile, for instance, 
the Araxene Plain, through which the Araxes River 
flows to the extremities of Albania and then empties 
into the Caspian Sea. After these comes Sacasené, 
this too bordering on Albania and the Cyrus River ; 
and then comes Gogarené. Indeed, the whole of 

1 See critical note. 

2 i.e. ‘enclosing Sophené in a valley between itself (the 
Antitaurus) and the Taurus” (11. 12. 4). 

3 See critical note. 4 See critical note. 

* Τορδυηνήν, Corais, for Γορδυληνήν EH, Γοργοδιλήν 2, Γοργοδυ- 
ληνήν other MSS. 5 τά, the editors, for τήν. 


αὕτη καρποῖς τε καὶ τοῖς ἡμέροις δένδρεσι καὶ 
τοῖς ἀειθαλέσι πληθύει, φέρει δὲ καὶ ἐλαίαν. 
ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἡ Φαυηνὴ * τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας ἐπαρχία 
καὶ ἡ Κωμισηνὴ καὶ ᾿Ορχιστηνή, πλείστην ἱπ- 
πείαν παρέχουσα" ἡ δὲ Χορξηνὴ καὶ Καμβυσηνὴ 
προσβορώταταί εἰσι καὶ νιφόβολοι μάλιστα, 
συνάπτουσαι τοῖς Καυκασίοις ὄρεσι καὶ τῇ 
᾿Ιβηρίᾳ καὶ τῇ Κολχίδι: ὅπου φασὶ κατὰ τὰς 
ὑπερβολὰς τῶν ὀρῶν πολλάκις καὶ συνοδίας 
ὅλας * ἐν τῇ χιόνι καταπίνεσθαι νιφετῶν γινο- 
μένων ἐπὶ πλέον" ἔχειν δὲ καὶ βακτηρίας πρὸς 
τοὺς τοιούτους κινδύνους 3 “παρεξαίροντας εἰς τὴν 
ἐπιφάνειαν ἀναπνοῆς τε χάριν καὶ τοῦ διαμηνύειν 
τοῖς ἐπιοῦσιν, ὥστε βοηθείας τυγχάνειν, ἀνορύτ- 
τεσθαι καὶ σώξεσθαι. ἐν δὲ τῇ χιόνι βώλους 
πήγνυσθαί φασι κοίλας περιεχούσας χρηστὸν 
ὕδωρ ὡς ἐν χιτῶνι, καὶ ζῷα δὲ ἐν αὐτῇ γεννᾶσθαι" 
καλεῖ δὲ σκώληκας ᾿Απολλωνίδης, Θεοφάνης δὲ 
θρῖπας" κἀν τούτοις ἀπολαμβάνεσθαι χρηστὸν 
ὕδωρ, περισχισθέντων ὅ δὲ τῶν χιτώνων πίνεσθαι" 
τὴν δὲ γένεσιν τῶν ξῴων τοιαύτην. εἰκάζουσιν, 
οἵαν τὴν τῶν κωνώπων ἐκ τῆς ἐν τοῖς μετάλλοις 
φλογὸς καὶ τοῦ φεψάλου 5 

5. Ἱστοροῦσι δὲ τὴν ᾿Αρμενίαν, μικρὰν πρό- 
τερον οὖσαν, αὐξηθῆναι διὰ τῶν περὶ ᾿Αρταξίαν 
καὶ Ζαρίαδριν, οἱ πρότερον μὲν ἦσαν ᾿Αντιόχου 

1 Φανηνή (Φανηνή ΟΥ̓2) seems corrupt; perhaps Φαυνηνή 
(Izschucke, Corais) is right (ep. Φαυνῖτις below), if not 
Φασιανή (see Kramer’s note). 

2 The words τῶν ὁρῶν after ὅλας are omitted by gry and 
Corais. Strabo probably wrote ἐμπόρων (conj. of Corais) or 

ὁδοιπόρων (conj. of Meineke). 
3 Meineke inserts és after κινδύνους. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 14. 4-5 

this country abounds in fruits and cultivated trees 
and evergreens, and even bears the olive. There is 
also Phauené, a province of Armenia, and Comisené, 
and Orchistené, which last furnishes the most cavalry. 
Chorzené and Cambysené are the most northerly and 
the most subject to snows, bordering on the Cauca- 
sian mountains and Iberia and Colchis. It is said 
that here, on the passes over the mountains, whole 
caravans are often swallowed up in the snow when 
unusually violent snowstorms take place, and that 
to meet such dangers people carry staves, which 
they raise to the surface of the snow in order to get 
air to breathe and to signify their plight to people 
who come along, so as to obtain assistance, be dug 
out, and safely escape. It is said that hollow masses 
of ice form in the snow which contain good water, 
in a coat of ice as it were; and also that living 
creatures breed in the snow (Apollonides? calls 
these creatures ‘“scoleces’’* and Theophanes + 
“thripes’’®); and that good water is enclosed in 
these hollow masses which people obtain for drink- 
ing by slitting open the coats of ice; and the 
genesis of these creatures is supposed to be like that 
of the gnats which spring from the flames and 
sparks at mines. 

5. According to report, Armenia, though a small 
country in earlier times, was enlarged by Artaxias 
and Zariadris, who formerly were generals of 

1 See critical note. 2 See Vol. III, p. 234, foot-note 2. 
3 ἐς Worms” or ‘‘ larvae.” 4 See foot-note on 1]. 2. 2. 
W ood-worms. 


4 περισχισθέντων Ἰὰ Epit., περισχεθέντων other MSS, 
δ φεψάλου KE Epit., πετάλλου Dh, πετάλου other MSS. 
Zaptadpw, Tyrwhitt, for Ζαριάδην ; so the later editors. 


C 529 


TOU μεγάλου στρατηγοί, βασιλεύσαντες δ᾽ ὕστε- 
ρον μετὰ τὴν ἐκείνου ἧτταν, ὁ μὲν τῆς Σωφηνῆς 
καὶ τῆς ᾿Ακισηνῆς " καὶ ᾿Οδομαντίδος καὶ ἄλλων 
τινῶν, ὁ δὲ τῆς περὶ ᾿Αρτάξατα, συνηύξησαν, ἐκ 
τῶν περικειμένων ἐθνῶν ἀποτεμόμενοι μέρη, ἐκ 
Μήδων μὲν τήν τε Κασπιανὴν καὶ Φαυνῖτιν καὶ 
Βασοροπέδαν, ᾿Ιβήρων δὲ τήν τε παρώρειαν τοῦ 
Παρυάδρου 2 καὶ τὴν Χορζηνὴν 3 καὶ Γωγαρηνήν, 

, = a ΄ Υ ΄ \ \ 
πέραν οὖσαν τοῦ Κύρου, Χαλύβων δὲ καὶ Μοσυ- 
νοίκων Καρηνῖτιν 4 καὶ Ξερξηνήν, ἃ τῇ μικρᾷ 
᾿Αρμενίᾳ ἐστὶν ὅμορα ἢ καὶ μέρη αὐτῆς ἐστί, 
Καταόνων δὲ ᾿Ακιλισηνὴν ὃ καὶ τὴν περὶ τὸν 
᾿Αντίταυρον, Σύρων δὲ Ταρωνῖτιν,, ὥστε πάντας 
ὁμογλώττους εἶναι. 

6. Πόλεις δ᾽ ἐστὶ τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας ᾿Αρτάξατά τε, 
ἃ ν 2 ΄ a > ῃ , 
ἣν καὶ Apragtacata καλοῦσιν, Αννίβα κτίσαν- 
τος ᾿Αρταξίᾳ τῷ βασιλεῖ, καὶ "Ἄρξατα, ἀμφό- 
τεραι ἐπὶ τῷ ᾿Αράξῃ, i bev "ApEata πρὸς τοῖς 
ὅροις τῆς ᾿Ατροπατίας,ἢ ἡ δὲ ᾿Αρτάξατα πρὸς τῷ 
᾿Αραξηνῷ * πεδίῳ, συνῳκισμένη καλῶς καὶ βασί- 
λείον οὖσα τῆς χώρας. κεῖται δ᾽ ἐπὶ χερρονησιά- 
ζοντος ἀγκῶνος, τὸ τεῖχος κύκλῳ προβεβλημένον 
τὸν ποταμὸν πλὴν τοῦ ἰσθμοῦ, τὸν ἰσθμὸν δ᾽ ἔχει 
τάφρῳ καὶ χάρακι κεκλεισμένον. οὐ πολὺ δ᾽ 

1 ΣΑκισηνῆς (Ακιλισηνῆς editors before Kramer) is very 
doubtful (see Kramer’s note). 

2 Παρυάδρου, Xylander, for Παιάδρου ; so the later editors. 

3 Χορζηνήν, Xylander, for Χορζονήν ; ; so the later editors, 

+ Καρηνῖτιν, Kramer, for Καρηνίτην ; so the later editors. 

5 ΞΑκιλισηνήν, Vzschucke, for ᾿Ακλισιηνήν ; so the later 
editors. : 

6 Ταρωνῖτιν, Kramer, for Ταμωνῖτις ; so the later editors. 

7 ᾿Ατροπατίας. the editors, for ᾿Ατροπάτης C, ᾿Ατροπάτας 
other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 14. 5-6 

Antiochus the Great,! but later, after his defeat, 
reigned as kings (the former as king of Sophené, 
Acisené, Odomantis, and certain other countries, 
and the latter as king of the country round 
Artaxata), and jointly enlarged their kingdoms by 
cutting off for themselves parts of the surrounding 
nations,—I mean by cutting off Caspiané and Phau- 
nitis and Basoropeda from the country of the 
Medes; and the country along the side of Mt. 
Paryadres and Chorzené and Gogarené, which last 
is on the far side of the Cyrus River, from that 
of the Iberians ; and Carenitis and Xerxené, which 
border on Lesser Armenia or else are parts of it, 
from that of the Chalybians and the Mosynoeci; and 
Acilisené and the country round the Antitaurus 
from that of the Cataonians; and Taronitis from 
that of the Syrians; and therefore they all speak 
the same language, as we are told. 

6. The cities of Armenia are Artaxata, also called 
Artaxiasata, which was founded by Hannibal? for 
Artaxias the king,and Arxata, both on the Araxes 
River, Arxata being near the borders of Atropatia, 
whereas Artaxata is near the Araxene plain, being 
a beautiful settlement and the royal residence of 
the country. It is situated on a_peninsula-like 
elbow of land and its walls have the river as_ pro- 
tection all round them, except at the isthmus, 
which is enclosed by a trench and a palisade. Not 

1 Reigned as king of Syria 223-187 B.c. 
2 The Carthaginian. 

8 *Apatnryg, Tzschucke, for ᾿Αρταξενῷ Dh, ᾿Αρταξηνῷ other 
MSS. ; so the later editors. 



ἄπωθέν ἐστι τῆς πόλεως τὰ Τιγράνου καὶ 
᾿Αρταουάσδου γαζοφυλάκια, φρούρια ἐρυμνά, 
Βάβυρσά τε καὶ ᾿Ολανή: ἣν δὲ καὶ ἄλλα ἐπὶ 
τῷ Εὐφράτῃ. ᾿Αρταγήρας" δὲ ἀπέστησε μὲν 
᾿Αδὼρ 3 ὁ φρούραρχος, ἐξεῖλον δ᾽ οἱ Καίσαρος 
στρατηγοί, πολιορκήσαντες πολὺν χρόνον, καὶ τὰ 
τείχη περιεῖλον. 

7 Ποταμοὶ δὲ πλείους μέν εἰσιν ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ, 
γνωριμώτατοι δὲ Φᾶσις μὲν καὶ Λύκος εἰς τὴν 
Ποντικὴν ἐκπίπτοντες θάλατταν ([Ερατοσθένης 
δ᾽ ἀντὶ τοῦ Λύκου τίθησι Θερμώδοντα οὐκ εὖ), 
εἰς δὲ τὴν Κασπίαν Κῦρος καὶ ᾿Αράξης, εἰς δὲ 
τὴν ᾿ΒΕρυθρὰν 6 τε Εὐφράτης καὶ ὁ Τίγρις. 

8. Εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ λίμναι κατὰ τὴν ᾿Αρμενίαν 
μεγάλαι, μία μὲν ἡ Μαντιανή, Κυανῆ ἑρμη- 
νευθεῖσα, μεγίστη, ὥς φασι, μετὰ τὴν Μαιῶτιν, 
ἁλμυροῦ ὕδατος, διήκουσα μέχρι τῆς ᾿Ατροπατίας, 
ἔχουσα καὶ ἁλοπήγια: ἡ δὲ ᾿Αρσηνή, ἣν καὶ 
Θωπῖτιν ὅ καλοῦσιν: ἔστι δὲ νιτρῖτις, τὰς δ᾽ 
ἐσθῆτας ῥύπτειδ καὶ διαξαίνει: διὰ δὲ τοῦτο 
καὶ ἄποτόν ἐστι τὸ ὕδωρ. φέρεται δὲ δι’ αὐτῆς 

1 ἐπί, after πόλεως, Meineke omits; the editors before 
Kramer emended it to καί. 

_? Meineke emends ᾿Αρταγήρας to ᾿Αρτάγειρα, perhaps 
rg [. 

ce Misinbks emends ᾿Αδώρ to Αδων, perhaps rightly. 

Κυανῇ E, Kvaveavy other MSS. 

> Θωπῖτιν, Kramer, for Θωῆτιν ; so the later editors. 

8 ῥύπτει (ῥήπτει C, ῥύττει m), Eustathius, for ῥήττει ; so 
Xylander (cp. 11. 13. 2). 

"»" ὦ 

1 Father and son respectively, kings of Armenia. 

2 See critical note. 3 See critical note. 

4 Mantiané (apparently the word should be spelled 
““Matiané”; see 1]. 8. 8 and 11. 13. 2) is the lake called 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 14. 6-8 

far from the city are the treasuries of Tigranes and 
Artavasdes,! the strong fortresses Babyrsa and 
Olané. And there were other fortresses on the 
Euphrates. Of these, Artageras? was caused to 
revolt by Ador,? its commandant, but Caesar's 
generals sacked it after a long siege and destroyed 
its walls. 

7. There are several rivers in the country, but 
the best known are the Phasis and the Lycus, 
which empty into the Pontic Sea (Eratosthenes 
wrongly writes “'Thermodon”’ instead of “ Lycus’’), 
whereas the Cyrus and the Araxes empty into the 
Caspian Sea, and the Euphrates and the Tigris into 
the Red Sea. 

8. There are also large lakes in Armenia; one 
the Mantiané, which being translated means 
“Blue” ;4 it is the largest salt-water lake after 
Lake Maeotis, as they say, extending as far as 
Atropatia ; and it also has salt-works, Another is 
Arsené, also called Thopitis.®° It contains soda,® and 
it cleanses and restores clothes;? but because of 
this ingredient the water is also unfit for drinking. 

“‘Capauta” in 11. 13. 2, Capauta meaning ‘‘ Blue” and 
corresponding to the old Armenian name Kapoit-azow (Blue 
Lake), according to Tozer (note ad loc.), quoting Kiepert. 

5 On the position of this lake see Tozer (note ad Joc.). 

ὁ The Greek word ‘‘ nitron” means ‘‘ soda” (carbonate of 
soda, our washing soda), and should not be confused with 
our ‘‘nitre” (potassium nitrate), nor yet translated ‘‘ pot- 
ash” (potassium carbonate). Southgate (Narrative of a Tour 
through Armenia, Kurdistan, etc., Vol. 11, p. 306, Eng. ed.) 
says that ‘‘a chemical analysis of a specimen shows it to be 
alkaline salts, composed chiefly of carbonate of soda and 
chloride” (chlorite in Tozer is a typographical error) “ of 
sodium ” (salt). 

7 See 11.13. 2 


ὁ Τίγρις ἀπὸ τῆς Kata τὸν Νιφάτην ὀρεινῆς 
ὁρμηθείς, ἄμικτον φυλάττων τὸ ῥεῦμα διὰ τὴν 
ὀξύτητα, ἀφ᾽ οὗ καὶ τοὔνομα, Μήδων τίγριν 
καλούντων τὸ τόξευμα: καὶ οὗτος μὲν ἔχει TOAVEL- 
δεῖς ἰχθῦς, οἱ δὲ λιμναῖοι ἑνὸς εἴδους εἰσί: κατὰ 
δὲ τὸν μυχὸν τῆς λίμνης εἰς βάραθρον ἐμπεσὼν 
ὁ ποταμὸς καὶ πολὺν τόπον ἐνεχθεὶς ὑπὸ γῆς 
ἀνατέλλει κατὰ τὴν Χαλωνῖτιν' ἐκεῖθεν δ᾽ ἤδη 
πρὸς τὴν Ὦπιν καὶ τὸ τῆς Σεμιράμιδος καλού- 
μενον διατείχισμα ἐκεῖνός τε καταφέρεται, τοὺς 
Γορδυαίους ἐν δεξιᾷ ἀφεὶς καὶ τὴν Μεσοποταμίαν 
ὅλην, καὶ ὁ Εὐφράτης τοὐναντίον ἐν ἀριστερᾷ 
ἔχων τὴν αὐτὴν χώραν" πλησιάσαντες δὲ ἀλλή- 
λοις καὶ ποιήσαντες τὴν Μεσοποταμίαν, ὁ μὲν 
διὰ Σελευκείας φέρεται πρὸς τὸν Περσικὸν κόλ- 
πον, ὁ δὲ διὰ Βαβυλῶνος, καθάπερ εἴρηταί που 
ἐν τοῖς πρὸς ᾿Ερατοσθένην καὶ Ἵππαρχον λόγοις. 

sp Μέταλλα δ᾽ ἐν μὲν τῇ Συσπιρίτιδί * ἐστι 
χρυσοῦ κατὰ τὰ Κάβαλλα, ἐφ᾽ ἃ Μένωνα ἔπεμ- 
ψεν ᾿Αλέξανδρος μετὰ στρατιωτῶν, ἀνήχθη " δ᾽ 
ὑπὸ τῶν ἐγχωρίων' καὶ ἄλλα δ᾽ ἐστὶ “μέταλλα, 
καὶ δὴ 3 τῆς σάνδυκος καλουμένης, ἣν δὴ καὶ 
᾿Αρμένιον καλοῦσι χρῶμα, ὅμοιον κάλχῃ. οὕτω 
δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἱπποβότος σφόδρα ἡ χώρα, καὶ οὐχ 

1 Συσπιρίτιδί, Groskurd, for “Ὑσπιράτιδι ; so Kramer (see his 
note), Meineke, and C. Miller (ZJnd. Var. Lect. p. 1018). 

2 For ἀνήχθη (ἀνείχθη C), Casaubon conj. ἀνῃρέθη, Tzschucke 
ἀνεδείχθη or ἐδείχθη, Groskurd ἀπήχθη ; Corais reads ἀνεῴχθη 
and Meineke ἀπήγχθη. 

3 δή, Tzschucke and Corais emend to τό. 
4 σάνδυκος, Salmasius, for ὁπάνδικος ; so the later editors. 

1 There must have been a second Chalonitis, one ‘‘ not 
far from Gordyeea” (see 16. 1. 21), as distinguished from 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 14. 8-9 

The Tigris flows through this lake after issuing from 
the mountainous country near the Niphates; and 
because of its swiftness it keeps its current unmixed 
with the lake; whence the name Tigris, since the 
Median word for “arrow” is “tigris.”” And while 
the river has fish of many kinds, the fish in the lake 
are of one kind only. Near the recess of the lake 
the river falls into a pit, and after flowing under- 
ground for a considerable distance rises near 
Chalonitis.1 Thence the river begins to flow down 
towards Opis and the wall of Semiramis, as it is 
called, leaving the Gordiaeans and the whole of 
Mesopotamia on the right, while the Euphrates, 
on the contrary, has the same country on the left. 
Having approached one another and formed Meso- 
potamia, the former flows through Seleuceia to the 
Persian Gulf and the latter through Babylon, as | 
have already said somewhere in my arguments 
against Eratosthenes and Hipparchus.* 

9. There are gold mines in Syspiritis near Caballa, 
to which Menon was sent by Alexander with soldiers, 
and he was led up? to them by the natives. ‘There 
are also other mines, in particular those of sandyx,‘ 
as it is called, which is also called ‘* Armenian” 
colour, like chalcé.5 The country is so very good 
that in eastern Assyria, or else there is an error in the 

Ἀπ Me Palle 

3 «Led up” (or ‘‘inland’”’) seems wrong. The verb has 
been emended to ‘‘destroyed,” ‘‘ imprisoned,” ‘ hanged” 
(Meineke), and other such words, but the translator knows 
of no evidence either to support any one of these emendations 
or to encourage any other, 

4 An earthy ore containing arsenic, which yields a bright 
red colour. 

5 i.e. purple dye. The usual spelling is calché. 


1530 ἧττον τῆς Μηδίας, ὥστε οἱ Νησαῖοι ἵπποι καὶ 
ἐνταῦθα γίνονται, οἷσπερ οἱ [Περσῶν βασιλεῖς 
ἐχρῶντο: καὶ ὁ σατράπης τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας τῷ Πέρδῃ 
κατ᾽ ἔτος δισμυρίους πώλους τοῖς Μιθρακίνοις 5 
ἔπεμπεν. ᾿Αρταουάσδης δὲ ᾿Αντωνίῳ χωρὶς τῆς 
ἄλλης ἱππείας αὐτὴν τὴν κατάφρακτον ἑξακισ- 
χιλίαν ἵππον ἐκτάξας ἐπέδειξεν, ἡνίκα εἰς τὴν 
Μηδίαν ἐνέβαλε σὺν αὐτῷ. ταύτης δὲ τῆς 
ἱππείας οὐ Μῆδοι μόνοι καὶ ᾿Δρμένιοι ζηλωταὶ 
γεγόνασιν, ἀχλὰ καὶ ᾿Αλβανοί, καὶ γὰρ ἐκεῖνοι 
καταφράκτοις χρῶνται. 

10. Tod δὲ πλούτου καὶ τῆς δυνάμεως τῆς 
χώρας σημεῖον οὐ μικρόν, ὅτι ἸΙομπηίου Τιγράνῃ 
τῷ πατρὶ τῷ ᾿Αρταουάσδου τάλαντα ἐπιγράψαν- 
τος ἑξακισχίλια, ἀργυρίου, διένειμεν αὐτίκα ταῖς 
δυνάμεσι τῶν Ρωμαίων, στρατιῶτῃ μὲν κατ᾽ 
ἄνδρα πεντήκοντα δραχμάς," ἑκατοντάρχῃ δὲ 
χιλίας, ἱππάρχῳ 4 δὲ καὶ χιλιάρχῳ τάλαντον. 

11. Μέγεθος δὲ τῆς χώρας Θεοφάνης ἀπο- 
δίδωσιν εὖρος μὲν σχοίνων. ἑκατόν, μῆκος δὲ 
διπλάσιον, τιθεὶς τὴν σχοῖνον τετταράκοντα 
σταδίων" πρὸς ὑπερβολὴν δ᾽ εἴρηκεν" ἐγγυτέρω 
δ᾽ ἐστὶ τῆς ἀληθείας μῆκος μὲν θέσθαι τὸ ὑπ᾽ 
ἐκείνου λεχθὲν εὖρος," εὖρος δὲ τὸ ἥμισυ ἢ μικρῷ 
πλεῖον. ἡ μὲν δὴ φύσις τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας καὶ δύναμις 


1 E has Νισαῖοι. 

2 Miépaxivois, Kramer, for Μιθρακήνοις C, Μιθρακάνοις 
Klorwg, Μιθριακοῖς Corais, Μιθραϊκοῖς Groskurd. 

3 καὶ ἑκατόν, after δραχμάς, Corais would omit; so the later 

4 ἱππάρχῳ, Du Theil, for ἐπάρχῳ ; so the later editors. 
5 εὖρος, Groskurd inserts; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 14. 9-11 
for “ horse-pasturing,” not even inferior to Media,} 
that the Nesaean horses, which were used by the 
Persian kings, are also bred there. The satrap of 
Armenia used to send to the Persian king twenty 
thousand foals every year at the time of the Mithra- 
cina.2. Artavasdes,® at the time when he invaded 
Media with Antony, showed him, apart from the rest 
of the cavalry, six thousand horses drawn up in 
battle array in full armour. Not only the Medes 
and the Armenians pride themselves upon this kind 
of cavalry, but also the Albanians, for they too use 
horses in full armour. 

10. As for the wealth and power of the country, 
the following is no small sign of it, that when 
Pompey imposed upon Tigranes, the father of 
Ariavasdes, a payment of six thousand talents of 
silver, he forthwith distributed to the Roman forces 
as follows: to each soldier fifty drachmas, to each 
centurion a thousand drachmas, and to each _hip- 
parch and chiliarch a talent. 

11. The size of the country is given by Theo- 
phanes:4 the breadth one hundred “ schoeni,” and 
the length twice as much, putting the “schoenus”’ 
at forty stadia;® but his estimate is too high; it 
is nearer the truth to put down as length what he 
gives as breadth, and as breadth the half, or a little 
more, of what he gives as breadth. Such, then, is 
the nature and power of Armenia. 

1 See 11. 13. 7. 

* The annual festival in honour of the Persian Sun-god 

8 See 11. 13. 4. 4 See foot-note on 11. 2. 2. 

5 On the variations in the meaning of ‘‘ schoenus,” see 17. 
1, 24, 


C 531 


’ lo) 

12. ᾿Αρχαιολογία δέ τίς ἐστι περὶ τοῦ ἔθνους 

r 4 Uy ᾽ 
τοῦδε τοιαύτη" ᾿Άρμενος ἐξ Δρμενίου, πόλεως 
Θετταλικῆς, i) κεῖται μεταξὺ Φερῶν καὶ Λαρίσης 
ἐπὶ τῇ Βοίβῃ, καθάπερ εἴρηται, συνεστράτευσεν 
᾿Ιάώσονι εἰς τὴν ᾿Αρμενίαν: τούτου φασὶν ἐπώνυ- 
μον τὴν ᾿ΔΑρμενίαν οἱ περὶ Κυρσίλον τὸν 
Φαρσάλιον καὶ Μήδιον τὸν Λαρισαῖον, ἄνδρες 

/ , lal rn 
συνεστρατευκότες ᾿Αλεξάνδρῳ, τῶν δὲ μετὰ τοῦ 
᾿Αρμένου τοὺς μὲν τὴν ᾿Ακιλισηνὴν οἰκῆσαι τὴν 
ὑπὸ τοῖς Σωφηνοῖς πρότερον ovaav, τοὺς δὲ ἐν TH 
Ὑπὸ / ὃ “ fol K “ \ fal ey e 
Συσπιρίτιδι ἕως τῆς Καλαχηνῆς καὶ τῆς ᾿Αδια- 
βηνῆς ἔξω τῶν ᾿Αρμενιακῶν ὅρων. καὶ τὴν 
>? fol \ “ J \ / 
ἐσθῆτα δὲ τῆν ᾿Αρμενιακὴν Θετταλικήν φασιν, 
οἷον τοὺς βαθεῖς χιτῶνας, ous καλοῦσι Θετταλε- 
κοὺς 2 ἐν ταῖς τραγῳδίαις, καὶ ζωννύουσι περὶ τὰ 
στήθη, καὶ ἐφαπτίδας, ὡς καὶ τῶν τραγῳδῶν 
μιμησαμένων τοὺς Θετταλούς, ἔδει μὲν γὰρ 
“ / 
αὐτοῖς ἐπιθέτου κόσμου τοιούτου τινός, οἱ δὲ 
Θετταλοὶ μάλιστα βαθυστολοῦντες, ὡς εἰκός, διὰ 
τὸ πάντων εἶναι ᾿Ἑλλήνων βορειοτάτους καὶ 
ψυχροτάτους νέμεσθαι τόπους ἐπιτηδειοτάτην 
παρέσχοντο μίμησιν τῇ τῶν ὑποκριτῶν διασκευῇ * 
ἐν τοῖς ἀναπλάσμασιν: καὶ τὸν τῆς ἱππικῆς 
ζῆλόν φασιν εἶναι Θετταλικὸν καὶ τούτοις ὁμοίως 
καὶ Μήδοις: τὴν δὲ ᾿Ιάσονος στρατείαν καὶ τὰ 
᾿Ιασόνια μαρτυρεῖ, ὧν τινὰ οἱ δυνάσται κατε- 
/, 4 ΄ “ Ν > 3 / 

oxevacay* παραπλησίως ὥσπερ Tov ἐν ᾿Αβδήροις 
νεὼν τοῦ ᾿Ιάσονος Παρμενίων. 

1 ὅρων, Xylander, for ὀρῶν ; so the later editors. 

2 Θετταλικούς, Corais from conj. of Du Theil, for Αἰτω- 
λικούς ; 5 80 the later editors. 

3 qf... διασκενῇ, Kramer, for τήν... , διασκευήν, 
omitting δέ after διασκευῇ ; 80 the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 14. 12 

12. There is an ancient story of the Armenian 
race to this effect: that Armenus of Armenium, a 
Thessalian city, which lies between Pherae and 
Larisa on Lake Boebe, as I have already said,} 
accompanied Jason into Armenia; and Cyrsilus the 
Pharsalian and Medius the Larisaean, who accom- 
panied Alexander, say that Armenia was named 
after him, and that, of the followers of Armenus, 
some took up their abode in Acilisené, which in 
earlier times was subject to the Sopheni, whereas 
others took up their abode in Syspiritis, as far as 
Calachené and Adiabené, outside the Armenian 
mountains. ‘They also say that the clothing of the 
Armenians is Thessalian, for example, the long 
tunics, which in tragedies are called Thessalian and 
are girded round the breast; and also the cloaks 
that are fastened on with clasps, another way in 
which the tragedians imitated the Thessalians, for 
the tragedians had to have some alien decoration 
of this kind; and since the Thessalians in particular 
wore long robes, probably because they of all the 
Greeks lived in the most northerly and coldest 
region, they were the most suitable objects of 
imitation for actors in their theatrical make-ups. 
And they say that their style of horsemanship is 
Thessalian, both theirs and alike that of the Medes. 
To this the expedition of Jason and the Jasonian 
monuments bear witness, some of which were built 
by the sovereigns of the country, just as the temple 
of Jason at Abdera was built by Parmenion. 

UN, aks tek 

4 κατεσκεύασαν, Casaubon, for κατέσκαψαν ; so the later 



13. Tov δὲ ᾿Αράξην κληθῆναι νομίζουσι, κατὰ 
τὴν ὁμοιότητα τὴν πρὸς τὸν Πηνειὸν ὑπὸ τῶν 
περὶ τὸν "A ppevov ὁμωνύμως ἐκείνῳ, καλεῖσθαι 
γὰρ ᾿Αράξην κἀκεῖνον διὰ τὸ ἀπαράξαι τὴν 
Ὄσσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ ᾽Ολύμπου, ῥήξαντα τὰ Τέμπη: 
καὶ τὸν ἐν ᾿Αρμενίᾳ δέ, ἀπὸ τῶν ὀρῶν κατα- 
βάντα, πλατύνεσθαί φασι τὸ παλαιὸν καὶ πελα- 
γίζειν ἐν τοῖς ὑποκειμένοις πεδίοις, οὐκ ἔχοντα 
διέξοδον, ᾿Ιάσονα δέ, μιμησάμενον τὰ Ἱέμπη, 
ποιῆσαι τὴν διασφάγα δι’ ἧς καταράττει νυνὶ 
τὸ ὕδωρ εἰς τὴν Κασπίαν θάλατταν, ἐκ δὲ 
τούτου γυμνωθῆναι τὸ ᾿Αραξηνὸν πεδίον, δι οὗ 
τυγχάνει ἱ p ῥέων ἐπὶ τὸν καταράκτην ὁ ποταμός. 
οὗτος μὲν οὖν ὁ λόγος περὶ τοῦ ᾿Αράξου ποταμοῦ 
λεγόμενος ἔχει τι πιθανόν, ὁ δὲ ᾿Ἡροδότειος οὐ 
πάνυ, φησὶ γὰρ ἐκ Ματιηνῶν αὐτὸν ῥέοντα εἰς 
τετταράκοντα ποταμοὺς σχίξεσθαι, μερίξειν δὲ 
Σκύθας καὶ Βακτριανούς: καὶ Καλλισθένης δὲ 
ἠκολούθησεν αὐτῷ. 

14. Λέγονται δὲ καὶ τῶν Αἰνιάνων τινές, οἱ μὲν 
τὴν Οὐιτίαν οἰκῆσαι, οἱ δ᾽ ὕπερθε τῶν ᾿Αρμενίων 
ὑπὲρ τὸν Αβον καὶ τὸν NiBapov.? μέρη δ᾽ ἐστὶ τοῦ 
Ταύρου ταῦτα, ὧν ὁ Αβος ἐγγύς ἐστι τῆς ὁδοῦ τῆς 
εἰς “ExBatava φερούσης παρὰ τὸν τῆς Βάριδος 3 
νεών. φασὶ δὲ καὶ Θρᾳκῶν τινάς, τοὺς προσα- 
γορευομένους Lapamapas, οἷον κεφαλοτόμους, 
οἰκῆσαι ὑπὲρ τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας, πλησίον Vovpaviwr 

1 τυγχάνει, Kramer, for συγχαίνει CEAi, and margin of 
D; συγχέαι Dirwx, συμβῆ 2, συμβαίνει o and editors before 

2 NiBapov, Corais, for Ἴμμαρον KE, Ἴμβαρον other MSS. 

3 For Bapidos Cx, Tzschucke and Corais read ᾿Αβάριδος. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 14. 13-14 

13. It is thought that the Araxes was given the 
same name as the Peneius by Armenus and _his 
followers because of its similarity to that river, for 
that river too, they say, was called Araxes because 
of the fact that it “ cleft’’! Ossa from Olympus, the 
cleft called Tempé. And it is said that in ancient 
times the Araxes in Armenia, after descending from 
the mountains, spread out and formed a sea in the 
plains below, since it had no outlet, but that Jason, 
to make it like Tempé, made the cleft through 
which the water now precipitates? itself into the 
‘Caspian Sea, and that in consequence of this the 
Araxene Plain, through which the river flows to its 
precipitate > descent, was relieved of the sea. Now 
this account of the Araxes contains some _plausi- 
bility, but that of Herodotus not at all; for he 
says that after flowing out of the country of the 
Matieni it splits into forty rivers * and separates the 
Seythians from the Bactrians. Callisthenes, also, 
follows Herodotus. 

14. It is also said of certain of the Aenianes that 
some of them took up their abode in Vitia and 
others above the Armenians beyond the Abus and 
the Nibarus. These two mountains are parts of the 
Taurus, and of these the Abus is near the road that 
leads into Ecbatana past the temple of Baris. It 
is also said that certain of the Thracians, those called 
“ Saraparae,” that is “ Decapitators,” took up their 
abode beyond Armenia near the Guranii and the 

1 “an-arax-ae” is the Greek verb. * ἐξ cat-arax-ae.” 

% Again a play on the root ‘“‘ arax.” 

4 «The Araxes discharges through forty mouths, of which 
all, except one, empty into marshes and shoals. . . . The 
one remaining mouth flows through a clear channel into the 
Caspian sea” (Herod. 1. 202). 



Kal Μήδων, θηριώδεις ἀνθρώπους καὶ ἀπειθεῖς, 
ὀρεινούς, περισκυθιστάς 1 τε καὶ ἀποκεφαλιστάς: 
τοῦτο γὰρ δηλοῦσιν οἱ | Σαραπάραι. εἴρηται δὲ καὶ 
τὰ περὶ τῆς Μηδείας ἐν τοῖς Μηδικοῖς: ὥστ᾽ ἐκ 
πάντων τούτων εἰκάζουσι καὶ τοὺς Μήδους καὶ 
᾿Αρμενίους συγγενεῖς πως τοῖς Θετταλοῖς εἶναι καὶ 
τοῖς ἀπὸ ᾿Ιάσονος καὶ Μηδείας. 

16. Ὃ μὲν δὴ παλαιὸς λόγος οὗτος, ὁ δὲ τού- 
του νεώτερος καὶ κατὰ Πέρσας εἰς τὸ ἐφεξῆς 
μέχρι εἰς ἡμᾶς, ὡς ἐν κεφαλαίῳ πρέποι ἂν μέχρι 
τοσούτου λεχθείς, ὅτι κατεῖχον τὴν ᾿Αρμενίαν 
Πέρσαι καὶ Μακεδόνες, μετὰ ταῦτα οἱ τὴν Συρίαν 
ἔχοντες καὶ τὴν } Μηδίαν" τελευταῖος δ᾽ ὑπῆρξεν 
᾿Ορόντης ἀπόγονος ‘Téapvou, τῶν ἑπτὰ Περσῶν 
ἑνός: εἶθ᾽ ὑπὸ τῶν ᾿Αντιόχου τοῦ μεγάλου 
στρατηγῶν τοῦ πρὸς Ῥωμαίους πολεμήσαντος 
διῃρέθη δίχα, ᾿Αρταξίου τε καὶ Ζαριάδριος" καὶ 
ἦρχον οὗτοι, τοῦ βασιλέως ἐπιτρέψαντος" ἡττη- 
θέντος δ᾽ ἐκείνου, προσθέμενοι Ῥωμαίοις καθ᾽ 
αὑτοὺς ἐτάττοντο, βασιλεῖς προσαγορευθέντες. 
τοῦ μὲν οὖν ᾿Αρταξίου Τιγράνης ἣν ἀπόγονος 
καὶ εἶχε τὴν ἰδίως λεγομένην ᾿Αρμενίαν, αὕτη 
δ᾽ ἦν προσεχὴς τῇ τε Μηδίᾳ καὶ ᾿Αλβανοῖς καὶ 
Ἴβηρσι μέχρι Κολχίδος καὶ τῆς ἐπὶ τῷ Hea 
Καππαδοκίας, τοῦ δὲ Ζαριάδριος ὁ Σωφηνὸς 
᾿Αρτάνης 32 ἔχων τὰ νότια μέρη καὶ τούτων τὰ 
πρὸς δύσιν μᾶλλον. κατελύθη δ᾽ οὗτος ὑπὸ τοῦ 
Τιγράνου, καὶ πάντων κατέστη κύριος ἐκεῖνος. 
τύχαις δ᾽ ἐχρήσατο ποικίλαις, κατ᾽ ἀρχὰς μὲν 

1 ρας read περισκελιστάς. 
2 For ’Apravns Steph. Lyz., s.v. Σξωφηνή, writes ᾿Αρσάκης, and 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 14. 14 τῷ 

Medes, a fierce and intractable people, mountaineers, 
scalpers, and beheaders, for this last is the meaning 
of “Saraparae.”” 1 have already discussed Medeia 
in my account of the Medes ;1! and therefore, from 
all this, it is supposed that both the Medes and 
the Armenians are in a way kinsmen to the Thes- 
salians and the descendants of Jason and Medeia. 

15. This, then, is the ancient account; but the 
more recent account, and that which begins with 
Persian times and extends continuously to our own, 
might appropriately be stated in brief as follows: 
The Persians and Macedonians were in possession 
of Armenia; after this, those who held Syria and 
Media; and the last was Orontes, the descendant 
of Hydarnes, one of the seven Persians ;2 and then 
the country was divided into two parts by Artaxias 
and Zariadris, the generals of Antiochus the Great, 
who made war against the Romans; and_ these 
generals ruled the country, since it was turned 
over to them by the king; but when the king 
was defeated, they joined the Romans and were 
ranked as autonomous, with the title of king. Now 
Tigranes was a descendant of Artaxias and held 
what is properly called Armenia, which lay adjacent 
to Media and Albania and Iberia, extending as far as 
Colchis and Cappadocia on the Euxine, whereas the 
Sophenian Artanes,? who held the southern parts 
and those that lay more to the west than these, 
was a descendant of Zariadris. But he was over- 
come by Tigranes, who established himself as lord 
of all. The changes of fortune experienced by 

111. 13. 10. 2 See Herodotus 3.70. 2 See critical note. 

so Groskurd ; Tyrwhitt emends to ᾿Αρμενίας, making Σωφηνός 
a proper name (cp. 12, 2. 1). 



yap ὡμήρευσε παρὰ [[άρθοις, ἔπειτα Sv ἐκείνων 
ἔτυχε καθόδου, λαβόντων μισθὸν ἑβδομήκοντα 
αὐλῶνας τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας" αὐξηθεὶς δὲ καὶ ταῦτα 
ἀπέλαβε τὰ χωρία καὶ τὴν ἐκείι' ων ἐπόρθησε, 
τήν τε περὶ Νίνον. καὶ τὴν περὶ "Αρβηλα: 
ὑπηκόους δ᾽ ἔσχε καὶ τὸν ᾿Ατροπατηνὸν καὶ τὸν 
Γορδυαῖον, μεθ᾽ ὧν ὑμᾶς, τὴν λοιπὴν Μεσοποτα- 
μίαν, ἔτι δὲ τὴν Συρίαν αὐτὴν καὶ Φοινίκην, 
διαβὰς τὸν ὐφράτην, ἀνὰ κράτος Be ἐπὶ 
τοσοῦτον δ᾽ ἐξαρθεὶς καὶ πόλιν ἔκτισε 5 πλησίον 
τῆς ᾿Ιβηρίας 3 μεταξὺ ταύτης τε καὶ τοῦ κατὰ 
τὸν Εὐφράτην Ζεύγματος, ἣν ὠνόμασε Τιγρανό- 
κερτα, ἐκ δώδεκα ἐρημωθεισῶν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ πόλεων 
“Ἑλληνίδων ἀνθρώπους συναγαγών. ἔφθη δ᾽ 
ἐπελθὼν Λεύκολλος ὁ τῷ Μιθριδάτῃ πολεμήσας 
καὶ τοὺς μὲν οἰκήτορας εἰς τὴν οἰκείαν ἑκάστου 
ἀπέλυσε, τὸ δὲ κτίσμα, ἡ ἡμιτελὲς ἔτι ὄν, κατέ- 
σπασε προσβαλὼν καὶ μικρὰν κώμην κατέλιπεν, 
ἐξήλασε δὲ καὶ τῆς Συρίας αὐτὸν καὶ τῆς Φοι- 
νίκης. διαδεξάμενος δ᾽ ᾿Αρταουάσδης ἐκεῖνον. 
τέως μὲν ηὐτύχει, φίλος ὧν “Ῥωμαίοις, ᾿Αντώνιον 
δὲ προδιδοὺς Παρθυαίοις ἐν τῷ πρὸς αὐτοὺς 
πολέμῳ, δίκας ἔτισεν, ἀναχθεὶς γὰρ εἰς ᾿Αλε- 
ξάνδρειαν ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ, δέσμιος πομπευθεὶς διὰ 
τῆς πόλεως τέως μὲν ἐφρουρεῖτο, ἔπειτ᾽ ἀνηρέθη, 


περὶ Νίνον, Xylander, for περίνιον ; so the later editors. 

ἔκτισε, Xylander, for τίσαι; so the later editors. 
3 ᾿Ιβηρίας seems corrupt; for conjectures see C. Miiller, 
Ind. Var. Lect. p. 1019. 

1 This cannot be the country Iberia; and, so far as is 
known, the region in question had no city of that name. 


GEOGRAPHY, τι. 14. 15 

Tigranes were varied, for at first he was a hostage 
among the Parthians; and then through them he 
obtained the privilege of returning home, they 
receiving as reward therefor seventy valleys in 
Armenia; but when he had grown in_ power, 
he not only took these places back but also 
devastated their country, both that about Ninus 
and that about Arbela; and he subjugated to himself 
the rulers of Atropené and Gordyaea, and along 
with these the rest of Mesopotamia, and also crossed 
the Euphrates and by main strength took Syria itself 
and Phoenicia; and, exalted to this height, he also 
founded a city near Iberia,t between this place 
and the Zeugma on the Euphrates; and, having 
gathered peoples thither from twelve Greek cities 
which he had laid waste, he named it ‘Tigranocerta ; 
but Leucullus, who had waged war against Mithri- 
dates, arrived before Tigranes finished his under- 
taking and not only dismissed the inhabitants to 
their several home-lands but also attacked and 
pulled down the city, which was still only half 
finished, and left it a small village ;? and he drove 
Tigranes out of both Syria and Phoenicia, His 
successor Artavasdes? was indeed prosperous for a 
time, while he was a friend to the Romans, but 
when he betrayed Antony to the Parthians in his 
war against them he paid the penalty for it, for 
he was carried off prisoner to Alexandreia by Antony 
and was paraded in chains through the city; and 
for a time he was kept in prison, but was afterwards 

Kramer conjectures ‘‘ Nisibis” (ep. 1]. 12. 4); but C. 
Miller, more plausibly, ‘‘Carrhae.” Cp. the reference to 
**Carrhae” in 16. 2. 23. 

2 69 B.o. δ 566 Iie 19: ch 


C 533 


συνάπτοντος τοῦ ᾿Ακτιακοῦ πολέμου. μετ᾽ ἐκεῖνον 
δὲ πλείους ἐβασίλευσαν ὑπὸ Ἱζαίσαρι καὶ Ῥω- 
μαίοις ὄντες" καὶ νῦν ἔτι συνέχεται τὸν αὐτὸν 

106. ΓΑπαντα μὲν οὖν τὰ τῶν ἹΠερσῶν ἱερὰ 
καὶ Μῆδοι καὶ ᾿Αρμένιοι τετιμήκασι, τὰ δὲ τῆς 
᾿Αναΐτιδος 1 διαφερόντως ᾿Αρμένιοι,, ἔν τε ἄλλοις 
ἱδρυσάμενοι τόποις, καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐν τῇ ᾿Ακιλισηνῇ. 
ἀνατιθέασι δ᾽ ἐνταῦθα δούλους καὶ δούλας. καὶ 
τοῦτο μὲν οὐ θαυμαστόν, ἀλλὰ καὶ θυγατέρας οἱ 
ἐπιφανέστατοι τοῦ ἔθνους ἀνιεροῦσι παρθένους, 
αἷς νόμος ἐστὶ καταπορνευθείσαις πολὺν χρόνον 
παρὰ τῇ θεῷ μετὰ ταῦτα δίδοσθαι πρὸς γάμον, 
οὐκ ἀπαξιοῦντος τῇ τοιαύτῃ συνοικεῖν οὐδενός. 
τοιοῦτον δέ τι καὶ Ἡρόδοτος λέγει τὸ περὶ τὰς 
Λυδάς" πορνεύειν γὰρ ἁπάσας. οὕτω δὲ φιλο- 
φρόνως χρῶνται τοῖς ἐρασταῖς, ὥστε καὶ ξενίαν 
παρέχουσι καὶ δῶρα ἀντιδιδόασι πλείω πολλάκις 
ἢ λαμβάνουσιν, ἅτ᾽ ἐξ εὐπόρων οἴκων ἐπιχορη- 
γούμεναι" δέχονται δὲ οὐ τοὺς τυχόντας τῶν 
ξένων, ἀλλὰ μάλιστα τοὺς ἀπὸ ἴσου ἀξιώματος. 

1 ᾿Αναΐτιδος, Xylander, following EHpit. and Eustathius 
(Dionysius 846), for Τανάϊδος ; so the later editors. 

1 1, 93, 199 


GEOGRAPHY, 11. 14. 15-16 

slain, when the Actian war broke out. After him 
several kings reigned, these being subject to Caesar 
and the Romans; and still to-day the country is 
governed in the same way. 

16. Now the sacred rites of the Persians, one and 
all, are held in honour by both the Medes and the 
Armenians ; but those of Anaitis are held in ex- 
ceptional honour by the Armenians, who have built 
temples in her honour in different places, and 
especially in Acilisené. Here they dedicate to her 
service male and female slaves. This, indeed, is 
not a remarkable thing; but the most illustrious 
men of the tribe actually consecrate to her their 
daughters while maidens; and it is the custom for 
these first to be prostituted in the temple of the god- 
dess for a long time and after this to be given in 
marriage ; and no one disdains to live in wedlock with 
such a woman. Something of this kind is told also 
by Herodotus 1 in his account of the Lydian women, 
who, one and all, he says, prostitute themselves. 
And they are so kindly disposed to their paramours 
that they not only entertain them hospitably but 
also exchange presents with them, often giving more 
than they receive, inasmuch as the girls from wealthy 
homes are supplied with means. However, they 
do not admit any man that comes along, but 
preferably those of equal rank with themselves. 


fH A sind 6] 

ran Shes Ss ἱ 



1. Καὶ ἡ Kamadoxia! ἐστὶ πολυμερής τε Kal 
us δεδεγμέ Boras. οἱ δ᾽ οὖν ὁμό 
συχνὰς δεδεγμένη μεταβολάς. οἱ δ᾽ οὖν ὁμόγλωτ- 
τοι μάλιστά εἰσιν οἱ ἀφοριζόμενοι πρὸς νότον μὲν 
τῷ Κιλικίῳ λ ἔνῳ Tar 03 ἕω δὲ τῇ 
4 iw λεγομένῳ Tavpw, πρὸ; ἕω δὲ TH 

> , \ a ΄ \ a ἣν ΠΕ 

Appevia καὶ τῇ Κολχίδι καὶ τοῖς μεταξὺ ἑτερο- 

, » Ν » \ lal ret / 
γλώττοις ἔθνεσι, πρὸς ἄρκτον δὲ TH Ev€eiva 
, lal lal ae rn 
μέχρι τῶν ἐκβολῶν τοῦ Advos, πρὸς δύσιν δὲ TO 
τε τῶν Παφλαγόνων ἔθνει καὶ Ταλατῶν τῶν τὴν 
Φρυγίαν ἐποικησάντων 5 μέχρι Λυκαόνων καὶ 

n -“ Me / 

Κιλίκων τῶν τὴν τραχεῖαν Κιλικίαν νεμομένων. 
ν΄ ἃ > n δὲ n td , ε Ἢ 
2. Καὶ αὐτῶν δὲ τῶν ὁμογλώττων οἱ παλαιοὶ 
τοὺς Κατάονας καθ᾽ αὑτοὺς ἔταττον, ἀντιδιαι- 
ροῦντες τοῖς Καππάδοξιν, ὡς ἑτεροεθνέσι, καὶ ἐν 
τῇ διαριθμήσει τῶν ἐθνῶν μετὰ τὴν Καππαδοκίαν 
ἐτίθεσαν τὴν Καταονίαν, εἶτα τὸν ωὐφράτην καὶ 
τὰ πέραν ἔθνη, ὥστε καὶ τὴν Μελιτηνὴν ὑπὸ τῇ 
Καταονίᾳ τάττειν, ἣ μεταξὺ κεῖται ταύτης τε καὶ 
τοῦ Εὐφράτου, συνάπτουσα τῇ Κοομμαγηνῇ, μέρος 
τε τῆς Καππαδοκίας ἐστὶ δέκατον κατὰ τὴν εἰς 
δέκα στρατηγίας διαίρεσιν τῆς χώρας. οὕτω γὰρ 
C 5348) οἱ καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς βασιλεῖς οἱ πρὸ ᾿Αρχελάου 


1 Before ἐστί Corais and Meineke insert δ᾽, 
2 ἐποικησάντων, Corais, for μετοικησάντων; so the later 



1.1 Cappapocia, also, is a country of many parts 
and has undergone numerous changes. However, 
the inhabitants who speak the same language are, 
generally speaking, those who are bounded on the 
south by the “ Cilician” Taurus, as it is called, and 
on the east by Armenia and Colchis and by the 
intervening peoples who speak a different group of 
languages, and on the north by the Euxine as far 
as the outlets of the Halys River, and on the west 
both by the tribe of the Paphlagonians and by those 
Galatae who settled in Phrygia and extended as far 
as the Lycaonians and those Cilicians who occupy 
Cilicia Tracheia.? 

2. Now as for the tribes themselves which speak 
the same language, the ancients set one of them, 
the Cataonians, by themselves, contradistinguishing 
them from the Cappadocians, regarding the latter 
as a different tribe; and in their enumeration of the 
tribes they placed Cataonia after Cappadocia, and 
then placed the Euphrates and the tribes beyond it 
so as to include in Cataonia Melitené, which lies 
between Cataonia and the Euphrates, borders on 
Commagené, and, according to the division of Cap- 
padocia into ten prefectures, is a tenth portion of 
the country. Indeed, it was in this way that the 
kings in my time who preceded Archeliius held 

1 From Xylander to Meineke the editors agree that a 
portion of text at the beginning of this Book is missing. 


* “Rugged” Cilicia, 


διατεταγμένην εἶχον τὴν ἡγεμονίαν τῆς Καππα- 
δοκίας" δέκατον δ᾽ ἐστὶ μέρος καὶ ἡ Καταονία. 
καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς δὲ εἶχε στρατηγὸν ἑκατέρα ἴδιον: οὔτε 
δ᾽ ἐκ τῆς διαλέκτου διαφορᾶς τινὸς ἐν τούτοις 
πρὸς τοὺς ἄλλους Καππάδοκας ἐμφαινομένης, 
οὔτε ἐκ ἢ τῶν ἄλλων ἐθῶν," θαυμαστὸν πῶς 
ἠφάνισται τελέως τὰ σημεῖα τῆς ἀλλοεθνίας. 
ἦσαν δ᾽ οὖν διωρισμέν Ol, προσεκτήσατο δ᾽ αὐτοὺς 
᾿Αριαράθης ὁ πρῶτος προσαγορευθεὶς Καππα- 
δόκων βασιλεύς. 

8. Ἔστι δ᾽ ὥσπερ χερρονήσου μεγάλης ἰσθμὸς 
οὗτος, a puyyopevos θαλάτταις δυσί, τῇ τε τοῦ 
᾿Ισσικοῦ κόλπου μέχρι τῆς τραχείας Κιλικίας 
καὶ τῇ τοῦ Εὐξείνου μεταξὺ Σινώπης τε καὶ τῆς 
τῶν Τιβαρηνῶν παραλίας" ἐντὸς δὲ τοῦ ἰσθμοῦ 
λέγομεν χερρόνησον τὴν προσεσπέριον τοῖς Karr- 
πάδοξιν & ἅπασαν, ἣν Ἡρόδοτος μὲν ἐντὸς “Αλυος 
καλεῖ" αὕτη “γάρ ἐστιν, ἧς ἦρξεν ἁπάσης Κροῖσος, 
λέγει δ᾽ αὐτὸν ἐκεῖνος τύραννον ἐθνέων τῶν ἐντὸς 
ἽΑλυος ποταμοῦ. οἱ δὲ νῦν τὴν ἐντὸς τοῦ Ταύρου 
καλοῦσιν ᾿Ασίαν, ὁμωνύμως τῇ ὅλῃ ἠπείρῳ 
ταύτην ᾿Ασίαν προσαγορεύοντες. περιέχεται 
ἐν αὐτῇ πρῶτα μὲν ἔθνη τὰ ἀπὸ τῆς ἀνατολῆς 
Παφλαγόνες τε καὶ Φρύγες καὶ Λυκάονες, ἔπειτα 
Βιθυνοὶ καὶ Μυσοὶ καὶ ἡ ᾿Κπίκτητος, ἔτι δὲ 
Tpwas καὶ ᾿Ἑλλησποντία, μετὰ δὲ τούτους ἐπὶ 
θαλάττῃ μὲν ᾿Ιλλήνων οἵ τε Αἰολεῖς καὶ Ἴωνες, 
τῶν δ᾽ ἄλλων Kapés τε καὶ Λύκιοι, ἐν δὲ τῇ 
μεσογαίᾳ Λυδοί. περὶ μὲν οὖν τῶν ἄλλων 
ἐροῦμεν ὕστερον. 

1 τῆς, before τῶν ἄλλων, is rightly omitted by oz. 
2 ἐθῶν c instead of ἐθνῶν; so the editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 1. 2-3 

their several prefectures over Cappadocia. And 
Cataonia, also, is a tenth portion of Cappadocia. In 
my time each of the two countries had its own 
prefect ; but since, as compared with the other Cappa- 
docians, there is no difference to be seen either in 
the language or in any other usages of the Cata- 
onians, it is remarkable how utterly all signs of their 
being a different tribe have disappeared. At any 
rate, they were once a distinct tribe, but they were 
annexed by Ariarathes, the first man to be called 
king of the Cappadocians. 

3. Cappadocia constitutes the isthmus, as it were, 
of a large peninsula bounded by two seas, by that 
of the Issian Gulf as far as Cilicia Tracheia and 
by that of the Euxine as far as Sinopé and the 
coast of the Tibareni. I mean by “ peninsula”’ 
all the country which is west of Cappadocia this 
side the isthmus, which by Herodotus is called 
“the country this side the Halys River’’; for this 
is the country which in its entirety was ruled by 
Croesus, whom Herodotus calls the tyrant of the 
tribes this side the Halys River.1 However, the 
writers of to-day give the name of Asia to the 
country this side the Taurus, applying to this country 
the same name as to the whole continent of Asia. 
This Asia comprises the first nations on the east, 
the Paphlagonians and Phrygians and Lycaonians, 
and then the Bithynians and Mysians and_ the 
Epictetus? and, besides these, the Troad and 
Hellespontia, and after these, on the sea, the 
Aeolians and Ionians, who are Greeks, and, among 
the rest, the Carians and Lycians, and, in the 
interior, the Lydians. As for the other tribes, I 
shall speak of them later. 

SG, 98: 2 The territory later ‘“‘ Acquired ” (2. 5. 31). 
VOL. V. M 


4. Τὴν δὲ Καππαδοκίαν eis δύο σατραπείας 
μερισθεῖσαν ὑπὸ τῶν Ilepoa@v παραλαβόντες 
Μακεδόνες περιεῖδον! τὰ μὲν ἑκόντες τὰ δ᾽ 
ἄκοντες εἰς βασιλείας ἀντὶ σατραπειῶν περι- 
στᾶσαν' ὧν τὴν μὲν ἰδίως Καππαδοκίαν ὠνόμα- 
σαν καὶ πρὸς τῷ Ταύρῳ καὶ νὴ Δία μεγάλην 
Καππαδοκίαν, τὴν δὲ Ἰ]όντον, οἱ δὲ τὴν πρὸς τῷ 
Πόντῳ Καππαδοκίαν. τῆς δὲ μεγάλης Καππα. 
δοκίας νῦν μὲν οὐκ ἴσμεν πω τὴν 3 διάταξιν: τελευ- 
τήσαντος γὰρ τὸν βίον ᾿Αρχελάου τοῦ βασιλεύ- 
σαντος, ἔγνω K αἴσάρ' TE καὶ ἡ σύγκλητος ἐ ἐπαρχίαν 
εἶναι “Ρωμαίων αὐτήν. ἐπ᾽ ἐκείνου δὲ καὶ τῶν 
πρὸ αὐτοῦ βασιλέων εἰς δέκα στρατηγίας διῃρη- 
μένης τῆς χώρας, πέντε μὲν ἐξητάξοντο αἱ πρὸς 
τῷ Ταύρῳ, Μελιτηνή, Καταονία, Κιλικία, Τυα- 
νῖτις, Παρσαυρῖτις" πέντε δὲ λοιπαὶ Λαουιανσηνή, 3 
Σαργαραυσηνή," Σαραουηνή, Χαμανηνή, Μορι- 
μηνή. προσεγένετο δ᾽ ὕστερον παρὰ Ῥωμαίων 
ἐκ τῆς Κιλικίας τοῖς ὃ πρὸ Ἀρχελάου καὶ ἐνδεκάτη 
στρατηγία, ἡ περὶ Καστάβαλά τε καὶ Κύβιστρα 
μέχρι τῆς ᾿Αντιπάτρου τοῦ λῃστοῦ Δέρβης, τῷ 
δὲ ᾿Αρχελάῳ καὶ ἡ τραχεῖα περὶ ᾿Ελαιοῦσσαν 
Κιλικία καὶ πᾶσα ἡ τὰ πειρατήρια συστησαμένη. 

ιὸ "- 

περιεῖδον, Xylander, for περιεῖλον ; so the later editors. 
πω THY, Tyrwhitt, for πρώτην ; so the editors. 
Λαουιανσηνή, Kramer, for ἌΠΟ ΕΙΣ Λαονινασηνή other 
* Σαργαραυσηνή, Tzschucke, for Σαργαυσηνή. 
5 Μοριμηνή, Tzschucke, for Ῥιμνηνηνή DHior, ιμνηνή Czrz, 
Μοραμηνή Epit. 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. τ. 4 

4. Cappadocia was divided into two satrapies by 
the Persians at the time when it was taken over 
by the Macedonians; the Macedonians willingly 
allowed one part of the country, but unwillingly 
the other, to change to kingdoms instead of 
satrapies; and one of these kingdoms they named 
“Cappadocia Proper’ and “Cappadocia near Tau- 
rus,’ and even ‘Greater Cappadocia,’ and the 
other they named “ Pontus,” though others named 
it Cappadocia Pontica. As for Greater Cappadocia, 
we at present do not yet know its administrative 
divisions, for after the death of king Archelaiis 
Caesar * and the senate decreed that it was a Roman 
province. But when, in the reign of Archelaiis and 
of the kings who preceded him, the country was 
divided into ten prefectures, those near the Taurus 
were reckoned as five in number, I mean Melitené, 
Cataonia, Cilicia, Tyanitis, and Garsauritis; and 
Laviansené, Sargarausené, Saravené, Chamanené, and 
Morimené as the remaining five. The Romans 
later assigned to the predecessors of Archelaiis an 
eleventh prefecture, taken from Cilicia, I mean the 
country round Castabala and Cybistra, extending 
to Derbé, which last had belonged to Antipater the 
pirate; and to Archelaiis they further assigned the 
part of Cilicia Tracheia round Elaeussa,and also all the 
country that had organised the business of piracy. 

ROAD Salis ° Tiberius Caesar. 

ὃ τοῖς K, τῆς other MSS. 




1. Ἔστι δ᾽ ἡ μὲν Μελιτηνὴ παραπλησία τῇ 
Κομμαγηνῇ, πᾶσα γάρ ἐστι τοῖς ἡμέροις δένδροις 
κατάφυτος, μόνη τῆς ἄλλης Καππαδοκίας, ὥστε 
καὶ ἔλαιον φέρειν καὶ τὸν Μοναρίτην οἶνον τοῖς 
Ἑλληνικοῖς ἐνάμιλλον" ἀντίκειται δὲ τῇ Σωφηνῇ, 
μέσον ἔχουσα τὸν Εὐφράτην ποταμὸν καὶ αὐτὴ 
καὶ ἡ Κομμαγηνή, ὅμορος οὖσα. ἔστι δὲ φρού- 
ριον ἀξιόλογον τῶν Καππαδόκων ἐν τῇ περαίᾳ 
Τόμισα. τοῦτο δ᾽ ἐπράθη μὲν τῷ Σωφηνῷ ταλάν- 
των ἑκατόν, ὕστερον δὲ ἐδωρήσατο Λεύκολλος τῷ 
Καππάδοκι συστρατεύσαντι ἀριστεῖον κατὰ τὸν 
πρὸς Μιθριδάτην πόλεμον. 

2. Ἢ δὲ Καταονία πλατὺ καὶ κοῖλόν ἐστι 
πεδίον πάμφορον πλὴν τῶν ἀειθαλῶν. περίκειται 
δ᾽ ὄρη ἄλλα τε καὶ ᾿Αμανὸς ἐκ τοῦ πρὸς νότον 
μέρους, ἀπόσπασμα ὃν τοῦ Κιλικίου Ταύρου, καὶ 
ὁ ᾿Αντίταυρος, εἰς τἀναντία ἀπερρωγώς. ὁ μὲν 
γὰρ ᾿Αμανὸς ἐπὶ τὴν Κιλικίαν καὶ τὴν Συριακὴν 
ἐκτείνεται θάλατταν πρὸς τὴν ἑσπέραν ἀπὸ τῆς 
Καταονίας καὶ τὸν νότον, τῇ δὲ τοιαύτῃ διαστάσει 
περικλείει τὸν ᾿Ισσικὸν κόλπον ἅπαντα. καὶ τὰ 
μεταξὺ τῶν Κιλίκων. πεδία πρὸς τὸν Ταῦρον" ὁ δ᾽ 
᾿Αντίταυρος ἐπὶ τὰς ἄρκτους ἐγκέκλιται καὶ μικρὸν 
ἐπιλαμβάνει τῶν ἀνατολῶν, εἶτ᾽ εἰς τὴν μεσόγαιαν 

8. Ἔν δὲ τῷ ᾿Αντιταύρῳ τούτῳ βαθεῖς καὶ 
στενοί εἰσιν αὐλῶνες, ἐν οἷς ἵδρυται τὰ Κόμανα 
καὶ τὸ τῆς ᾿Ενυοῦς ἱερόν, ἣν 5 ἐκεῖνοι Μᾷ ὀνομά- 

1 καί, Xylander inserts. 
2 gv, Groskurd, for 6; so Meineke. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 1-3 


1. Meuirenfi is similar to Commagené, for the 
whole of it is planted with fruit-trees, the only 
country in all Cappadocia of which this is true, so 
that it produces, not only the olive, but also the 
Monarite wine, which rivals the Greek wines. 
It is situated opposite to Sophené; and_ the 
Euphrates River flows between it and Commagené, 
which latter borders on it. On the far side of the 
river is a noteworthy fortress belonging to the 
Cappadocians, Tomisa by name. ‘This was sold to 
the ruler of Sophené for one hundred talents, but 
later was presented by Leucullus as a meed of 
valour to the ruler of Cappadocia who took the 
field with him in the war against Mithridates. 

2. Cataonia is a broad hollow plain, and produces 
everything except evergreen-trees. It is surrounded 
on its southern side by mountains, among others 
by the Amanus, which is a branch of the Cilician 
Taurus, and by the Antitaurus, which branches off 
in the ‘opposite direction ; for the Amanus extends 
from Cataonia to Cilicia and the Syrian Sea towards 
the west and south, and in this intervening space 
it surrounds the whole of the Gulf of Issus and the 
intervening plains of the Cilicians which lie towards 
the Taurus. But the Antitaurus inclines to the 
north and takes a slightly easterly direction, and 
then terminates in the interior of the country. 

3. In this Antitaurus are deep and narrow valleys, 
in which are situated Comana and the temple of 
Enyo,| whom the people there call “Ma.” It is 

1 Goddess of war (liad 5. 333). 


Cover πόλις δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἀξιόλογος, πλεῖστον μέντοι 
τὸϊ τῶν θεοφορήτων πλῆθος καὶ τὸ τῶν ἱεροδού- 
λων ἐν αὐτῇ. Κατάονες δέ εἰσιν οἱ ἐνοικοῦντες, 
» X e Ν lol - / -“ \ 
ἄλλως μὲν ὑπὸ TO βασιλεῖ τεταγμένοι, τοῦ δὲ 
ἱερέως ὑπακούοντες τὸ πλέον: ὁ δὲ τοῦ θ᾽ ἱεροῦ 
κύριός ἐστι καὶ τῶν ἱεροδούλων, οἱ κατὰ τὴν 
ἡμετέραν ἐπιδημίαν πλείους ἧσαν τῶν ἑξακισ- 
χιλίων, “ἄνδρες ὁμοῦ γυναιξί. πρόσκειται δὲ τῷ 
ἱερῷ καὶ χώρα πολλή, καρποῦται δ᾽ ὁ ἱερεὺς τὴν 
πρόσοδον, καὶ ἔστιν οὗτος “δεύτερος κατὰ τιμὴν 
év® τῇ Καππαδοκίᾳ μετὰ τὸν βασιλέα" ὡς δ᾽ ἐπὶ 
τὸ πολὺ τοῦ αὐτοῦ γένους ἦσαν οἱ ἱερεῖς τοῖς 
la) e r ~ ? 
βασιλεῦσι. τὰ δὲ ἱερὰ ταῦτα δοκεῖ ᾿Ορέστης 
Ν Lol ᾽ rf > / / »"΄ > A 
μετὰ τῆς ἀδελφῆς ᾿Ιφιγενείας κομίσαι δεῦρο ἀπὸ 
τῆς Ταυρικῆς Σκυθίας, τὰ τῆς 'αυροπόλου 
“ / > -“ ΌΝΧΝ \ \ / θ , 
Αρτέμιδος, ἐνταῦθα δὲ καὶ τὴν πένθιμον κόμην 
᾽ ΄ὔ 5 Ὁ. φ \ ” A , κ᾿ 
ἀποθέσθαι, ad ἧς καὶ τοὔνομα τῇ πόλει. διὰ 
Ο 536 μὲν οὖν τῆς πόλεως ταύτης ὁ Σάρος ῥεῖ ποταμός, 
καὶ διὰ τῶν συναγκειῶν 3 τοῦ Ταύρου διεκπεραιοῦ- 
ται πρὸς τὰ τῶν Κιλίκων πεδία καὶ τὸ ὑποκεί- 
μενον πέλαγος. 
4, Διὰ δὲ τῆς Καταονίας ὁ Ivpapos πλωτός, 
ἐκ μέσου τοῦ πεδίου τὰς πηγὰς ἔχων᾽ ἔστι δὲ 
Ψ Ν “ 
βόθρος ἀξιόλογος, δι οὗ καθορᾶν * ἔστι τὸ ὕδωρ 
ὑποφερόμενον κρυπτῶς μέχρι πολλοῦ διαστή- 
ματος ὑπὸ γῆς, εἶτ᾽ ἀνατέλλον εἰς τὴν ἐπιφάνειαν" 
τῷ δὲ καθιέντι ἀκόντιον ἄνωθεν εἰς τὸν βόθρον ἡ 
βία τοῦ ὕδατος ἀ ἀντιπράττει τοσοῦτον, ὥστε μόλις 

1 τό, inserted by 7. 2 ἐν, Corais inserts. 
3 συναγκειῶν, the editors, for συναγγείων oxz, συναγκίων 
other MSS. 

4 καθορᾶν, Tyrwhitt, for καθαρόν ; so the editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 3-4 

a considerable city ; its inhabitants, however, consist 
mostly of the divinely inspired people and_ the 
temple-servants who live in it. Its inhabitants are 
Cataonians, who, though in a general way classed 
as subject to the king, are in most respects 
subject to the priest. The priest is master of the 
temple, and also of the temple-servants, who on 
my sojourn there were more than six thousand in 
number, men and women together. Also, con- 
siderable territory belongs to the temple, and the 
revenue is enjoyed by the priest. He is second in 
rank in Cappadocia after the king; and in general 
the priests belonged to the same family as the 
kings. It is thought that Orestes, with his sister 
Iphigeneia, brought these sacred rites here from the 
Tauric Scythia, the rites in honour of Artemis 
Tauropolus, and that here they also deposited the 
hair! of mourning; whence the city’s name. Now 
the Sarus River flows through this city and passes 
out through the gorges of the Taurus to the plains 
of the Cilicians and to the sea that lies below 

4. But the Pyramus, a navigable river with its 
sources in the middle of the plain, flows through 
Cataonia. There is a notable pit in the earth 
through which one can see the water as it runs into 
a long hidden passage underground and then rises to 
the surface. If one lets down a javelin from above 
into the pit,” the force of the water resists so strongly 
that the javelin can hardly be immersed in it. But 

1 In Greek, ‘‘Komé,” the name of the city being 
‘‘Komana,” or, translated into English, ‘‘Comana.” 
* At the outlet, of course. 



βαπτίξεσθαι' ἀπλέτῳ δὲ βάθει καὶ πλάτει 

πολὺς ἐνεχθεὶς ἐπειδὰν συνάψῃ τῷ Ταύρῳ, παρά- 
δοξον λαμβάνει τὴν συναγωγήν, παρά δοξος δὲ 
καὶ ἡ διακοπὴ τοῦ ὄρους ἐστί, δι’ ἧς ἄγεται τὸ 
ῥεῖθρον' καθάπερ γὰρ ἐν ταῖς ῥῆγμα λαβούσαις 
πέτραις καὶ σχισθείσαις δίχα τὰς κατὰ τὴν 
ἑτέραν ἐξοχὰς ὁμολόγους εἶναι συμβαίνει ταῖς κατὰ 
τὴν ἑτέραν εἰσοχαῖς, ὥστε κἂν συναρμοσθῆναι 
δύνασθαι, οὕτως εἴδομεν καὶ τὰς ὑπερκειμένας τοῦ 
ποταμοῦ πέτρας ἑκατέρωθεν σχεδόν τι μέχρι τῶν 
ἀκρωρειῶν ἀνατεινούσας ἐν διαστάσει δυεῖν ἢ 
τριῶν πλέθρων, ἀντικείμενα ἐχούσας τὰ κοῖλα 
ταῖς ἐξοχαῖς" τὸ δὲ ἔδαφος τὸ μεταξὺ πᾶν πέ- 
τρινον, βαθύ τι καὶ στενὸν τελέως ἔχον διὰ μέσου 
ῥῆγμα, ὥστε καὶ κύνα καὶ λαγὼ διάλλεσθαι. 
τοῦτο δ᾽ ἐστὶ τὸ ῥεῖθρον τοῦ ποταμοῦ, ἄχρι 
χείλους πλῆρες, ὀχέτῳ 5 πλάτει προσεοικός, διὰ 
δὲ τὴν σκολιότητα καὶ τὴν ἐκ τοσούτου συναγω- 

\ \ \ 3 fol / 10 Hep) n 
γὴν καὶ τὸ Tis φάραγγος βάθος εὐθὺς τοῖς 
πόρρωθεν προσιοῦσιν ὁ ψόφος βροντῇ προσπίπ- 
TEL παραπλήσιος" διεκ βαίνων δὲ τὰ ὄρη τοσαύτην 
κατάγει χοῦν ἐπὶ θάλατταν, τὴν μὲν ἐκ τῆς 
Καταονίας, τὴν δὲ ἐκ τῶν Κιλίκων πεδίων, ὥστε 

> -“ ‘\ 
ἐπ᾿ αὐτῷ Kal χρησμὸς ἐκπεπτωκὼς φέρεται 

v > / “ ΄ > δί 4 

ἔσσεται ἐσσομένοις, ὅτε ΠΠύραμος ἀργυροδίνης, 

ἠιόνα Tpoyowr,® ἱερὴν ἐς Κύπρον ἵκηται. 

1 ἀπλέτῳ, corr. in C, for ἀπλώτῳ ; but Corais, from conj. of 
Tyrwhitt, writes αὐτὸ τῷ. 

2 ὀχέτῳ, Corais, for ὀχέτου ; so the later editors, though 
Kramer conj. οὐ after ὀχέτῳ. 

8 διά, after τό, Meineke, from conj. of Kramer, deletes; 
others exchange the positions of the two words. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 4 

although it flows in great volume because of its 
immense depth and breadth, yet, when it reaches 
the Taurus, it undergoes a remarkable contraction ; 
and remarkable also is the cleft of the mountain 
through which the stream is carried; for, as in the 
ease of rocks which have been broken and split 
into two parts, the projections on either side 
correspond so exactly to the cavities on the other 
that they could be fitted together, so it was in the 
case of the rocks I saw there, which, lying above the 
river on either side and reaching ‘almost to the 
summit of the mountain at a distance of two or 
three plethra from each other, had cavities corres- 
ponding with the opposite projections. The whole 
intervening bed is rock, and it has a cleft through 
the middle which is deep and so extremely narrow 
that a dog or hare could leap across it. ‘This cleft 
is the channel of the river, is full to the brim, and 
in breadth resembles a canal; but on account of 
the crookedness of its course and its great con- 
traction in width and the depth of the gorge, a 
noise like thunder strikes the ears of travellers long 
before they reach it. In passing out through the 
mountains it brings down so much silt to the sea, 
partly from Cataonia and partly from the Cilician 
plains, that even an oracle is reported as having been 
given out in reference to it, as follows: “ Men that 
are yet to be shall experience this at the time when 
the Pyramus of the silver eddies shall silt up its 
sacred sea-beach and come to Cyprus.”1 Indeed, 

1 Cf. quotation of the same oracle in 1. 3. 7 

4 apyupodivns, Meineke, following LHpitome and Oracula 
Sibyll. p. 515, for εὐρυοδίνης. 
5 mpoxdwy, for προχέων, as read in this text in L. 3. 8. 



παραπλήσιον yap τι κἀκεῖ συμβαίνει καὶ ἐν 
Αἰγύπτῳ, τοῦ Νείλου προσεξηπειροῦντος ἀεὶ τὴν 
θάλατταν τῇ προσχώσει: καθὸ καὶ Ἡρόδοτος μὲν 
δῶρον τοῦ ποταμοῦ τὴν Αἴγυπτον εἶπεν, ὁ ποιη- 
τὴς δὲ τὴν Φάρον πελαγίαν ὑπάρξαι, πρότερον 
οὐχ᾽ ws} νυνὶ πρόσγειον οὖσαν τῇ Αἰγύπτῳ. 
C537 5.2 Τρίτη δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἱερωσύνη Διὸς Δακιήου,3 λει- 
πομένη ταύτης, ἀξιόλογος δ᾽ ὅμως. ἐνταῦθα δ᾽ 
> \ / € a: Le, > , / 
ἐστὶ λάκκος ἁλμυροῦ ὕδατος, ἀξιολόγου λίμνης 
ἔχων περίμετρον, ὀφρύσι κλειόμενος ὑψηλαῖς τε 
καὶ ὀρθίαις, ὥστ᾽ ἔχειν κατάβασιν κλιμακώδη" τὸ 
δ᾽ ὕδωρ οὔτ᾽ αὔξεσθαί φασιν, οὔτ᾽ ἀπόρρυσιν 
ἔχειν οὐδαμοῦ φανεράν. 
, > ” Ν lal ΄ ͵ "» ,ὔ 
6. [lovey δ᾽ οὔτε τὸ τῶν Καταόνων ἔχει πεδίον 
wy © ΄ ΄ 3.}23 δὰ, Dae. a 9. τὰ 
οὔθ᾽ ἡ Μελιτηνή, φρούρια δ᾽ ἐρυμνὰ ἐπὶ τῶν ὀρῶν, 
τά τε Af€apopa καὶ τὸ Δάσταρκον, ὃ περιρρεῖται 
τῷ Καρμάλᾳ ποταμῷ. ἔχει δὲ καὶ ἱερὸν τὸ τοῦ 
Κατώονος ᾿Απόλλωνος, καθ᾽ ὅλον τιμώμενον τὴν 
Καππαδοκίαν, ποιησαμένων ἀφιδρύματα ἀπ᾽ 
αὐτοῦ. οὐδὲ αἱ ἄλλαι στρατηγίαι πόλεις ἔχουσι 
πλὴν δυεῖν" τῶν δὲ λοιπῶν στρατηγιῶν ἐν μὲν τῇ 
Σαργαραυσηνῇ πολίχνιόν ἐστιν ἫἭρπα καὶ 
ποταμὸς Καρμάλας, ὃς καὶ αὐτὸς εἰς τὴν Κι- 
΄ >? / > \ a 7 “ Μ 
λικίαν ἐκδίδωσιν: ἐν δὲ ταῖς ἄλλαις ὅ τε ἴΆργος, 
»” ς \ A A al if \ \ T a a 
ἔρυμα ὑψηλὸν πρὸς τῷ Tavpw, καὶ τὰ Napa, ὃ 
1 οὐχ᾽ ὡς, Corais, for οὔπω; so Meineke. 
2 ὃ 5 seems to belong after ὃ 6, as Kramer points out. 
Meineke transposes it in his text. 
3 Δακιήου, Jones, from conj. of C. Miiller, for Δακίη οὐ. Tyr- 
whitt conj. Δακιήνου. Meineke, citing Marcellinus 23. 6, and 
Philostratus Vit. Apollonii, emends to ᾿Ασβαμαίου. 

4 Σαργαραυσήνῃ, Tzschucke, for Σαργαραυσίνη. 
5 Καρμάλας, Corais, for Κάρμαλος. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 4-6 

something similar to this takes place also in Egypt, 
since the Nile is always turning the sea into dry 
land by throwing out silt. Accordingly, Herodotus ! 
calls Egypt “the gift of the Nile,’ while Homer? 
speaks of Pharos as “being out in the open sea,” 
since in earlier times it was not, as now, connected 
with the mainland of Egypt.* 

5.4 The third in rank is the priesthood of Zeus 
Daciéus,®> which, though inferior to that of Enyo, 
is noteworthy. At this place there is a reservoir 
of salt water which has the circumference of a 
considerable lake; it is shut in by brows of hills 
so high and steep that people go down to it by 
ladder-like steps. The water, they say, neither 
increases nor anywhere has a visible outflow. 

6. Neither the plain of the Cataonians nor the 
country Melitené has a city, but they have strong- 
holds on the mountains, I mean Azamora and 
Dastarcum ; and round the latter flows the Carmalas 
River. It contains also a temple, that of the Cataonian 
Apollo, which is held in honour thoughout the whole 
of Cappadocia, the Cappadocians having made it the 
model of temples of their own. Neither do the 
other prefectures, except two, contain cities; and of 
the remaining prefectures, Sargarausené contains a 
small town Herpa, and also the Carmalas River, this 
too® emptying into the Cilician Sea. In the other 
prefectures are Argos, a lofty stronghold near the 
Taurus, and Nora, now called Neroassus, in which 

2 Od. 4. 354. 
1.0. “has become, in a sense, a peninsula” (1. 3. 17). 
See critical note. 
At Morimenes (see next paragraph). 
Like the Sarus (12. 2. 3). 

oo & Oe 



νῦν καλεῖται Νηροασσός, ἐν ᾧ υὐμένης πολιορ- 
κούμενος ἀντέσχε πολὺν χρόνον᾽ καθ᾽ ἡμᾶς δὲ 
Σισίνου ὑπῆρξε χρηματοφυλάκιον τοῦ ἐπιθεμένου 
τῇ Καππαδόκων ἀρχῇ. τούτου δ᾽ ἦν καὶ τὰ 
Κάδηνα, βασίλειον καὶ πόλεως κατασκευὴν ἔχον" 
ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ὅρων! τῶν Λυκαονικῶν τὰ 
Γαρσαύιρα * 5 κωμόπολις" λέγεται ὑπάρξαι ποτὲ 
καὶ αὕτη μητρόπολις τῆς χώρας. ἐν δὲ τῇ Μο- 
ριμηνῇ τὸ ἱἑ ἱερὸν τοῦ ἐν Οὐηνάσοις Διός, ἱεροδού- 
λων κατοικίαν ἔχον τρισχιλίων σχεδόν τι καὶ 
χώραν ἱερὰν εὔκαρπον, παρέχουσαν πρόσοδον 
ἐνιαύσιον ταλάντων πεντεκαίδεκα τῷ ἱερεῖ: καὶ 
οὗτός 4 ἐστι διὰ βίου, καθάπερ καὶ ὁ ἐν ΚΚομάνοις, 
καὶ δευτερεύειν. κατὰ τιμὴν μετ᾽ ἐκεῖνον. 

1. Δύο δὲ ἔχουσι μόνον στρατηγίαι πόλεις, ἡ 
μὲν Τυανῖτις τὰ Τύανα, ὑποπεπτωκυῖαν τῷ Ταύρῳ 
τῷ κατὰ τὰς Κιλικίας πύλας, καθ᾽ ἃς εὐπετέστα- 
ται καὶ κοινόταται πᾶσίν εἰσιν αἱ εἰς τὴν Κιλικίαν 
καὶ τὴν Συρίαν ὑπερβολαί: καλεῖται δὲ Εὐσέβεια 
ἡ πρὸς τῷ Ταύρῳ᾽ ἀγαθὴ δὲ καὶ πεδιὰς ἡ πλείστη. 
τὰ δὲ Τύανα ἐπίκειται χώματι Σεμιράμιδος τετει- 
χισμένῳ καλῶς. οὐ πολὺ δ᾽ ἄπωθεν ταύτης ἐστὶ 
τά τε Καστάβαλα καὶ τὰ Κύβιστρα, ἔτι μᾶλλον 
τῷ ὄρει πλησιάζοντα πολίσματα ὧν ἐν τοῖς 
Κασταβάλοις ἐστὶ τὸ τῆς Περασίας ᾿Αρτέμιδος 
ἱερόν, ὅπου φασὶ τὰς ἱερείας γυμνοῖς τοῖς ποσὶ Ov 
ἀνθρακιᾶς βαδίζειν ἀπαθεῖς" κἀνταῦθα δέ τινες 
τὴν αὐτὴν θρυλοῦσιν ἱστορίαν τὴν περὶ τοῦ 
᾿Ορέστου καὶ τῆς Ταυροπόλου, Ilepaciay κεκλῆσ- 

1 ὅρων, Corais, for ὀρῶν. 

2 CDhilrw read τὰ yap Σαύειρα (cp. Tapoadipa in 12. 2. 10). 
3 After λέγεται Meineke inserts δ᾽. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 6-7 

Eumenes held out against a siege for a long time. 
In my time it served as the treasury of Sisines, who 
made an attack upon the empire of the Cappadocians. 
To him belonged also Cadena, which had the royal 
palace and had the aspect of a city. Situated on the 
borders of Lycaonia is also a town called Garsauira. 
This too is said once to have been the metropolis of 
the country. In Morimené, at Venasa, is the temple 
of the Venasian Zeus, which has a settlement of 
almost three thousand temple-servants and also a 
sacred territory that is very productive, affording 
the priest a yearly revenue of fifteen talents. He, 
too, is priest for life, as is the priest at Comana, and 
is second in rank after him, 

7. Only two prefectures have cities, Tyanitis the 
city Tyana, which lies below the Taurus at the 
Cilician Gates, where for all is the easiest and most 
commonly used pass into Cilicia and Syria. It is 
called “‘ Eusebeia near the Taurus” ; and its territory 
is for the most part fertile and level. Tyana is 
situated upon a mound of Semiramis,! which is 
beautifully fortified. Not far from this city are 
Castabala and Cybistra, towns still nearer to the 
mountain. At Castabala is the temple of the Pera- 
sian Artemis, where the priestesses, it is said, walk 
with naked feet over hot embers without pain. And 
here, too, some tell us over and over the same story 
of Orestes and Tauropolus,? asserting that she was 

1 Numerous mounds were ascribed to Semiramis (see 

16. 1. 3). 
2 i.e. Artemis Tauropolus (see 12. 2. 3). 

4 After οὗτος Meineke inserts δ᾽, 



θαι φάσκοντες διὰ τὸ πέραθεν κομισθῆναι. ἐν 
μὲν δὴ τῇ Τυανίτιδι. στρατηγίᾳ τῶν λεχθεισῶν 
δέκα ἐστὶ πόλις τὰ Τύανα (τὰς δ᾽ ἐπικτήτους 
οὐ συναριθμῶ ταύταις, τὰ Καστάβαλα καὶ τὰ 
Κύβιστρα καὶ τὰ ἐν τῇ τραχείᾳ Κιλικίᾳ, ἐν ἡ 
τὴν ᾿Ελαιοῦσσαν νησίον. εὔκαρπον " συνέκτισεν 
᾿Αρχέλαος ἀξιολόγως, καὶ τὸ πλέον ἐνταῦθα διέ- 
τριβεν), ἐν δὲ τῇ Κιλικίᾳ καλουμένῃ τὰ Μάξακα, 
C 538 ἡ μητρόπολις τοῦ ἔθνους" καλεῖται δ᾽ Εὐσέβεια 
καὶ αὕτη, ἐπίκλησιν ἡ πρὸς τῷ ᾿Αργαίῳ᾽ κεῖται 
γὰρ ὑπὸ τῷ ᾿Αργαίῳ ὄρει πάντων ὑψηλοτάτῳ 
καὶ ἀνέκλειπτον χιόνι τὴν ἀκρώρειαν ἔχοντι, ad 
ἧς φασὶν οἱ ἀναβαίνοντες (οὗτοι δ᾽ εἰσὶν ὀλίγοι) 
κατοπτεύεσθαι ταῖς αἰθρίαις ἄμφω τὰ πελάγη, 
τό τε Ἰ]οντικὸν καὶ τὸ ᾿Ισσικόν. τὰ μὲν οὖν 
ἄλλα ἀφυῆ πρὸς συνοικισμὸν ἔχει πόλεως, 
ἄνυδρός τε γάρ ἐστι καὶ ἀνώχυρος διά τε τὴν OAL- 
γωρίαν τῶν ἡγεμόνων καὶ ἀτείχιστος (τάχα δὲ 
καὶ ἐπίτηδες, ἵνα μὴ, ὡς τ τ: πεποιθότες 
τῷ τείχει σφόδρα, λῃστεύοιεν ὃ πεδίον οἰκοῦντες 
λόφους ὑπερδεξίους ἔ ἔχοντες καὶ ἀνεμβαλεῖς).3 καὶ 
τὰ κύκλῳ δὲ “χωρία ἔχει τελέως ἄφορα καὶ 
ἀγεώργητα, καίπερ ὄντα πεδινάς ἀλλ᾽ ἔστιν 
ἀμμώδη καὶ ὑπόπετρα. μικρὸν δ᾽ ἔτι προϊοῦσι 
καὶ πυρίληπτα πεδία καὶ μεστὰ βόθρων πυρὸς 
ἐπὶ σταδίους πολλούς, ὥστε πόρρωθεν ἡ κομιδὴ 

1 πόλις, Jones, for πόλισμα. 

2 Instead of εὔκαρπον E has εὔκαιρον. 

3 χῃστεύοιεν, Xylander, for πιστεύοιεν ; so the later editors. 

4 ἀνεμβαλεῖς, L. Kayser (Neue Jahrbiicher 69, 262), for 
ἐμβαλεῖς. Meineke follows MSS. ; Kramer suggests emending 
καί to οὐκ; Miiller-Diibner Saco οὐκ after καί. a, however, 
omits καὶ ἐμβαλεῖς. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 7 

called “ Perasian”’ because she was brought ‘‘ from 
the other side.’’! So then, in the prefecture Tyanitis, 
one of the ten above mentioned is Tyana (I am not 
enumerating along with these prefectures those that 
were acquired later, | mean Castabala and Cybistra 
and the places in Cilicia Tracheia,? where is Elaeussa, 
a very fertile island, which was settled in a note- 
worthy manner by Archelius, who spent the greater 
part of his time there), whereas Mazaca, the 
metropolis of the tribe, is in the Cilician prefecture, 
as itis called. This city, too, is called “ Eusebeia,”’ 
with the additional words “ near the Argaeus,” for it 
is situated below the Argaeus, the highest mountain 
of all, whose summit never fails to have snow upon 
it; and those who ascend it (those are few) say that 
in clear weather both seas, both the Pontus and the 
Issian Sea, are visible from it. Now in general Mazaca 
is not naturally a suitable place for the founding 
of a city, for it is without water and unfortified by 
nature; and, because of the neglect of the prefects, 
it is also without walls (perhaps intentionally so, in 
order that people inhabiting a plain, with hills above 
it that were advantageous and beyond range of 
missiles, might not, through too much reliance upon 
the wall as a fortification, engage in plundering). 
Further, the districts all round are utterly barren 
and untilled, although they are level; but they are 
sandy and are rocky underneath. And, proceeding 
a little farther on, one comes to plains extending 
over many stadia that are volcanic and full of fire- 
pits; and therefore the necessaries of life must be 

1 “yerathen.” ΞΟ ΤΟΣ 

5 βόθρων, Xylander, for βάθρων (βάραθρα hi, and D man. 
sec.); so the later editors. 



TOV ἐπιτηδείων. καὶ τὸ δοκοῦν δὲ πλεονέκτημα 
παρακείμενον ἔχει κίνδυνον" ἀξύλου yap ὑπαρ- 
ΡΣ σχεδόν τι τῆς συμπάσης Καππαδοκίας, 

᾿Αργαῖος ἔχει περικείμενον δρυμόν, ὥστε ἐγ- 
Tice ὁ ξυλισμὸς πάρεστιν, ἀλλ᾽ οἱ ὑποκείμενοι 
τῷ δρυμῷ τόποι καὶ αὐτοὶ “πολλαχοῦ πυρὰ 
ἔχουσιν, ἅμα δὲ καὶ ὕφυδροί εἰσι ψυχρῷ ὕδατι, 
οὔτε τοῦ “πυρὸς οὔτε τοῦ ὕδατος εἰς τὴν ἐπι- 
φάνειαν ἐκκύπτοντος, ὥστε καὶ ποάζειν τὴν 
πλείστην. ἔστι δ᾽ ὅπου καὶ ἑλῶδέ; ἐστι TO 
ἔδαφος, καὶ νύκτωρ ἐξάπτονται φλόγες ἀπ᾽ 
αὐτοῦ. οἱ μὲν οὖν ἔμπειροι φυλαττόμενοι τὸν 
ξυλισμὸν ποιοῦνται, τοῖς δὲ πολλοῖς κίνδυνός 
ἐστι, καὶ μάλιστα τοῖς κτήνεσιν, ἐμπίπτουσιν 
εἰς ἀδήλους βόθρους πυρός. 

Ἔστι δὲ καὶ ποταμὸς ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ τῷ πρὸ 
τῆς πόλεως, Μέλας καλούμενος, ὅσον τετταρά- 
κοντα σταδίους διέχων τῆς πόλεως, ἐν ταπεινο- 
τέρῳ τῆς πόλεως χωρίῳ τὰς πηγὰς ἔχων. ταύτῃ 
μὲν οὖν ἄχρηστος αὐτοῖς ἐστίν, οὐχ ὑπερδέξιον 
ἔχων͵ τὸ “ῥεῦμα, εἰς ἕλη δὲ καὶ λίμνας διαχεύμενος 
κακοῖ τὸν ἀέρα τοῦ θέρους τὸν περὶ τὴν πόλιν, 
καὶ τὸ λατομεῖον δὲ ποιεῖ δύσχρηστον, καίπερ 
εὔχρηστον ὄν" πλαταμῶνες γάρ εἰσιν, ἀφ᾽ ὧν 
τὴν λιθίαν ἔχειν ἄφθονον συμβαίνει τοῖς Μα- 
ζακηνοῖς πρὸς τὰς οἰκοδομίας. καλυπτόμεναι δ᾽ 
ὑπὸ τῶν ὑδάτων αἱ πλάκες ἀντιπράώττουσι. καὶ 
ταῦτα δ᾽ ἐστὶ τὰ ἕλη πανταχοῦ πυρίληπτα. 
᾿Αριαράθης δ᾽ ὁ βασιλεύς, τοῦ Μέλανος κατά 
τινα στενὰ ἔχοντος τὴν εἰς τὸν Εὐφράτην" 
διέξοδον, ἐμφράξας ταῦτα λίμνην πελαγίαν ἀπέ- 

1 Εὐφράτην is an error for ἽΑλυν. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 7-8 

brought from a distance. And further, that which 
seems to be an advantage is attended with peril, for 
although almost the whole of Cappadocia is without 
timber, the Argaeus has forests all round it, and there- 
fore the working of timber is close at hand; but the 
region which lies below the forests also contains fires 
in many places and at the same time has an under- 
ground supply of cold water, although neither the 
fire nor the water emerges to the surface ; and there- 
fore most of the country is covered with grass. In 
some places, also, the ground is marshy, and at night 
flames rise therefrom. Now those who are acquainted 
with the country can work the timber, since they are 
on their guard, but the country is perilous for most 
people, and especially for cattle, since they fall into 
the hidden fire-pits. 

8. ‘There is also a river in the plain before the city; 
it is called Melas, is about forty stadia distant from 
the city, and has its sources in a district that is 
below the level of the city. For this reason, there- 
fore, it is useless to the inhabitants, since its stream 
is not in a favourable position higher up, but spreads 
abroad into marshes and lakes, and in the summer- 
time vitiates the air round the city, and also makes 
the stone-quarry hard to work, though otherwise 
easy to work; for there are ledges of flat stones 
from which the Mazaceni obtain an abundant supply 
of stone for their buildings, but when the slabs are 
concealed by the waters they are hard to obtain. 
And these marshes, also, are everywhere volcanic. 
Ariarathes the king, since the Melas had an outlet 
into the Euphrates! by a certain narrow defile, 
dammed this and converted the neighbouring plain 

1 « Euphrates” is obviously an error for ‘‘ Halys.” 





δειξε τὸ πλησίον πεδίον, ἐνταῦθα δὲ νησῖδάς 
τίνας, ὡς τὰς Κυκλάδας, ἀπολα βόμενος δια- 
τριβὰς ἐν αὐταῖς ἐποιεῖτο μειρακιώδεις" ἐκραγὲν 
δ᾽ ἀθρόως τὸ ἔμφραγμα, ee πάλιν τὸ ὕδωρ, 
πληρωθεὶς δ ὃ Εὐφράτης * τῆς τε τῶν Καππα- 
δόκων πολλὴν παρέσυρε καὶ κατοικίας καὶ 
φυτείας ἠφάνισε πολλάς, τῆς τε τῶν Ladatav 
τῶν τὴν Φρυγίαν ἐχόντων οὐκ ὀλίγην ἐλυμήνατο, 
ἀντὶ δὲ τῆς βλάβης ἐπράξαντο ζημίαν αὐτὸν 
τάλαντα τριακόσια, Ῥωμαίοις. ἐπιτρέψαντες τὴν 
κρίσιν. τὸ δ᾽ αὐτὸ συνέβη καὶ περὶ Ἧρπα" καὶ 
γὰρ ἐκεῖ τὸ τοῦ Καρμάλα ῥεῦμα ἐνέφραξεν, εἶτ᾽ 
ἐκραγέντος τοῦ στομίου καὶ τῶν Κιλίκων τινὰ 
χωρία - τὰ περὶ Μαλλὸν διαφθείραντος τοῦ ὕδατος, 
δίκας ἔτισεν τοῖς ἀδικηθεῖσιν. 

9. ᾿Αφυὲς δ᾽ οὗν; κατὰ πολλὰ τὸ τῶν Μα- 
ζακηνῶν χωρίον ὃν 2 πρὸς κατοικίαν μάλιστα οἱ 
βασιλεῖς ἑλέσθαι δοκοῦσιν, ὅτε τῆς χώρας 
ἁπάσης τόπος ἣν μεσαίτατος. οὗτος τῶν ξύλα 
ἐχόντων ἅμα καὶ λίθον πρὸς τὰς οἰκοδομίας καὶ 
χόρτον, οὗ πλεῖστον ἐδέοντο ,κτηνοτροφοῦντες" 
τρόπον γάρ τινα στρατόπεδον ἣν αὐτοῖς ἡ πόλις. 
τὴν δ᾽ ἄλλην ἀσφάλειαν τὴν αὐτῶν τε καὶ 
σωμάτων ἐκ τῶν ἐρυμάτων * εἶχον τῶν ἐν τοῖς 
φρουρίοις, ἃ πολλὰ ὑπάρχει, τὰ μὲν. βασιλικά, 
τὰ δὲ τῶν φίλων. ἀφέστηκε δὲ τὰ Μάξακα 
τοῦ μὲν Πόντου περὶ ὀκτακοσίους σταδίους πρὸς 
νότον, τοῦ & Εὐφράτου μικρὸν ἐλάττους ἢ 

1 Εὐφράτης is an error for “AAus. 2 ov, Corais, for 8. 

3 Corais emends αὐτῶν to αὑτῶν and inserts τῶν before 
σωμάτων; and he emends ἐκ τῶν ἐρυμάτων to καὶ τῶν χρη- 

μάτων (so Meineke). Kramer proposes merely to emend 
σωμάτων to χρημάτων. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 8-9 

into a sea-like lake, and there, shutting off certain isles 
—like the Cyclades—from the outside world, passed 
his time there in boyish diversions. But the barrier 
broke all at once, the water streamed out again, and 
the Euphrates,’ thus filled, swept away much of 
the soil of Cappadocia, and obliterated numerous 
settlements and plantations, and also damaged no 
little of the country of the Galatians who held 
Phrygia. In return for the damage the inhabitants, 
who gave over the decision of the matter to the 
Romans, exacted of him a fine of three hundred 
talents. The same was the case also in regard to 
Herpa; for there too he dammed the stream of the 
Carmalas River; and then, the mouth having broken 
open and the water having ruined certain districts 
in Cilicia in the neighbourhood of Mallus, he paid 
damages to those who had been wronged. 

9. However, although the district of the Mazaceni 
is in many respects not naturally suitable for habita- 
tion, the kings seem to have preferred it, because of 
all places in the country this was nearest to the centre 
of the region which contained timber and stone for 
buildings, and at the same time provender, of which, 
being cattle-breeders, they needed a very large 
quantity, for in a way the city was for them a camp. 
And as for their security in general, both that of 
themselves and of their slaves, they got it from the 
defences in their strongholds, of which there are many, 
some belonging to the king and others to their friends. 
Mazaca is distant from Pontus? about eight hundred 
stadia to the south, from the Euphrates slightly less 

1 Again an error for ‘‘ Halys.”’ 
2 2,6. the country, not the sea. 



διπλασίους, τῶν Κιλικίων δὲ πυλῶν ὁδὸν ἡμε- 
ρῶν ἕξ καὶ τοῦ Κυρίνου 1 στρατοπέδου διὰ Τυά- 
νων" κατὰ μέσην δὲ τὴν ὁδὸν κεῖται τὰ Τύανα, 
διέχει δὲ Κυβίστρων τριακοσίους σταδίους. 
χρῶνται δὲ οἱ Μαξακηνοὶ τοῖς Χαρώνδα νόμοις, 
αἱρούμενοι καὶ νομῳδόν, ὅς ἐστιν αὐτοῖς ἐξηγητὴς 
τῶν νόμων, καθάπερ οἱ παρὰ “Ῥωμαίοις νομικοί. 
διέθηκε δὲ φαύλως αὐτοὺς Τιγράνης ὁ ᾿Αρμένιος, 
ἡνίκα τὴν Καππαδοκίαν κατέδραμεν᾽ ἅπαντας 
γὰρ ἀναστάτους ἐποίησεν εἰς τὴν Μεσοποταμίαν 
καὶ τὰ _ Teypavoxepra ἐκ τούτων συνῴκισε τὸ 
πλέον' ὕστερον δ᾽ ἀπανῆλθον οἱ δυνάμενοι μετὰ 
τὴν τῶν Τιγρανοκέρτων ἅλωσιν. 

10. “Μέγεθος δὲ τῆς “χώρας κατὰ πλάτος μὲν 
τὸ ἀπὸ τοῦ Πόντου πρὸς τὸν Ταῦρον ὅ ὅσον χίλιοι 
καὶ ὀκτακόσιοι στάδιοι, μῆκος δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς 
Λυκαονίας καὶ Φρυγίας μέχρι Εὐφράτου πρὸς 
τὴν ἕω καὶ τὴν ᾿Αρμενίαν περὶ τρισχιλίους. 
ἀγαθὴ δὲ καὶ καρποῖς, μάλιστα δὲ σίτῳ καὶ 
βοσκήμασι παντοδαποῖς, »νοτιωτέρα δ᾽ οὖσα τοῦ 
Πόντου Ψψυχροτέρα ἐστίν: ἡ δὲ Bayadavia,? 
καίπερ πεδιὰς οὖσα καὶ νοτιωτάτη πασῶν 
(ὑποπέπτωκε γὰρ τῷ Ταύρῳ), μόλις τῶν καρ- 
πίμων. τι φέρει δένδρων, ὀναγρόβοτος ὃ δ᾽ ἐστὶ 
καὶ αὕτη καὶ ἡ ΠΡ λυνὴ τῆς ἄλλης, καὶ μάλιστα 
” περὶ Γαρσαύιρα * καὶ Λυκαονίαν καὶ Μοριμηνήν. 
ἐν δὲ τῇ Καππαδοκίᾳ γίνεται καὶ ἡ λεγομένη 
Σινωπικὴ μίλτος, ἀρίστη τῶν πασῶν" ἐνάμιλλος 

1 Κυρίνου, Meineke emends to Κύρου. 
2 Bayadavia, Meineke, for Γαβανία E, Γαβαδανία other MSS. ; 
Bayadaovla, Tzschucke, Corais, Kramer. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 9-10 

than double that distance, and from the Cilician 
Gates and the camp of Cyrus a journey of six days 
by way of Tyana. ‘Tyana is situated at the middle 
of the journey and is three hundred stadia distant 
from Cybistra. The Mazaceni use the laws of 
Charondas, choosing also a Nomodus,! who, like the 
jurisconsults among the Romans, is the expounder 
of the laws. But ‘Tigranes, the Armenian, put the 
people in bad plight when he overran Cappadocia, 
for he forced them, one and all, to migrate into 
Mesopotamia ; and it was mostly with these that he 
settled Tigranocerta.2 But later, after the capture 
of Tigranocerta, those who could returned home. 

10. The size of the country is as follows: In 
breadth, from Pontus to the Taurus, about one 
thousand eight hundred stadia, and in length, from 
Lycaonia and Phrygia to the Euphrates towards the 
east and Armenia, about three thousand. It is an 
excellent country, not only in respect to fruits, but 
particularly in respect to grain and all kinds of cattle. 
Although it lies farther south than Pontus, it is 
colder, Bagadania, though level and farthest south 
of all (for it lies at the foot of the Taurus), produces 
hardly any fruit-bearing trees, although it is grazed by 
wild asses, both it and the greater part of the rest of 
the country, and particularly that round Garsauira and 
Lycaonia and Morimené. In Cappadocia is produced 
also the ruddle called “Sinopean,” the best in the 

1 ** Law-chanter.” ZG faleleesamlioys 

3 ὀναγρόβοτος (ὀναγροβότος, Casaubon and later editors), 

Jones, for ἀγρόβοτος. 
4 Tapoa’ipa Dhioz. For variants see C. Miller, Ind. Var. 

Lect. p. 1020 and ep, Γαρσαύιρα in 12, 2. 6. 


δ᾽ ἐστὶν αὐτῇ καὶ ἡ ᾿Ιβηρική ὠνομάσθη δὲ 
Σινωπική, διότι κατάγειν ἐκεῖσε εἰώθεσαν οἱ 
ἔμποροι, πρὶν ἢ τὸ τῶν ᾿Εφεσίων ἐμπόριον μέχρι 
τῶν ἐνθάδε ἀνθρώπων διῖχθαι. λέγεται δὲ καὶ 
κρυστάλλου πλάκας καὶ ὀνυχίτου λίθου πλησίον 
τῆς τῶν Ταλατῶν ὑπὸ τῶν ᾿Αρχελάου μεταλ- 
λευτῶν εὑρῆσθαι." ἣν δέ τις τόπος καὶ λίθου 
λευκοῦ, τῷ ἐλέφαντι κατὰ τὴν χρόαν ἐμφεροῦς, 
ὥσπερ ἀκόνας τινὰς οὐ μεγάλας ἐκφέρων, ἐξ ὧν 
τὰ λαβία τοῖς μαχαιρίοις κατεσκεύαζον" ἄλλος 8 
δ᾽ εἰς τὰς διόπτρας βώλους μεγάλας ἐκδιδούς, 
ὥστε καὶ ἔξω κομίζεσθαι. ὅριον δ᾽ ἐστὶ τοῦ 
Πόντου καὶ τῆς Καππαδοκίας ὀρειν τις παράλ- 
ληλος τῷ Tavpw, τὴν ἀρχὴν ἔχουσα ἀπὸ τῶν 
ἑσπερίων ἄκρων τῆς Χαμμανηνῆς, ἐφ᾽ ἧς ἵδρυται 
φρούριον ἀπότομον Δασμένδα, μέχρι τῶν ἑωθινῶν 
τῆς Aaoviavonvns.® στρατηγίαι δ᾽ εἰσὶ τῆς 
Καππαδοκίας ἥ τε Χαμμανηνὴ ἴ καὶ ἡ Λαουιαν- 

11. Συνέβη δέ, ἡνίκα πρῶτον Ῥωμαῖοι τὰ κατὰ 
τὴν ᾿Ασίαν διῴκουν, νικήσαντες ᾿Αντίοχον, καὶ 
φιλίας καὶ συμμαχίας ἐποιοῦντο πρός τε τὰ ἔθνη 
καὶ τοὺς βασιλέας, τοῖς μὲν ἄλλοις βασιλεῦσιν 
αὐτοῖς καθ᾽ ἑαυτοὺς δοθῆναι τὴν τιμὴν ταύτην, 
τῷ δὲ Καππάδοκι καὶ αὐτῷ δὲ τῷ ἔθνει κοινῇ. 
ἐκλιπόντος δὲ τοῦ βασιλικοῦ γένους, οἱ μὲν 

εἰώθεσαν, Groskurd, for εἰώθασιν ; so the later editors. 
εὑρῆσθαι, Corais, for εὑρέσθαι; so the later editors. 
CDhilrw read ἄλλως. 

δ᾽ εἰς τάς, Corais, for δὲ τάς ; so the later editors. 

For the variant spellings of this name, see C. Miiller 

- © ᾽ῷ μ᾿ 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 1o-11 

world, although the Iberian rivals it. It was named 
*«Sinopean’’! because the merchants were wont to 
bring it down thence to Sinopé before the traffic of 
the Ephesians had penetrated as far as the people of 
Cappadocia. It is said that also slabs of crystal and 
of onyx stone were found by the miners of Archelaus 
near the country of the Galatians. There was a 
certain place, also, which had white stone that was 
like ivory in colour and yielded pieces of the size of 
small whetstones ; and from these pieces they made 
handles for their small swords. And there was 
another place which yielded such large lumps of 
transparent stone? that they were exported. The 
boundary of Pontus and Cappadocia is a mountain 
tract parallel to the Taurus, which has its beginning 
at the western extremities of Chammanené, where 
is situated Dasmenda, a stronghold with sheer 
ascent, and extends to the eastern extremities of 
Laviansené. Both Chammanené and _ Laviansené 
are prefectures in Cappadocia. 

11. It came to pass, as soon as the Romans, after 
conquering Antiochus, began to administer the affairs 
of Asia and were forming friendships and alliances 
both with the tribes and with the kings, that in 
all other cases they gave this honour to the 
kings individually, but gave it to the king of 
Cappadocia and the tribe jointly. And when the 
royal family died out, the Romans, in accordance 

1 See 3. 2. 6. 
2 Apparently the lapis specularis, or a variety of mica, or 
isinglass, used for making window-panes. 
δ For variant spellings, see C. Miiller (/.c.). 
* For variant spellings, see C. Miiller (/.c.). 
* For variant spellings, see C. Miiller (/.c.). 


C 541 


“Ῥωμαῖοι συνεχώρουν αὐτοῖς αὐτονομεῖσθαι κατὰ 
τὴν συγκειμένην φιλίαν τε καὶ συμμαχίαν πρὸς 
τὸ ἔθνος, οἱ δὲ πρεσβευσάμενοι τὴν μὲν ἐλευθε- 
ρίαν παρῃτοῦντο (οὐ γὰρ δύνασθαι φέρειν αὐτὴν 
ἔφασαν), βασιλέα δ᾽ ἠξίουν αὐτοῖς ἀποδειχθῆναι. 

δέ, θαυμάσαντες εἴ τινες οὕτως εἶεν ἀπειρη- 
κότες πρὸς τὴν ἐλευθερίαν," ἐπέτρεψαν δ᾽ οὖν " 
αὐτοῖς ἐξ ἑαυτῶν ἑλέσθαι κατὰ χειροτονίαν, ὃν 
ἂν βούλωνται: 3 καὶ εἵλοντο ᾿Αριοβαρξάνην, εἰς 
τριγονίαν δὲ προελθόντος τοῦ γένους ἐξέλιπε" 
κατεστάθη δ᾽ o Ἀρχέλαος, οὐδὲν προσήκων αὐτοῖς, 
᾿Αντωνίου καταστήσαντος. ταῦτα καὶ περὶ τῆς 
μεγάλης Καππαδοκίας: περὶ δὲ τῆς τραχείας 
Κιλικίας, τῆς προστεθείσης αὐτῇ, βέλτιόν ἐστιν 
ἐν τῷ περὶ τῆς ὅλης Κιλικίας λόγῳ διελθεῖν. 


1. Τοῦ δὲ Πόντου καθίστατο μὲν ἃ Μιθριδάτης 
ὁ Εὐπάτωρ βασιλεύς. εἶχε δὲ τὴν ἀφοριζομένην 
τῷ “Advi μέχρι Τιβαρανῶν καὶ ᾿Αρμενίων καὶ 
τῆς ἐντὸς AXvos τὰ μέχρι ᾿Αμάστρεως καί τινων 
τῆς Παφλαγονίας μερῶν. προσεκτήσατο δ᾽ οὗτος 
καὶ τὴν μέχρι Ἡρακλείας παραλίαν ἐπὶ τὰ 
δυσμικὰ μέρη, τῆς Ἡρακλείδου τοῦ Πλατωνικοῦ 
πατρίδος, ἐπὶ δὲ τἀναντία μέχρι Κολχίδος καὶ 
τῆς μικρᾶς ᾿Αρμενίας, ἃ δὴ καὶ προσέθηκε τῷ 
Πόντῳ. καὶ δὴ καὶ Πομπήιος καταλύσας ἐκεῖνον 

Ε Meineke, following conj. of Kramer, indicates a lacuna 
before ἐπέτρεψαν. 

* δ᾽ οὖν omitted by editors before Kramer. 
% βούλωνται, restored by Kramer, instead of βούλοιντο. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 11-3. 1 

with their compact of friendship and alliance with 
the tribe, conceded to them the right to live under 
their own laws ; but those who came on the embassy 
not only begged off from the freedom (for they said 
that they were unable to bear it), but requested 
that a king be appointed for them. The Romans, 
amazed that any people should be so tired of 
freedom,!'—at any rate, they permitted them to 
choose by vote from their own number whomever 
they wished. And they chose Ariobarzanes; but 
in the course of the third generation his family died 
out; and Archelaiis was appointed king, though not 
related to the people, being appointed by Antony. 
So much for Greater Cappadocia. As for Cilicia 
Tracheia, which was added to Greater Cappadocia, 
it is better for me to describe it in my account of 
the whole of Cilicia.” 


1. As for Pontus, Mithridates Eupator established 
himself as king of it; and he held the country 
bounded by the Halys River as far as the Tibarani 
and Armenia, and held also, of the country this side 
the Halys, the region extending to Amastris and to 
certain parts of Paphlagonia. And he acquired, not 
only the sea-coast towards the west as far as 
Heracleia, the native land of Heracleides the Platonic 
philosopher, but also, in the opposite direction, the 
sea-coast extending to Colchis and Lesser Armenia ; 
and this, as we know, he added to Pontus. And 
in fact this country was comprised within these 

1 Something seems to have fallen out of the text here. 
21405. 1. 



ἐν τούτοις τοῖς ὅροις οὖσαν τὴν χώραν ταύτην 
παρέλαβε: τὰ μὲν πρὸς ᾿Αρμενίαν καὶ τὰ περὶ 
τὴν ,Κολχίδα τοῖς συναγωνισαμένοις δυνάσταις 
κατένειμε, τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ εἰς ἕνδεκα πολιτείας διεῖλε 
καὶ τῇ Βιθυνίᾳ προσέθηκεν, ὥστ᾽ ἐξ ἀμφοῖν 
ἐπαρχίαν γενέσθαι μίαν. μεταξύ τε τῶν Παφλα- 
γόνων τῶν μεσογαίων τινὰς βασιλεύεσθαι παρέ- 
δωκε τοῖς ἀπὸ Πυλαιμένους, καθάπερ καὶ τοὺς 
Παλάτας τοῖς ἀπὸ γένους τετράρχαις. ὕστερον 
δ᾽ οἱ τῶν “Ῥωμαίων ἡγεμόνες ἄλλους καὶ ἄλλους 
ἐποιήσαντο μερισμούς, βασιλέας τε καὶ δυνάστας 
καθιστάντες καὶ πόλεις τὰς μὲν ἐλευθεροῦντες, 
τὰς δὲ ἐγχειρίζοντες τοῖς δυνάσταις, τὰς δ᾽ ὑπὸ 
τῷ δήμῳ τῷ Ρωμαίων ἐῶντες. ἡμῖν δ᾽ ἐπιοῦσι τὰ 
καθ᾽ Exacta, ὡς νῦν ἔχει, λεγέσθω, μικρὰ καὶ 
τῶν προτέρων ἐφαπτομένοις, ὅπου τοῦτο χρήσι- 
μον. ἀρξόμεθα δὲ ἀπὸ Ἡρακλείας, ἥπερ δυσμι- 
κωτάτη ἐστὶ τούτων τῶν τόπων. 

2. Εἰς δὴ τὸν Εὔξεινον πόντον εἰσπλέουσιν ἐκ 
τῆς Προποντίδος ἐ ἐν ἀριστερᾷ μὲν τὰ προσεχῆ τῷ 
Βυξαντίῳ κεῖται, Θρᾳκῶν δ᾽ ἐστί, καλεῖται δὲ τὰ 
᾿Αριστερὰ τοῦ Πόντον" ἐν δεξιᾷ δὲ τὰ προσεχῆ 
Χαλκηδόνι, Βιθυνῶν δ᾽ ἐστὶ τὰ πρῶτα, εἶτα 
Μαριανδυνῶν (τινὲς δὲ καὶ Καυκώνων φασίν), 
εἶτα Παφλαγόνων μέχρι “Advos, εἶτα Καππα- 
δόκων τῶν πρὸς τῷ Πόντῳ καὶ τῶν ἑξῆς μέχρι 
Κολχίδος: ταῦτα δὲ πάντα καλεῖται τὰ Δεξιὰ 
τοῦ Lvéeivov πόντου. ταύτης δὲ τῆς παραλίας 
ἁπάσης ἐπῆρξεν Εὐπάτωρ, ἀρξάμενος ἀπὸ τῆς 

1 Between Pontus and Bithynia. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 1-2 

boundaries when Pompey took it over, upon his 
overthrow of Mithridates. The parts towards 
Armenia and those round Colchis he distributed to 
the potentates who had fought on his side, but the 
remaining parts he divided into eleven states and 
added them to Bithynia, so that out of both there 
was formed a single province. And he gave over to 
the descendants of Pylaemenes the office of king 
over certain of the Paphlagonians situated in the 
interior between them,! just as he gave over the 
Galatians to the hereditary tetrarchs. But later the 
Roman prefects made different divisions from time 
to time, not only establishing kings and potentates, 
but also, in the case of cities, liberating some and 
putting others in the hands of potentates and 
leaving others subject to the Roman people. As I 
proceed I must speak of things in detail as they 
now are, but I shall touch slightly upon things as 
they were in earlier times whenever this is useful. 1 
shall begin at Heracleia, which is the most westerly 
place in this region. 

2. Now as one sails into the Euxine Sea from the 
Propontis, one has on his left the parts which adjoin 
Byzantium (these belong to the Thracians, and are 
called “the Left-hand Parts” of the Pontus), and 
on his right the parts which adjoin Chalcedon. 
The first of these latter belong to the Bithynians, 
the next to the Mariandyni (by some also called 
Caucones), the next to the Paphlygonians as far as 
the Halys River, and the next to the Pontic Cappa- 
docians and to the people next in order after them 
as far as Colchis. All these are called the “ Right- 
hand Parts” of the Pontus, Now Eupator reigned 
over the whole of this sea-coast, beginning at Colchis 


C 542 


Κολχίδος μέχρι ᾿Ηρακλείας, ta δ᾽ ἐπέκεινα τὰ 
fal fol , -“ 
μέχρι τοῦ στόματος καὶ τῆς Χαλκηδόνος τῷ 
cal -“ / A 
Βιθυνῶν βασιλεῖ συνέμενε. καταλυθέντων δὲ 
fal / > / ere: rn \ > \ 
τῶν βασιλέων, ἐφύλαξαν ot Ῥωμαῖοι τοὺς avtous 
ὅρους, ὥστε τὴν Ἡράκλειαν προσκεῖσθαι τῷ 
Πόντῳ, τὰ δ᾽ ἐπέκεινα Βιθυνοῖς προσχωρεῖν. 

8. Οἱ μὲν οὖν Βιθυνοὶ διότι πρότερον Μυσοὶ 
ὄντες μετωνομάσθησαν οὕτως ἀπὸ τῶν Θρᾳκῶν 
a lal A € 
τῶν ἐποικησάντων, Βιθυνῶν τε καὶ Θυνῶν, opo- 
- lal “ ,ὔ 
λογεῖται παρὰ τῶν πλείστων, καὶ σημεῖα τίθευ- 
ται τοῦ μὲν τῶν Βιθυνῶν ἔθνους τὸ μέχρι νῦν ἐν 
τῇ Θράκῃ λέγεσθαί τινας Βιθυνούς, τοῦ δὲ τῶν 

nr \ ’ / 
Θυνῶν τὴν Θυνιάδα ἀκτὴν τὴν πρὸς ᾿Απολλωνίᾳ 

\ ys A Novy Se Va δὰ e ΄ bs 
καὶ Σαλμυδησσῷ. καὶ οἱ Βέβρυκες δὲ οἱ τούτων 
προεποικήσαντες τὴν Μυσίαν Θρᾷκες, ὡς εἰκάζω 
ἐγώ. εἴρηται δ᾽, ὅτε καὶ αὐτοὶ οἱ Μυσοὶ Θρᾳκῶν 
ἄποικοί εἰσι τῶν νῦν λεγομένων Μοισῶν. ταῦτα 
μὲν οὕτω λέγεται. 

4, Τοὺς δὲ Μαριανδυνοὺς καὶ τοὺς Καύκωνας 
οὐχ ὁμοίως ἅπαντες λέγουσι" τὴν γὰρ δὴ Ἣρά- 
κλειαν ἐν τοῖς Μαριανδυνοῖς ἱδρῦσθαί φασι, 

, / ’ὔ δὲ \ 40 ὑδὲ Ἵ 
Μιλησίων κτίσμα, τίνες δὲ καὶ πόθεν, οὐδὲν 
εἴρηται, οὐδὲ διάλεκτος, οὐδ᾽ ἄλλη διαφορὰ ἐθνικὴ 
περὶ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους φαίνεται, παραπλήσιοι δ᾽ 
εἰσὶ τοῖς Βιθυνοῖς" ἔοικεν οὖν καὶ τοῦτο Θράκιον 
¢€ / \ lal , Ν , 
ὑπάρξαι TO φῦλον. Θεόπομπος δὲ Μαριανδυνόν 
φησι μέρους τῆς Παφλαγονίας ἄρξαντα ὑπὸ 
πολλῶν δυναστευομένης, ἐπελθόντα τὴν τῶν 

1 οὐδέν, Meineke emends to οὐδενί. 

1 See 7. 8. 2. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 2-4 

and extending as far as Heracleia, but the parts 
farther on, extending as far as the mouth of the 
Pontus and Chalcedon, remained under the rule of 
the king of Bithynia. But when the kings had been 
overthrown, the Romans preserved the same bounda- 
ries, so that Heracleia was added to Pontus and the 
parts farther on went to the Bithynians. 

3. Now as for the Bithynians, it is agreed by most 
writers that, though formerly Mysians, they received 
this new name from the Thracians—the Thracian 
Bithynians and Thynians—who settled the country in 
question, and they put down as evidences of the 
tribe of the Bithynians that in Thrace certain people 
are to this day called Bithynians, and of that of the 
Thynians, that the coast near Apollonia and Salmy- 
dessus is called Thynias. And the Bebryces, who 
took up their abode in Mysia before these people, 
were also Thracians, as I suppose. It is stated that 
even the Mysians themselves are colonists of those 
Thracians who are now called Moesians.!_ Such is 
the account given of these people. 

4. But all do not give the same account of the 
Mariandyni and the Caucones; for Heracleia, they 
say, is situated in the country of the Mariandyni, 
and was founded by the Milesians ; but nothing has 
been said as to who they are or whence they came, 
nor yet do the people appear characterised by any 
ethnic difference, either in dialect or otherwise, 
although they are similar to the Bithynians. Ac- 
cordingly, it is reasonable to suppose that this tribe 
also was at first Thracian. Theopompus says that 
Mariandynus ruled over a part of Paphlagonia, which 
was under the rule of many potentates, and then 
invaded and took possession of the country of the 



Βεβρύκων κατασχεῖν, ἣν δ᾽ ἐξέλιπεν, ἐπώνυμον 
ἑαυτοῦ καταλιπεῖν. εἴρηται δὲ καὶ τοῦτο, ὅτι 
πρῶτοι τὴν Ἡράκλειαν κτίσαντες Μιλήσιοι τοὺς 
Μαριανδυνοὺς εἱλωτεύειν, ἠνάγκασαν τοὺς προ- 
κατέχοντας τὸν τόπον, ὥστε καὶ πιπράσκεσθαι 
ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν, μὴ εἰς τὴν ὑπερορίαν δέ (συμβῆναι 
γὰρ ἐπὶ τούτοις), καθάπερ Κρησὶ μὲν ἐθήτευεν ἡ 
Μνῷα! καλουμένη σύνοδος, Θετταλοῖς δὲ οἱ 

5. Τοὺς δὲ Καύκωνας, ods ἱστοροῦσι τὴν ἐφεξῆς 
οἰκῆσαι παραλίαν τοῖς Μαριανδυνοῖς μέχρι τοῦ 
Παρθενίου ποταμοῦ, πόλιν ἔχοντας τὸ Τίειον,2 οἱ 
μὲν Σκύθας φασίν, οἱ δὲ τῶν Μακεδόνων τινάς, 
οἱ δὲ τῶν ΠΕελασγῶν' εἴρηται δέ που καὶ περὶ 
τούτων πρότερον. Καλλισθένης δὲ καὶ ἔγραφε 
τὰ ἔπη ταῦτα εἰς τὸν Διάκοσμον, μετὰ τὸ 

Κρῶμνάν τ᾽ Αὐἰγιαλόν τε καὶ ὑψηλοὺς ᾿Βρνθίνους 

Καύκωνας © abt aye Πολυκλέος υἱὸς ἀμύμων, 

οἱ περὶ ΠΙαρθένιον ποταμὸν κλυτὰ δώματ᾽ 


παρήκειν γὰρ ἀφ᾽ Ἡρακλείας καὶ Μαριανδυνῶν 
μέχρι Λευκοσύρων, ovs καὶ ἡμεῖς Καππάδοκας 
προσαγορεύομεν, τό τε τῶν Καυκώνων γένος τὸ 
περὶ τὸ Τίειον ὃ μέχρι Παρθενίου καὶ τὸ τῶν 
Ἑνετῶν τὸ TUVEXES μετὰ τὸν Παρθένιον τῶν 
ἐχόντων τὸ Κύτωρον, καὶ νῦν δ᾽ ἔτι Καυκωνίτας 
εἶναί τινας περὶ τὸν Παρθένιον’ 
Μνῷα, the editors, for Μινῶα and Μινώα. 

Τίειον, the editors, for Τήιον. 
Τίειον, the editors, for Τήιον. 


1 Literally, ‘‘synod.” Ὁ. 5.5. 7. 

GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 4-5 

Bebryces, but left the country which he had aban- 
doned named after himself. This, too, has been said, 
that the Milesians who were first to found Heracleia 
forced the Mariandyni, who held the place before 
them, to serve as Helots, so that they sold them, but 
not beyond the boundaries of their country (for the 
two peoples came to an agreement on this), just as 
the Mnoan class,! as it is called, were serfs of the 
Cretans and the Penestae of the Thessalians. 

5. As for the Cauconians, who, according to report, 
took up their abode on the sea-coast next to the 
Mariandyni and extended as far as the Parthenius 
River, with Tieium as their city, some say that they 
were Scythians, others that they were a certain 
people of the Macedonians, and others that they 
were a certain people of the Pelasgians. But 1 have 
already spoken of these people in another place.” 
Callisthenes in his treatise on Zhe Marshalling of the 
Ships was for inserting® after the words “ Cromna, 
Aegialus, and lofty Erythini’’ 4 the words “ the Cau- 
conians were led by the noble son of Polycles—they 
who lived in glorious dwellings in the neighbourhood 
of the Parthenius River,” for, he adds, the Cauconians 
extended from Heracleia and the Mariandyni to the 
White Syrians, whom we call Cappadocians, and the 
tribe of the Cauconians round Tieium extended to 
the Parthenius River, whereas that of the Heneti, 
who held Cytorum, were situated next to them after 
the Parthenius River, and still to-day certain 
“Cauconitae’’® live in the neighbourhood of the 
Parthenius River. 

3 2,6. in the Homeric text. 

4 Iliad 2. 855. On the site of the Erythini (‘‘ reddish 
cliffs”), see Leaf, Troy, p. 282. 

5. Called ‘‘ Cauconiatae” in 8. 3. 17. 


C 543 


6. ‘H μὲν οὖν Ἡράκλεια πόλις ἐστὶν εὐλίμενος 
καὶ ἄλλως ἀξιόλογος, ἥ ἥ γε καὶ ἀποικίας ἔστελλεν" 
ἐκείνης γὰρ ἥ τε Χερρόνησος a ἄποικος καὶ ἡ Κάλ- 
λατις" ἦν τε αὐτόνομος, εἶτ᾽ ἐτυραννήθη χρόνους 
τινάς, εἶτ᾽ ἠλευθέρωσεν ἑαυτὴν πάλιν: ὕστερον 
δ᾽ ἐβασιλεύθη, γενομένη ὑπὸ τοῖς Ρωμαίοις" 
ἐδέξατο δ᾽ ἀποικίαν Ῥωμαίων ἐπὶ μέρει τῆς 
πόλεως καὶ τῆς χώρας. λαβὼν δὲ Tap’ ᾿Αντωνίου 
τὸ μέρος τοῦτο τῆς πόλεως ᾿Αδιατόριξ ὁ Δομνε- 
κλείου, τετράρχου Γαλατῶν, υἱός, ὃ κατεῖχον οἱ 
“Ηρακλειῶται, μικρὸν πρὸ τῶν ᾿Ακτιακῶν ἐπέθετο 
νύκτωρ τοῖς Ῥωμαίοις καὶ ἀπέσφαξεν αὐτούς, 
ἐπιτρέψαντος, ὡς ἔφασκεν ἐκεῖνος, ᾿Αντωνίου: 
θριαμβευθεὶς δὲ μετὰ τὴν ἐν ᾿Ακτίῳ νίκην, ἐσφάγη 
μεθ᾽ υἱοῦ. ἡ δὲ πόλις ἐστὶ τῆς Ποντικῆς ἐ ἐπαρχίας 
τῆς συντεταγμένης τῇ Βιθυνίᾳ. 

1. Μεταξὺ δὲ Χαλκηδόνος, καὶ Ἡρακλείας 
ῥέουσι ποταμοὶ πλείους, ὧν εἰσὶν ὅ τε Ψίλλις 
καὶ ὁ Κάλπας καὶ ὁ Σαγγάριος, οὗ μέμνηται 
καὶ ὁ ποιητής. ἔχει δὲ τὰς πηγὰς κατὰ Σαγγίαν 
κώμην ἀφ᾽ ἑκατὸν καὶ πεντήκοντά που σταδίων 
οὗτος Ἰ]εσσινοῦντος"} διέξεισι δὲ τῆς ἐπικτήτου 
Φρυγίας τὴν πλείω, μέρος δέ τι καὶ τῆς Βιθυνίας, 
ὥστε καὶ τῆς Νικομηδείας ἀπέχειν 3 μικρὸν πλείους 
ὴ τριακοσίους σταδίους, καθ᾽ ὃ συμβάλλει ποτα- 
μὸς αὐτῷ Γάλλος, ἐκ Μόδρων τὰς ἀρχὰς ἔχων 
τῆς ἐφ᾽ ᾿Βλλησπόντῳ Φρυγίας. αὕτη δ᾽ ἐστὶν 
ἡ αὐτὴ τῇ ἐπικτήτῳ, καὶ εἶχον αὐτὴν οἱ Βιθυνοὶ 
πρότερον. αὐξηθεὶς δὲ καὶ γενόμενος πλωτός, 

1 CKhoxz read Πισινοῦντος. 
2 ἀπέχειν, Corais, for ἀποσχεῖν ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 6-7 

6. Now Heracleia is a city that has good harbours 
and is otherwise worthy of note, since, among other 
things, it has also sent forth colonies; for both 
Chersonesus? and Callatis are colonies from it. It 
was at first an autonomous city, and then for some 
time was ruled by tyrants, and then recovered its 
freedom, but later was ruled by kings, when it 
became subject tothe Romans. The people received 
a colony of Romans, sharing with them a part of 
their city and territory. But Adiatorix, the son of 
Domnecleius, tetrarch of the Galatians, received 
from Antony that part of the city which was occu- 
pied by the Heracleiotae; and a little before the 
Battle of Actium he attacked the Romans by night 
and slaughtered them, by permission of Antony, as 
he alleged. But after the victory at Actium he was 
led in triumph and slain together with his son. The 
city belongs to the Pontic Province which was united 
with Bithynia. 

7. Between Chalcedon and Heracleia flow several 
rivers, among which are the Psillis and the Calpas 
and the Sangarius, which last is mentioned by the 
poet.2 The Sangarius has its sources near the village 
Sangia, about one hundred and fifty stadia from 
Pessinus. It flows through the greater part of 
Phrygia Epictetus, and also through a part of 
Bithynia, so that it is distant from Nicomedeia a 
little more than three hundred stadia, reckoning 
from the place where it is joined by the Gallus 
River, which has its beginnings at Modra in Phrygia 
on the Hellespont. This is the same country as 
Phrygia Epictetus, and it was formerly occupied by 
the Bithynians. Thus increased, and now having 

1 See 7. 4. 2. Thad ὃ. 187, 16. 719. 

VOL. V. N 


καίπερ πάλαι ἄπλωτος ὠν, THY Βιθυνίαν ὁρίζει 
πρὸς ταῖς ἐκβολαῖς. πρόκειται δὲ τῆς παραλίας 
ταύτης καὶ ἡ Θυνία νῆσος. ἐν δὲ τῇ “Hpa- 
κλειώτιδι γίνεται τὸ ἀκόνιτον᾽ διέχει δὲ ἡ πόλις 
αὕτη τοῦ ἱεροῦ τοῦ Χαλκηδονίου σταδίους χι- 
λίους που καὶ πεντακοσίους, τοῦ δὲ Σαγγαρίου 

8. To δὲ τερον ἐστι πολίχνιον οὐδὲν ἔχον 
μνήμης ἄξιον, πλὴν ὅτι Φιλέταιρος ἐντεῦθεν ἦν, 
ὁ ἀρχηγέτης τοῦ τῶν ᾿Ατταλικῶν βασιλέων 
γένους" εἶθ᾽ ὁ Παρθένιος ποταμὸς διὰ χωρίων 
ἀνθηρῶν φερόμενος καὶ διὰ τοῦτο τοῦ ὀνόματος 
τούτου τετυχηκώς, ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ΠΙὨαφλαγονίᾳ τὰς 
πηγὰς ἔχων' ἔπειτα ἡ Παφλαγονία καὶ οἱ ᾿Ενετοί. 
ζητοῦσι δέ, τίνας λέγει τοὺς ᾿Ενετοὺς ὁ ποιητής, 
ὅταν φῆ" 

Παφλαγόνων δ᾽ ἡγεῖτο Πυλαιμένεος λάσιον κῆρ 
ἐξ Ενετῶν, ὅθεν ἡμιόνων γένος ἀγροτεράων. 

> \ , , A > \ > - 
οὐ γὰρ δείκνυσθαί φασι νῦν ᾿Ενετοὺς ἐν τῇ 
/ € \ ᾿ξ » nr > lal \ 
a’ δὲ Ko TO 
ΠΠαφλαγονίᾳ οἱ O€ κώμην ἐν τᾷ ,Αἰγιαλῷ φασὶ 
δέκα σχοίνους ἀπὸ ᾿Αμάστρεως διέχουσαν. Ζηνό- 
δοτος δὲ ἐξ ᾿Ιἱνετῆς γράφει, καί φησι δηλοῦσθαι 
τὴν νῦν ᾿Αμισόν: ἄλλοι δὲ φῦλόν τι τοῖς Καππά- 
δοξιν ὅμορον στρατεῦσαι μετὰ Κιμμερίων, εἶτ᾽ 
> a > \ 3% , \ \ ΄ ΤῸ 
ἐκπεσεῖν εἰς τὸν ᾿Αδρίαν. τὸ δὲ μάλισθ᾽ ὁμολο- 
΄ , > .“ ’ ΄ a r 
γούμενόν ἐστιν, ὅτι ἀξιολογώτατον ἣν τῶν Παφλα- 
γόνων φῦλον οἱ ‘“Evetoi, ἐξ οὗ ὁ ΠΠυλαιμένης jv: 

1 <“parthenius’’ (lit. ‘‘maidenly”) was the name of ἃ 
flower used in making garlands. 
2 Tliad 2. 851. 3 Sc. ‘‘ called Eneti,” or Eneté. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 7-8 

become navigable, though of old not navigable, 
the river forms a boundary of Bithynia at its outlets. 
Off this coast lies also the island Thynia. The plant 
called aconite grows in the territory of Heracleia. 
This city is about one thousand five hundred stadia 
from the Chalcedonian temple and five hundred 
from the Sangarius River. 

8. Tieium is a town that has nothing worthy of 
mention except that Philetaerus, the founder of the 
family of Attalic Kings, was from there. Then 
comes the Parthenius River, which flows through 
flowery districts and on this account came by its 
name ;1 it has its sources in Paphlagonia itself. And 
then comes Paphlagonia and the Eneti. Writers 
question whom the poet means by “the Eneti,’ when 
he says, “ And the rugged heart of Pylaemenes led 
the Paphlagonians, from the land of the Eneti, 
whence the breed of wild mules” ;? for at the 
present time, they say, there are no Eneti to be 
seen in Paphlagonia, though some say that there is 
a village? on the Aegialus? ten schoeni® dis- 
tant from Amastris. But Zenodotus writes “from 
Eneté,”’ ὁ and says that Homer clearly indicates the 
Amisus of to-day. And others say that a tribe called 
Eneti, bordering on the Cappadocians, made an 
expedition with the Cimmerians and then were 
driven out to the Adriatic 5684. But the thing 
upon which there is general agreement is, that the 
Eneti, to whom Pylaemenes belonged, were the 
most notable tribe of the Paphlagonians, and that, 

4 i.e. Shore. > A variable measure (see 17. 1. 24), 

ὁ 2 6. instead of ‘‘from the Eneti” (cf. 12. 3. 25). 

7 For a discussion of the Eneti, see Leaf, Troy, pp. 285 ff. 
(Gin Ws Be Ml, By Ze 159: miacl We, 5. 25): 


καὶ δὴ Kal συνεστράτευσαν οὗτοι αὐτῷ πλεῖστοι, 
> “i \ \ ΄ , / > \ 
ἀποβαλόντες δὲ τὸν ἡγεμόνα διέβησαν εἰς τὴν 
Θράκην μετὰ τὴν Τροίας ἅλωσιν, πλανώμενοι ὃ 
εἰς τὴν νῦν ᾿Ενετικὴν ἀφίκοντο. τινὲς δὲ καὶ 
᾿Αντήνορα καὶ τοὺς παῖδας αὐτοῦ κοινωνῆσαι τοῦ 
/ \ € an 
στόλου τούτου φασὶ καὶ ἱδρυθῆναι κατὰ τὸν 
μυχὸν τοῦ ᾿Αδρίου, καθάπερ ἐμνήσθημεν. ἐν τοῖς 
᾿Ιταλικοῖς. τοὺς μὲν οὖν ᾿Ενετοὺς διὰ τοῦτ᾽ ἐκλι- 
πεῖν εἰκὸς καὶ μὴ δείκνυσθαι ἐ ἐν τῇ Madaayovia. 
9. Τοὺς δὲ Τα Ο, 60 πρὸς ἕω μὲν ὁρίζει ὁ 
apes ποταμός, ὃς 1 ῥέων ἀπὸ μεσημβρίας μεταξὺ 
Σύρων τε καὶ Παφλαγόνων " ἐξίησι ὃ κατὰ τὸν 
Ἡρόδοτον εἰς τὸν Εὔξεινον καλεόμενον πόντον, 
Σύρους λέγοντα τοὺς Καππάδοκας" καὶ γὰρ ἔτι 
καὶ νῦν Λευκόσυροι καλοῦνται, Σύρων καὶ τῶν 
ἔξω τοῦ Ταύρου λεγομένων: κατὰ δὲ τὴν πρὸς 
τοὺς ἐντὸς τοῦ Ταύρου σύγκρισιν, ἐκείνων ἐπικε- 
\ VA 
καυμένων τὴν χρόαν, τούτων δὲ μή, τοιαύτην τὴν 
ἐπωνυμίαν γενέσθαι συνέβη: καὶ ἸΠίνδαρός φησιν, 
ὅτι αἱ ᾿Αμαζόνες Σύριον εὐρυαίχμαν͵ δίεπον 4 
στρατόν, τὴν ἐν τῇ Θεμεσκύρᾳ κατοικίαν οὕτω 
δηλῶν. ἡ δὲ Θεμίσκυρά ἐστιν τῶν ᾿Αμισηνῶν, 
αὕτη δὲ Λευκοσύρων τῶν μετὰ τὸν Αλυν. πρὸς 
“ \ ΄ ἘΠ “ r , 
ἕω μὲν τοίνυν ὁ Αλυς ὅριον τῶν Παφλαγόνων, 
Ν / 
πρὸς νότον δὲ Φρύγες Kal οἱ ἐποικήσαντες Vadatac, 
\ ΄ \ \ \ / , \ δ 
πρὸς δύσιν δὲ Βιθυνοὶ καὶ Μαριανδυνοί (τὸ γὰρ 
a ΄ / 5 / / 4 
τῶν Καυκώνων γένος ἐξέφθαρται τελέως πάντοθεν), 

1 ὅς, Corais inserts (see Herod. 1. 6); so the later editors. 

2 καί, before ἐξίησι. Meineke ejects. 

9 But Herodotus reads ἐξίει. 

4 δίεπον owz and Meineke, for διΐπον C, δίηπον lw, διεῖπον, 
other MSS. and editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 8-9 

furthermore, these made the expedition with him in 
very great numbers, but, losing their leader, crossed 
over to Thrace after the capture of Troy, and on 
their wanderings went to the Enetian country,! as it 
is now called. According to some writers, Antenor 
and his children took part in this expedition and 
settled at the recess of the Adriatic, as mentioned 
by me in my account of Italy.2 It is therefore 
reasonable to suppose that it was on this account 
that the Eneti disappeared and are not to be seen in 

9. As for the Paphlagonians, they are bounded on 
the east by the Halys River, “which,” according to 
Herodotus,? ‘‘flows from the south between the 
Syrians and the Paphlagonians and empties into the 
Euxine Sea, as it is called”’ ; by ‘‘Syrians,”’ however, 
he means the ‘‘ Cappadocians,”’ and in fact they are 
still to-day called “ White Syrians,” while those out- 
side the Taurus are called “Syrians.’’ As compared 
with those this side the Taurus, those outside have a 
tanned complexion, while those this side do not, and 
for this reason received the appellation “ white.” 
And Pindar says that the Amazons “swayed a 
‘Syrian’ army that reached afar with their spears,’ 
thus clearly indicating that their abode was in 
Themiscyra. Themiscyra is in the territory of the 
Amiseni; and this territory belongs to the White 
Syrians, who live in the country next after the 
Halys River. On the east, then, the Paphlagonians 
are bounded by the Halys River; on the south by 
Phrygians and the Galatians who settled among 
them; on the west by the Bithynians and the 
Mariandyni (for the race of the Cauconians has 

1 See 3. 2. 13 and δ. 1. 4. ΕΠ ΒΗ 95 0. 


πρὸς ἄρκτον δὲ ὁ Εὔξεινός, ἐστι. τῆς δὲ χώρας 
ταύτης διῃρημένης εἴς τε τὴν “μεσόγαιαν καὶ τὴν 
ἐπὶ θαλάττῃ, διατείνουσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ “ AXvos μέχρι 
Βιθυνίας ἑκατέραν, τὴν μὲν παραλίαν ἕως τῆς 
Ἡρακλείας εἶχεν ὁ Εὐπάτωρ, τῆς δὲ μεσογαίας 
τὴν μὲν ἐγγυτάτω ἔσχεν, ἧς τινὰ καὶ πέραν τοῦ 
“Αλυος διέτεινε' καὶ μέχρι δεῦρο τοῖς Ῥωμαίοις 
ἡ ΠΟοντικὴ ἐπαρχία ἀφώρισται: τὰ λοιπὰ δ᾽ ἣν 
ὑπὸ δυνάσταις καὶ μετὰ τὴν Μιθριδάτου κατά- 
λυσιν. περὶ μὲν δὴ τῶν ἐν τῇ μεσογαίᾳ Παφλα- 
γόνων ἐροῦμεν ὕστερον τῶν μὴ ὑπὸ τῷ ΜΙ θριδάτῃ, 
νῦν δὲ πρόκειται τὴν UT ἐκείνῳ χώραν, κληθεῖσαν 
δὲ Πόντον, διελθεῖν. 

10. Mera "δὴ τὸν Παρθένιον ποταμόν ἐστιν 
"Δμαστρις, ὁμώνυμος τῆς συνῳκικυίας πόλις" 
ἴδρυται δ᾽ ἐπὶ χερρονήσου λιμένας ἔχουσα τοῦ 
ἰσθμοῦ ἑκατέρωθεν" ἣν δ᾽ ἡ "Αμαστρις γυνὴ μὲν 
Διονυσίου, τοῦ Ἡρακλείας τυράννου, θυγάτηρ 
δὲ ᾿Οξυάθρου, τοῦ Δαρείου ἀδελφοῦ τοῦ κατὰ 
᾿Αλέξανδρον᾽ ἐκείνη μὲν οὖν ἐκ eee κατοι- 
κιῶν συνῴκισε! τὴν πόλιν, ἔκ τε Σησάμου καὶ 
Κυτώρου καὶ ἹΚρώμνης (ὧν καὶ “Ὅμηρος μέμνηται 
ἐν τῷ Tioga διακόσμῳ), τετάρτης δὲ τῆς 
Τιείου:3 ἀλλ᾽ αὕτη μὲν ταχὺ ἀπέστη τῆς κοινωνίας, 
αἱ δὲ ἄλλαι συνέμειναν, ὧν ἡ Σήσαμος ἀκρόπολις 
τῆς ᾿Αμάστρεως λέγεται. τὸ δὲ Κύτωρον ἐμπό- 
ριον ἣν ποτὲ Σινωπέων, ὠνόμασται δ᾽ ἀπὸ Κυ- 

1 E reads συνέστησε. 
2 Τιείου, Tzschucke, Corais, and Miller-Diibner, for Τηίου ; 
the Epitome, Kramer, and Meineke read Tiov. 

1 2,6. interior of Paphlagonia. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. g-10 

everywhere been destroyed), and on the north by 
the Euxine. Now this country was divided into two 
parts, the interior and the part on the sea, each 
stretching from the Halys River to Bithynia; and 
Eupator not only held the coast as far as Heracleia, 
but also took the nearest part of the interior,! certain 
portions of which extended across the Halys (and 
the boundary of the Pontic Province has been 
marked off by the Romans as far as this). The re- 
maining parts of the interior, however, were subject 
to potentates, even after the overthrow of Mithri- 
dates. Now as for the Paphlagonians in the interior, 
I mean those not subject to Mithridates, I shall 
discuss them later,? but at present I propose to 
describe the country which was subject to him, called 
the Pontus. 

10. After the Parthenius River, then, one comes 
to Amastris, a city bearing the same name as the 
woman who founded it. It is situated on a penin- 
sula and has harbours on either side of the isthmus. 
Amastris was the wife of Dionysius the tyrant of 
Heracleia and the daughter of Oxyathres, the 
brother of the Dareius whom Alexander fought. 
Now she formed the city out of four settlements, 
Sesamus and Cytorum and Cromna (which Homer 
mentions in his marshalling of the Paphlagonian 
ships) 4 and, fourth, Tieium. This last, however, soon 
revolted from the united city, but the other three 
remained together ; and, of these three, Sesamus is 
called the acropolis of Amastris. Cytorum was once 
the emporium of the Sinopeans; it was named after 

2 Cp. J. G. C. Anderson in Anatolian Studies presented to 
Sir William Mitchell Ramsay, P. 6. 
8.19. 3 41—42. 2. 853—885. 


C 545 


τώρου, τοῦ Φρίξου παιδός, ὡς “Edopos φησι. 
πλείστη δὲ καὶ ἀρίστη πύξος φύεται κατὰ τὴν 
᾿Αμαστριανήν, καὶ μάλιστα περὶ τὸ Κύτωρον. 
ὁ δὲ Αὐγιαλός ἐστι μὲν ἠιὼν μακρὰ πλειόνων 9 
ἢ ἑκατὸν σταδίων" ἔχει δὲ καὶ κώμην ὁμώνυμον, 
ἧς μέμνηται ὁ ποιητής, ὅταν φῇ, 

Κρῶμνάν τ᾽ Αἰγιαλόν τε καὶ ὑψηλοὺς ᾿Ερυθί- 

γράφουσι δέ τινες, 
Κρῶμναν ἹΚωβίαλον τε. 

᾿Βρυθίνους δὲ λέγεσθαί φασι τοὺς νῦν Ἔρυθρί- 
νους, ἀπὸ τῆς χρόας" δύο δ᾽ εἰσὶ σκόπελοι. μετὰ 
δὲ Αἰγιαλὸν Κάραμβις, ἄκρα μεγάλη πρὸς τὰς 
ἄρκτους ἀνατεταμένη καὶ τὴν Σκυθικὴν χερρό- 
VNC OV. ἐμνήσθημεν δ᾽ αὐτῆς πολλάκις καὶ τοῦ 
ἀντικειμένου αὐτῇ Κριοῦ μετώπου, διθάλαττον 
ποιοῦντος τὸν Εὔξεινον πόντον. μετὰ δὲ Κά- 
ραμβιν Κίνωλις καὶ ᾿Αντικίνωλις καὶ ᾿Αβώνου 
τεῖχος, πολίχνιον, καὶ ᾿Αρμένη, ἐφ᾽ ἡ παροιμιά- 

“ » ᾽ \ 3 ’ / > , 
ὅστις ἔργον οὐδὲν εἶχεν ᾿Αρμένην ἐτείχισεν. 

ἔστι δὲ κώμη τῶν Σινωπέων ἔχουσα λιμένα. 

11. Εἶτ᾽ αὐτὴ Σινώπη, σταδίους πεντήκοντα 
τῆς ᾿Αρμένης διέχουσα, ἀξιολογωτάτη τῶν ταύτῃ 
πόλεων. ἔκτισαν μὲν οὖν αὐτὴν Μιλήσιοι" κατα- 
σκευασαμένη δὲ ναυτικὸν ἐπῆρχε τῆς ἐντὸς 
Κυανέων θαλάττης, καὶ ἔξω δὲ πολλῶν ἀγώνων 
μετεῖχε τοῖς “λλησιν'" αὐτονομηθεῖσα δὲ πολὺν 

χρόνον οὐδὲ διὰ τέλους ἐφύλαξε τὴν ἐλευθερίαν, 

GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 10-11 

Cytorus, the son of Phryxus, as Ephorus says. The 
most and the best box-wood grows in the territory 
of Amastris, and particularly round Cytorum. The 
Aegialus is a long shore of more than a hundred 
stadia, and it has also a village bearing the same 
name, which the poet mentions when he says, 
“Cromna and Aegialus and the lofty Erythini,”? 
though some write, “Cromna and Cobialus.”” They 
say that the Erythrini of to-day, from their colour,? 
used to be called Erythini; they are two lofty 
rocks. After Aegialus one comes to Carambis, a 
great cape extending towards the north and the 
Scythian Chersonese. I have often mentioned it, as 
also Criumetopon which lies opposite it, by which 
the Euxine Pontus is divided into two seas. After 
Carambis one comes to Cinolis, and to Anticinolis, 
and to Abonuteichus,’ a small town, and to Armené, 
to which pertains the proverb, “whoever had no 
work to do walled Armené.” It is a village of the 
Sinopeans and has a harbour. 

11. Then one comes to Sinopé itself, which is 
fifty stadia distant from Armené; it is the most 
noteworthy of the cities in that part of the world. 
This city was founded by the Milesians ; and, having 
built a naval station, it reigned over the sea inside 
the Cyaneae, and shared with the Greeks in many 
struggles even outside the Cyaneae ; and, although it 
was independent for a long time, it could not even- 
tually preserve its freedom, but was captured by 

1 Tliad 2. 855. Ἄν: δι OF Rael 
8 25 Or 22500 4:,3.,.11.: 1 14. 
4 Literally, Wall of Abonus. 

1 μέν, before 4, Meineke, following the editors before 
Kramer, omits; 7w read δέ. 


C 546 


ἀλλ᾽ ἐκ πολιορκίας, ἑάλω καὶ ἐδούλευσε Φαρνάκῃ 
πρῶτον, ἔπειτα τοῖς διαδεξαμένοις ἐκεῖνον μέχρι 
τοῦ ὐπάτορος καὶ τῶν καταλυσάντων Ρωμαίων 
ἐκεῖνον. ὁ δὲ Εὐπάτωρ καὶ ἐγεννήθη ἐκεῖ καὶ 
ἐτράφη" διαφερόντως δὲ ἐτίμησεν αὐτὴν μητρό- 
πολίν τε τῆς βασιλείας ὑπέλαβεν. ἔστι δὲ καὶ 
φύσει καὶ ἢ προνοίᾳ κατεσκευασμένη καλῶς: 
ἴδρυται γὰρ ἐπὶ αὐχένι ἐερρονήσου τινός, ἑκατέ- 
ρωθεν δὲ τοῦ ἰσθμοῦ λιμένες καὶ ναύσταθμα καὶ 
πηλαμυδεῖα θαυμαστά, περὶ ὧν εἰρήκαμεν, ὅτι 
δευτέραν θήραν οἱ Σινωπεῖς ἔχουσι, τρίτην δὲ 
Βυζάντιοι. καὶ κύκλῳ δ᾽ ἡ χερρόνησος προ- 
βέβληται ῥαχιώδεις ἀκτάς, ἐχούσας ® καὶ κοιλά- 
δας τινάς, ὡσανεὶ βόθρους πετρίνους, οὺς καλοῦσι 
χοινικίδας" πληροῦνται δὲ οὗτοι μετεωρισθείσης 
τ θαλάττης, ὡς καὶ διὰ τοῦτο οὐκ εὐπρόσιτον 

3 χωρίον, καὶ διὰ τὸ πᾶσαν τὴν τῆς πέτρας 
Beaune ἐχινώδη καὶ ἀνεπίβατον εἶναι γυμνῷ 
ποδί: ἄνωθεν μέντοι καὶ ὑπὲρ τῆς πόλεως εὔγεών 
ἐστι τὸ ἔδαφος καὶ ἀγροκηπίοις κεκόσμηται, πυκ- 
νοῖς," πολὺ δὲ μᾶλλον τὰ προάστεια. αὐτὴ δ᾽ 
ἡ πόλις τετείχισται καλῶς, καὶ γυμνασίῳ δὲ 
καὶ ἀγορᾷ καὶ στοαῖς κεκόσμηται λαμπρῶς. 
τοιαύτη δὲ οὖσα δὶς ὅμως ἑάλω, πρότερον μὲν 

φύσει καί, Kramer, from conj. of Casaubon, for φυσικῇ. 
ἐχούσας, Corais, for ἔχουσα. 

τό, the editors insert from E. 

E reads πολλοῖς instead of πυκνοῖς. 

- © MD “Ὁ 

2 183 B.¢. * Mithridates the Great. 

δ᾽ 7: 6: Qand 10: .Ὁ: 10: 

4 “Crossing the town to the north I passed through a 
sally-port, and descended to the beach, where the wall was 



siege, and was first enslaved by Pharnaces! and 
afterwards by his successors down to Eupator? and 
to the Romans who overthrew Eupator. Eupator 
was both born and reared at Sinopé; and he accorded 
it especial honour and treated it as the metropolis of 
his kingdom. Sinopé is beautifully equipped both by 
nature Pa by human foresight, for it is situated on 
the neck of a peninsula, and Shee on either side of the 
isthmus harbours and roadsteads and wonderful 
pelamydes-fisheries, of which I have already made 
mention, saying that the Sinopeans get the second 
eatch and the Byzantians the thirds Furthermore, 
the peninsula is protected all round by ridgy shores, 
which have hollowed-out places in them, rock-cavities, 
as it were, which the people call “ choenicides ” ;4 
these are filled with water when the sea rises, and 
therefore the place is hard to approach, not only 
because of this, but also because the whole surface 
of the rock is prickly and impassable for bare feet. 
Higher up, however, and above the city, the ground 
is fertile and adorned with diversified market- 
gardens; and especially the suburbs of the city. 
The city itself is beautifully walled, and is also 
splendidly adorned with gymnasium and market- 
place and colonnades. But although it was such a 
city, still it was twice captured, first by Pharnaces, who 

built upon a sharp decomposing shelly limestone which I was 
surprised to find full of small circular holes, apparently 
resembling those described by Strabo, under the name of 
‘choenicides’; but those which I saw were not above nine 
inches in diameter, and from one to two feet deep. There 
can, however, be no doubt that such cavities would, if larger, 
render it almost impossible for a body of men to wade on 
shore.” (Hamilton’s Researches in Asia Minor, 1. p. 310, 
quoted by Tozer.) 



τοῦ Φαρνάκου παρὰ δόξαν αἰφνιδίως ἐπιπεσόντος, 
ὕστερον δὲ ὑπὸ Λευκόλλου καὶ τοῦ ἐγκαθημένου 
τυράννου, καὶ ἐντὸς ἅμα καὶ ἐκτὸς πολιορκουμένη" 
ὁ γὰρ ἐγκατασταθεὶς ὑπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως φρού- 
ραρχος Βακχίδης, ὑπονοῶν ἀεί τινα προδοσίαν 
ἐκ τῶν ἔνδοθεν, καὶ πολλὰς αἰκίας καὶ σφαγὰς 
ποιῶν, ἀπαγορεῦσαι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐποίησε 
πρὸς ἄμφω, μήτ᾽ ἀμύνασθαι δυναμένους γενναίως 
μήτε προσθέσθαι κατὰ συμβάσεις. ἑάλωσαν δ' 
οὖν" καὶ τὸν μὲν ἄλλον κόσμον τῆς πόλεως διεφύ- 
λαξεν ὁ ο Λεύκολλος, τὴν δὲ τοῦ BudAdpou σφαῖραν 
ἦρε καὶ τὸν Αὐτόλυκον," Σθένιδος ἔ ἔργον, ὃν ἐκεῖνοι 
οἰκιστὴν ἐνόμιζον καὶ ἐτίμων ὡς θεόν: ἦν δὲ καὶ 
μαντεῖον αὐτοῦ: δοκεῖ δὲ τῶν ᾿Ιάσονι συμπλευ- 
σάντων εἶναι καὶ κατασχεῖν τοῦτον τὸν τόπον. 
εἶθ᾽ ὕστερον Μιλήσιοι τὴν εὐφυΐαν ἰδόντες καὶ 
τὴν ἀσθένειαν τῶν ἐνοικούντων ἐξιδιάσαντο καὶ 
ἐποίκους ἔστειλαν" νυνὶ δὲ καὶ Ρωμαίων ἀποικίαν 
δέδεκται καὶ μέρος τῆς πόλεως καὶ τῆς χώρας 
ἐκείνων ἐστί. διέχει δὲ τοῦ μὲν Ἱεροῦ τρισχιλίους 
καὶ πεντακοσίους, ἀφ᾽ Ἡρακλείας δὲ δισχιλίους, 
Καράμβεως δὲ ἑ ἑπτακοσίους σταδίους. ἄνδρας δὲ 
ἐξήνεγκεν ἀγαθούς, τῶν μὲν φιλοσόφων Διογένη 
τὸν Κυνικὸν καὶ Τιμόθεον τὸν Πατρίωνα, τῶν 
δὲ ποιητῶν Δίφιλον τὸν κωμικόν, τῶν δὲ 
συγγραφέων Βάτωνα τὸν πραγματευθέντα τὰ 

12. ᾿Εντεῦθεν & ἐφεξῆς ἡ τοῦ “Advos ἐκβολὴ 
1 Αὐτόλυκον, Xylander, for Αὐτόλυτον. 

1 See Plutarch, Lucullus, 23. 

GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. r1-12 

unexpectedly attacked it all of a sudden, and later 
by Leucullus and by the tyrant who was garrisoned 
within it, being besieged both inside and outside at 
the same time ; for, since Bacchides, who had been 
set up by the king as commander of the garrison, 
was always suspecting treason from the people inside, 
and was causing many outrages and murders, he 
made the people, who were unable either nobly to 
defend themselves or to submit by compromise, lose 
all heart for either course. At any rate, the city was 
captured; and though Leucullus kept intact the 
rest of the city’s adornments, he took away the 
globe of Billarus and the work of Sthenis, the statue 
of Autolycus,! whom they regarded as founder of 
their city and honoured as god. The city had also 
an oracle of Autolycus. He is thought to have been 
one of those who went on the voyage with Jason 
and to have taken possession of this place. Then 
later the Milesians, seeing the natural advantages 
of the place and the weakness of its inhabitants, 
appropriated it to themselves and sent forth colonists 
to it. But at present it has received also a colony 
of Romans; and a part of the city and the territory 
belong to these. It is three thousand five hundred 
stadia distant from the Hieron,? two thousand from 
Heracleia, and seven hundred from Carambis. It 
has produced excellent men: among the philoso- 
phers, Diogenes the Cynic and Timotheus Patrion ; 
among the poets, Diphilus the comic poet; and, 
among the historians, Baton, who wrote the work 
entitled The Persica. 

12. Thence, next, one comes to the outlet of the 

2 2.6. the [Chalcedonian] ‘‘ Temple” on the ‘‘Sacred Cape’ 
(see 12. 4. 2) in Chalcedonia, now called Cape Khelidini. 



ποταμοῦ: ὠνόμασται δ᾽ ἀπὸ τῶν ἁλῶν, as 
παραρρεῖ: ἔχειν δὲ τὰς πηγὰς ἐν τῇ μεγάλῃ 

αππαδοκίᾳ τῆς Ποντικῆς πλησίον κατὰ τὴν 
Καμισηνήν, ἐνεχθεὶς δ᾽ ἐπὶ δύσιν πολύς, εἶτ᾽ 
ἐπιστρέψας πρὸς τὴν ἄρκτον διά τε Τ᾿αλατῶν 
καὶ ἸΙαφλαγόνων ὁρίζει τούτους τε καὶ τοὺς 
Λευκοσύρους. ἔχει δὲ καὶ ἡ Σινωπῖτις καὶ πᾶσα 
ἡ μέχρι Βιθυνίας ὀρεινὴ ὑπερκειμένη τῆς λεχθείσης 
παραλίας ναυπηγήσιμον ὕλην ἀγαθὴν καὶ εὐκα- 
τακόμιστον. ἡ δὲ Σινωπῖτις καὶ σφένδαμνον 
φύει καὶ ὀροκάρυον, ἐξ ὧν τὰς τραπέζας τέμνου- 
σιν: ἅπασα δὲ καὶ ἐλαιόφυτός ἐστιν ἡ μικρὸν 
ὑπὲρ τῆς θαλάττης γεωργουμένη. 

18. Μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἐκβολὴν τοῦ ἽΛλυος ἡ 
Παξηλωνῖτίς ' ἐστι μέχρι τῆς Lapapnvijs,® εὐ- 
δαίμων χώρα καὶ πεδιὰς πᾶσα καὶ πάμφορος" 
ἔχει δὲ καὶ προβατείαν ὑποδιφθέρου καὶ μαλακῆς 
ἐρέας, ἧς καθ᾽ ὅλην τὴν Καππαδοκίαν καὶ τὸν 
Πόντον σφόδρα πολλὴ σπάνις ἐστί" γίνονται δὲ 
καὶ ζόρκες, ὧν ἀλλαχοῦ σπάνις ἐστί. ταύτης 
δὲ τῆς χώρας τὴν μὲν ἔχουσιν ᾿Αμισηνοί, τὴν 
δ᾽ ἔδωκε Δηιοτάρῳ Louris, καθάπερ καὶ τὰ 
περὶ Φαρνακίαν καὶ τὴν Τραπεζουσίαν μέχρι 
Κολχίδος καὶ τῆς μικρᾶς ᾿ A ppevias: καὶ τούτων 
ἀπέδειξεν αὐτὸν βασιλέα, ἔχοντα καὶ τὴν πατρῴαν 
τετραρχίαν τῶν ladat@v, τοὺς Τολιστοβωγίους, 
ἀποθανόντος δ᾽ ἐκείνου, πολλαὶ διαδοχαὶ τῶν 
ἐκείνου γεγόνασι. 

1 Γαζηλωνῖτις, Meineke for Γαδιλωνῖτις ; for other spellings 

see C. Miiller (/.c.) and Kramer. 
2 CDhilxz read ᾿Αραμηνῆς. 

1 “salt-works.” ἘΠΕ, “Pontus-=(see 19.“ 3; 

GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 12-13 

Halys River. It was named from the “ halae,”’ ! 
past which it flows. It has its sources in Greater 
Cappadocia in Camisené near the Pontie country ; * 
and, flowing in great volume towards the west, and 
then turning towards the north through Galatia and 
Paphlagonia, it forms the boundary between these 
two countries and the country of the White Syrians.% 
Both Sinopitis and all the mountainous country 
extending as far as Bithynia and lying above the 
aforesaid seaboard have shipbuilding timber that is 
excellent and easy to transport. Sinopitis produces 
also the maple and the mountain-nut, the trees from 
which they cut the wood used for tables. And the 
whole of the tilled country situated a little above 
the sea is planted with olive trees. 

13. After the outlet of the Halys comes Gaze- 
lonitis, which extends to Saramené; it is a fertile 
country and is everywhere level and productive of 
everything. It has also a sheep-industry, that of 
raising flocks clothed in skins and yielding soft 
wool,t of which there is a very great scarcity 
throughout the whole of Cappadocia and Pontus. 
The country also produces gazelles, of which there 
is a scarcity elsewhere. One part of this country is 
occupied by the Amiseni, but the other was given 
to Deiotarus by Pompey, as also the regions of 
Pharnacia and Trapezusia as far as Colchis and 
Lesser Armenia. Pompey appointed him king of 
all these, when he was already in possession of his 
ancestral Galatian tetrarchy,> the country of the 
Tolistobogii. But since his death there have been 
many successors to his territories. 

3. 7.e. Cappadocians (see 12. 3. 9). 
* See Vol. II, p. 241, and foot-note 13. oySee ΤΩΣ Ὁ. 1: 



14. Μετὰ δὲ τὴν Vatnroval ἡ Σαραμηνή καὶ 
᾿Αμισός, πόλις ἀξιόλογος, διέχουσα τῆς Σινώπης 

περὶ ἐννακοσίους σταδίους. φησὶ δ᾽ αὐτὴν 
Θεόπομπος πρώτους Μιλησίους KTigal,” «ὍΣ 
Καππαδόκων ἄρχοντα, τρίτον δ᾽ ὑπ’ ᾿᾽᾿Αθηνο- 
κλέους καὶ ᾿Αθηναίων ἐποικισθεῖσαν, “Πειραιᾶ 
μετονομασθῆναι. καὶ ταύτην δὲ κατέσχον οἱ 
βασιλεῖς, ὁ δ᾽ Εὐπάτωρ ἐκόσμησεν ἱεροῖς καὶ 
προσέκτισε μέρος. Λεύκολλος δὲ καί ταύτην 
ἐπολιόρκησεν, εἶθ᾽ ὕστερον Φαρνάκης, ἐκ Βοσπό- 
ρου διαβάς: ἐλευθερωθεῖσαν δ᾽ ὑπὸ Καίσαρος τοῦ 
Θεοῦ παρέδωκεν ᾿Αντώνιος βασιλεῦσιν: εἶθ᾽ ὁ 
τύραννος Στράτων κακῶς αὐτὴν διέθηκεν: εἶτ᾽ 
ἠλευθερώθη πάλιν μετὰ τὰ ᾿Ακτιακὰ ὑπὸ Καίσα- 
ρος τοῦ Σεβαστοῦ, καὶ νῦν εὖ συνέστηκεν. ἔχει 
δὲ τήν τε ἄλλην χώραν καλὴν καὶ τὴν Θεμίοσ- 
κυραν, τὸ τῶν ᾿Αμαζόνων οἰκητήριον, καὶ τὴν 

15. "ἔστι δὲ ἡ Θεμίσκυρα πεδίον, τῇ μὲν ὑπὸ 
τοῦ πελάγους κλυζόμενον, ὅσον ἑξήκοντα σταδίους 
τῆς πόλεως διέχον, τῇ δ᾽ ὑπὸ τῆς ὀρεινῆς εὐδέν- 
δρου καὶ διαρρύτου ποταμοῖς, αὐτόθεν τὰς πηγὰς 
ἔχουσιν. ἐκ μὲν οὖν τούτων πληρούμενος ἁπάντων 
εἷς ποταμὸς διέξεισι τὸ πεδίον, Θερμώδων κα- 
λούμενος" ἄλλος δὲ τούτῳ πάρισος, ῥέων ἐκ τῆς 
καλουμένης Φαναροίας, τὸ αὐτὸ διέξεισι πεδίον, 
καλεῖται δὲ Ἶρις. ἔχει δὲ τὰς πηγὰς ἐν αὐτῷ 

“- , € \ \ \ , f ‘a ΄ 
τῷ Πόντῳ, ῥυεὶς δὲ διὰ πόλεως μέσης Κομάνων 

1 Γαζηλῶνα, Meineke, for Γαδιλῶνα (Γαλιδῶνα 1)). 
2 Certainly one or more words have fallen out here. inserts 
καί, and oz καὶ εἶτα. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 14-15 

14. After Gazelon one comes to Saramené, and 
to a notable city, Amisus, which is about nine 
hundred stadia from Sinopé. Theopompus says that 
it was first founded by the Milesians, . ..1 by a 
leader of the Cappadocians, and thirdly was colonised 
by Athenocles and Athenians and changed its name 
to Peiraeus. The kings also took possession of this 
city; and Eupator adorned it with temples and 
founded an addition to it. This city too was be- 
sieged by Leucullus, and then by Pharnaces, when he 
crossed over from the Bosporus. After it had been 
set free by the deified Caesar,’ it was given over to 
kings by Antony. Then Straton the tyrant put it 
in bad plight. And then, after the Battle of Actium,? 
it was again set free by Caesar Augustus ; and at the 
present time it is well organised. Besides the rest 
of its beautiful country, it possesses also Themiscyra, 
the abode of the Amazons, and Sidené. 

15. Themiseyra is a plain; on one side it is 
washed by the sea and is about sixty stadia distant 
from the city, and on the other side it lies at the 
foot of the mountainous country, which is well- 
wooded and coursed by streams that have their 
sources therein. So one river, called the Ther- 
modon, being supplied by all these streams, flows 
out through the plain; and another river similar to 
this, which flows out of Phanaroea, as it is called, 
flows out through the same plain, and is called the 
Iris. It has its sources in Pontus itself, and, after 
flowing through the middle of the city Comana in 

1 See critical note. 

2 It was in reference to his battle with Pharnaces near 
Zela that Julius Caesar informed the Senate of his victory 
hy the words, “1 came, I saw, I conquered.” 



C 548 


τῶν Ποντικῶν καὶ διὰ τῆς Δαζιμωνίτιδος, εὐδαί- 
μονος πεδίου, πρὸς δύσιν, εἶτ᾽ ἐπιστρέφει πρὸς 
τὰς ἄρκτους παρ αὐτὰ τὰ Γαζίουρα, παλαιὸν 
βασίλειον, νῦν δ᾽ ἔρημον, εἶτα ἀνακάμπτει πάλιν 
πρὸς ἕω, παραλαβὼν τόν τε Σκύλακα καὶ ἄλλους 
ποταμούς, καὶ παρ᾽ αὐτὸ τὸ τῆς ᾿Αμασείας 
ἐνεχθεὶς τεῖχος, τῆς ἡμετέρας πατρίδος, πόλεως 
ἐρυμνοτάτης, εἷς τὴν Φανάροιαν πρόεισιν" ἐν- 
ταῦθα δὲ συμβαλὼν ὁ Λύκος αὐτῷ, τὰς 
ἀρχὰς ἐξ ᾿Αρμενίας ἔχων, γίνεται καὶ αὐτὸς 
Ἶρις" εἶθ ἡ Θεμίσκυρα ὑποδέχεται τὸ ῥεῦμα 
καὶ τὸ Ποντικὸν πέλαγος. διὰ δὲ τοῦτο ἔν- 
δροσόν ἐστι καὶ moatov ἀεὶ τὸ πεδίον τοῦτο 
τρέφειν ἀγέλας βοῶν τε ὁμοίως καὶ ἵππων δυνά- 
μενον, σπόρον δὲ πλεῖστον δέχεται τὸν ἐκ τῆς 
ἐλύμου καὶ κέγχρου, μᾶλλον δὲ ἀνέκλειπτον" 
αὐχμοῦ γάρ ἐστι κρείττων ἡ εὐυδρία παντός, 
ὥστ᾽ οὐδὲ λιμὸς καθικνεῖται τῶν ἀνθρώπων τού- 
των οὐδ᾽ ἅπαξ' τοσαύτην δ᾽ ὀπώραν ἐκδίδωσιν 
ἡ παρόρειος τὴν αὐτοφυῆ καὶ ἀγρίαν σταφυλῆς 
τε καὶ ὄχνης καὶ μήλου καὶ τῶν καρυωδών, ὥ ὥστε 
κατὰ πᾶσαν τοῦ ἔτους ὥραν ἀφθόνως εὐπορεῖν 
τοὺς ἐξιόντας ἐπὶ τὴν ὕλην" τοτὲ μὲν ETL κρεμα- 
μένων τῶν καρπῶν ἐν τοῖς δένδρεσι, τοτὲ δ᾽ ἐν 
τῇ πεπτωκυίᾳ φυλλάδι καὶ ὑπ᾿ αὐτῇ “κειμένων 
βαθείᾳ καὶ πολλῇ κεχυμένῃ. συχναὶ δὲ καὶ 
θῆραι παντοίων ἀγρευμάώτων διὰ τὴν εὐφορίαν 1 
τῆς τροφῆς. 

16. Μετὰ δὲ τὴν Θεμίσκυράν ἐστιν ἡ Σιδηνή, 
πεδίον εὔδαιμον, οὐχ ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ κατάρρυτον, 
ἔχον χωρία ἐρυμνὰ ἐπὶ τῇ παραλίᾳ, τὴν TE 
Σίδην, ad’ ἧς ὠνομάσθη Σιδηνή, καὶ Χάβακα 

GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 15-16 

Pontus and through Dazimonitis, a fertile plain, 
towards the west, then turns towards the north past 
Gaziura itself, an ancient royal residence, though 
now deserted, and then bends back again towards 
the east, after receiving the waters of the Scylax and 
other rivers, and after flowing past the very wall of 
Amaseia, my fatherland, a very strongly fortified 
city, flows on into Phanaroea, Here the Lycus 
River, which has its beginnings in Armenia, joins it, 
and itself also becomes the Iris. ‘Then the stream is 
received by Themiscyra and by the Pontic Sea. On 
this account the plain in question is always moist 
and covered with grass and can support herds of 
cattle and horses alike and admits of the sowing of 
millet-seeds and sorghum-seeds in very great, or 
rather unlimited, quantities. Indeed, their plenty 
of water offsets any drought, so that no famine 
comes down on these people, never once; and the 
country along the mountain yields so much fruit, 
self-grown and wild, | mean grapes and pears and 
apples and nuts, that those who go out to the forest 
at any time in the year get an abundant supply— 
the fruits at one time still hanging on the trees and 
at another lying on the fallen leaves or beneath 
them, which are shed deep and in great quantities. 
And numerous, also, are the catches of all kinds of 
wild animals, because of the good yield of food. 

16. After Themiscyra one comes to Sidené, which 
is a fertile plain, though it is not well-watered like 
Themiscyra. It has strongholds on the seaboard : 
Sidé, after which Sidené was named, and Chabaca 

1 εὐφορίαν, Corais emends to εὐπορίαν, Meineke following. 



καὶ Φάβδα' μέχρι μὲν δὴ δεῦρο ᾿Αμισηνή. 
ἄνδρες δὲ γεγόνασιν ἄξιοι μνήμης κατὰ παιδείαν 
ἐνταῦθα, μαθηματικοὶ μὲν Sue aS ὁ τοῦ 
“Ῥαθηνοῦ καὶ Διονυσόδωρος, ὁμώνυμος τῷ 
Μηλίῳ 5 γεωμέτρῃ, γραμματικὸς δὲ Τυραννίων, 
οὗ ἡμεῖς ἠκροασάμεθα. 

17. Μετὰ δὲ τὴν Σιδηνὴν ἡ Φαρνακία ἐστίν, 
ἐρυμνὸν πόλισμα, καὶ “μετὰ ταῦτα ἡ Τραπεζοῦς, 
πόλις Ἑλληνίς, εἰς ἣν ἀπὸ τῆς ᾿Αμισοῦ περὶ δισχι- 
λίους καὶ διακοσίους σταδίους ἐστὶν ὁ πλοῦς" εἶτ᾽ 
ἔνθεν εἰς Φᾶσιν χίλιοί που καὶ τετρακόσιοι, ὥστε 
οἱ σύμπαντες ἀπὸ τοῦ Ἱεροῦ μέχρι Φάσιδος περὶ 
ὀκτακισχιλίους σταδίους εἰσὶν ἢ μικρῷ πλείους 
ἢ ἐλάττους. ἐν δὲ τῇ παραλίᾳ ταύτῃ ἀπὸ 
᾿Αμισοῦ πλέουσιν ἡ Ἡράκλειος ἄκρα πρῶτόν 
ἐστιν, εἶτ᾽ το ἄκρα ᾿Ιασόνιον καὶ ὁ Τενήτης,3 
εἶτα Κύτωρος ἃ “πολίχνη, ἐξ ἧς συνῳκίσθη ἡ 
Φαρνακία, εἶτ᾽ ἸἸσχόπολις κατερηριμμένη, εἶτα 
κόλπος, ἐν ᾧ Κερασοῦς τε καὶ ‘Eppovacca, 
κατοικίαι μέτριαι, εἶτα τῆς “Ερμωνάσσης πλησίον 
ἡ Τραπεζοῦς, εἶθ᾽ ἡ Κολχίς" ἐνταῦθα δέ που 
ἐστὶ καὶ Ζυγόπολίς τίς λεγομένη κατοικία. περὶ 
μὲν οὖν τῆς Κολχίδος εἴρηται καὶ τῆς ὑπερκει- 
μένης παραλίας. 

18. Τῆς δὲ Τραπεζοῦντος ὑπέρκεινται καὶ τῆς 
Φαρνακίας Τιβαρανοί τε καὶ Χαλδαῖοι καὶ 
Σάννοι, ods πρότερον ἐκάλουν Μάκρωνας, καὶ 

Διονυσόδωρος, the editors, for Διονυσιόδωρος. 

Μηλίῳ, Tyrwhitt, for Ἵκενι ; so Meineke. 

Γενήτης, Casaubon, for γενέτης ; so the later editors. 
Κύτωρος, an error for Kotiwpa, Κοτύωρον, or Κοτύωρος- 

(see C. Miiller, 7.¢.). 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 16-18 

and Phabda. Now the territory of Amisus extends 
to this point; and the city has produced men note- 
worthy for their learning, Demetrius, the son of 
Rhathenus, and Dionysodorus, the mathematicians, 
the latter bearing the same name as the Melian 
geometer, and Tyrranion the grammarian, of whom 
I was a pupil. 

17. After Sidené one comes to Pharnacia, a forti- 
fied town ; and afterwards to Trapezus, a Greek city, 
to which the voyage from Amisus is about two 
thousand two hundred stadia. Then from here 
the voyage to Phasis is approximately one thou- 
sand four hundred stadia, so that the distance 
from Hieron! to Phasis is, all told, about eight 
thousand stadia, or slightly more or less, As 
one sails along this seaboard from Amisus, one 
comes first to the Heracleian Cape, and then to 
another cape called Jasonium, and to Genetes, and 
then to a town called Cytorus,? from the inhabitants 
of which Pharnacia was settled, and then to Ischo- 
polis, now in ruins, and then to a gulf, on which are 
both Cerasus and Hermonassa, moderate-sized settle- 
ments, and then, near Hermonassa, to Trapezus, and 
then to Colchis. Somewhere in this neighbourhood 
is also a settlement called Zygopolis. Now I have 
already described* Colchis and the coast which lies 
above it. 

18. Above Trapezus and Pharnacia are situated 
the Tibarani and Chaldaei and Sanni, in earlier times 
called Macrones, and Lesser Armenia; and the 

1 See 12. 3. 11. 

* Apparently an error for ‘‘Cotyora” or ‘‘Cotyorum” or 

STS 2.16: 


C 549 


ἡ μικρὰ ᾿Αρμενία, καὶ οἱ ᾿Αππαῖται δε πως 
πλησιάζουσι τοῖς χωρίοις τούτοις, οἱ ae 
Κερκῖται. διήκει δὲ διὰ τούτων ὅ τε Σκυδίσης, 
ὄρος τραχύτατον, συνάπτον τοῖς Μοσχικοῖς ὁ ὄρεσι 
τοῖς ὑπὲρ τῆς Κολχίδος, οὗ τὰ ἄκρα κατέχουσιν 
οἱ ᾿Ἑπτακωμῆται, καὶ ὁ -Παρυάδρης ὁ μέχρι 
τῆς μικρᾶς ᾿Αρμενίας ἀπὸ τῶν κατὰ Σιδηνὴν 
καὶ Θεμίσκυραν τόπων διατείνων καὶ ποιῶν τὸ 
ἑωθινὸν τοῦ Πόντου πλευρόν. εἰσὶ δ᾽ ἅπαντες 
μὲν οἱ ὄρειοι τούτων ἄγριοι τελέως, ὑπερβέ- 
βληνται δὲ τοὺς ἄλλους οἱ ᾿Επτακωμῆται: τινὲς 
δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ δένδρεσιν ἢ πυργίοις οἰκοῦσι, διὸ καὶ 
Μοσυνοίκους ἐκάλουν οἱ παλαιοί, τῶν πύργων 
μοσύνων λεγομένων. ζῶσι δ᾽ ἀπὸ θηρείων 
σαρκῶν καὶ τῶν ἀκροδρύων, ἐπιτίθενται δὲ καὶ 
τοῖς ὁδοιποροῦσι, καταπηδήσαντες ἀπὸ τῶν 
ἰκρίων. οἱ δὲ ᾿Επτακωμῆται τρεῖς Πομπηίου 
σπείρας κατέκοψαν διεξιούσας τὴν ὀρεινήν, 
κεράσαντες κρατῆρας ἐν ταῖς ὁδοῖς τοῦ μαινο- 
μένου μέλιτος, ὃ φέρουσιν οἱ ἀκρεμόνες τῶν 
δένδρων" πιοῦσι γὰρ καὶ παρακόψασιν ἐπιθέμενοι 
ῥᾳδίως διεχειρίσαντο, τοὺς ἀνθρώπους. ἐκαλοῦν- 
το δὲ τούτων τινὲς τῶν βαρβάρων καὶ Βύξηρες. 
19. Οἱ δὲ νῦν Χαλδαῖοι Χάλυβες τὸ παλαιὸν 
ὠνομάζοντο, καθ᾽ ods μάλιστα ἡ Φαρνακία 
ἵδρυται, κατὰ θάλατταν μὲν ἔχουσα͵ εὐφυΐαν 
τὴν ἐκ τῆς πηλαμυδείας (πρώτιστα γὰρ ἁλίσ- 
κεται ἐνταῦθα τὸ ὄψον τοῦτο), ἐκ δὲ τῆς γῆς τὰ 
μέταλλα, νῦν μὲν σιδήρου, πρότερον δὲ καὶ ἀργύ- 

1 7.e. six hundred, unless the Greek word should be trans- 
lated ‘‘ cohort,” to which it is sometimes equivalent. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 18-19 

Appaitae, in earlier times called the Cercitae, are 
fairly close to these regions. Two mountains cross 
the country of these people, not only tlie Scydises, a 
very rugged mountain, which joins the Moschian 
Mountains above Colchis (its heights are occupied by 
the Heptacometae), but also the Paryadres, which 
extends from the region of Sidené and Themiscyra 
to Lesser Armenia and forms the eastern side of 
Pontus. Now all these peoples who live in the 
mountains are utterly savage, but the Heptacometae 
are worse than the rest. Some also live in trees 
or turrets; and it was on this account that the 
ancients called them ‘“ Mosynoeci,’ the turrets being 
ealled “mosyni.” They live on the flesh of wild 
animals and on nuts; and they also attack wayfarers, 
leaping down upon them from their scaffolds. The 
Heptacometae cut down three maniples! of Pompey’s 
army when they were passing through the moun- 
tainous country; for they mixed bowls of the 
crazing honey which is yielded by the tree-twigs, 
and placed them in the roads, and then, when the 
soldiers drank the mixture and lost their senses, 
they attacked them and easily disposed of them. 
Some of these barbarians were also called Byzeres. 
19. The Chaldaei of to-day were in ancient times 
named Chalybes; and it is just opposite their terri- 
tory that Pharnacia is situated, which, on the sea, 
has the natural advantages of pelamydes-fishing (for 
it is here that this fish is first caught) ? and, on the 
land, has the mines, only iron-mines at the present 
time, though in earlier times it also had silver-mines.* 

2 See 7. 6. 2 and 12. 3. 11. 
3 On these mines see Leaf, Troy, p. 290. 



pov. ὅλως δὲ κατὰ τοὺς τόπους τούτους ἢ παρα- 
λία στενὴ τελέως ἐστίν, ὑπέρκειται γὰρ εὐθὺς τὰ 
ὄρη “μετάλλων πλήρη καὶ δρυμῶν, γεωργεῖται + 
δ᾽ οὐ πολλά' λείπεται δὲ τοῖς μὲν μεταλλευταῖς 
ἐκ τῶν μετάλλων ὁ βίος, τοῖς δὲ ᾿θαλαττουργοῖς 
ἐκ τῆς ἁλιείας, καὶ μάλιστα τῶν πηλαμύδων 
καὶ τῶν δελφίνων" ἐπακολουθοῦντες γὰρ ταῖς 
ἀγέλαις τῶν ἰχθύων, κορδύλης τε καὶ θύννης καὶ 
αὐτῆς τῆς πηλαμύδος, πιαίνονταί τε καὶ εὐάλωτοι 
γίνονται διὰ τὸ πλησιάζειν τῇ γῇ προαλέστερον' 
δελεαζομένους μόνοι οὗτοι κατακόπτουσι τοὺς 
δελφῖνας καὶ τῷ στέατι πολλῷ χρῶνται πρὸς 

20. Τούτους οὖν οἶμαι λέγειν τὸν ποιητὴν 
“Αλιζώνους ἐν τῷ μετὰ τοὺς Παφλαγόνας 
καταλόγῳ" : 

αὐτὰρ ᾿Αλιζώνων ᾿Οδίος καὶ ᾿Εῇπίστροφος 

τηλόθεν ἐξ ᾿Αλύβης, ὅθεν ἀργύρου ἐστὶ 

ἤτοι τῆς γραφῆς μετατεθείσης ἀπὸ τοῦ τηλόθεν 
ἐκ Χαλύβης, ἢ τῶν ἀνθρώπων πρότερον ᾿Αλύβων 
λεγομένων ἀντὶ Χαλύβων' οὐ γὰρ νῦν μὲν 
δυνατὸν γέγονεν ἐκ Χαλύβων Χαλδαίους λεχ- 
θῆναι, πρότερον δ᾽ οὐκ ἐνῆν ἀντὶ ᾿Αλύβων 
Χάλυβας, καὶ ταῦτα τῶν ὀνομάτων “μεταπτώσεις 
πολλὰς δεχομένων, καὶ μάλιστα ἐν τοῖς βαρ- 
βάροις: Σίντιες, γὰρ ἐκαλοῦντό τινες τῶν Θρᾳκῶν, 
εἶτα Σιντοί, εἶτα Σάϊοι, παρ᾽ οἷς φησὶν ᾿Αρ- 
χίλοχος τὴν ἀσπίδα ῥῖψαι" 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 19-20 

Upon the whole, the seaboard in this region is 
extremely narrow, for the mountains, full of mines 
and forests, are situated directly above it, and not 
much of it is tilled. But there remains for the 
miners their livelihood from the mines, and for those 
who busy themselves on the sea their livelihood from 
their fishing, and especially from their catches of 
pelamydes and dolphins ; for the dolphins pursue the 
schools of fish—the cordylé and the tunny-fish and 
the pelamydes themselves ;1 and they not only grow 
fat on them, but also become easy to catch because 
they are rather eager to approach the land. These 
are the only people who cut up the dolphins, which 
are caught with bait, and use their abundance of fat 
for all purposes. 

20. So it is these people, I think, that the poet 
calls Halizoni, mentioning them next the after 
Paphlagonians in his Catalogue. “ But the Halizones 
were led by Odius and Epistrophus, from Alybé far 
away, where is the birth-place of silver,’ since the 
text has been changed from “ Chalybé far away” or 
else the people were in earlier times called ‘“* Alybes” 
instead of ‘“‘Chalybes”’; for at the present time it 
proves impossible that they should have been called 
“ Chaldaei,” deriving their name from “ Chalybé,” if 
in earlier times they could not have been called 
“ Chalybes”’ instead of “ Alybes,” and that too when 
names undergo many changes, particularly among 
the barbarians ; for instance, certain of the Thracians 
were called Sinties, then Sinti and then Saii, in 
whose country Archilochus says he flung away his 

1 All three are species of tunny-fish. 

1 γεωργεῖται, Casaubon, for γεωργεῖ ; so the later editors. 


C5500 δ᾽ αὐτοὶ οὗτοι Σαπαῖοι 


᾽ (ὃ \ s 1 
ἀσπίδα μὲν Σαΐων τις ἀνείλετο, τὴν παρὰ 3 

ἔντος ἀμώμητον κάλλιπον οὐκ ἐθέλων'᾽ 
3 lal “2 / 

νῦν ὀνομάζονται" 
πάντες γὰρ οὗτοι περὶ "Αβδηρα τὴν οἴκησιν εἶχον 
καὶ τὰς περὶ Λῆμνον νήσους" ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ 
Βρύγοι καὶ Βρύγες 4 καὶ Φρύγες οἱ αὐτοί, καὶ 
Μυσοὶ ὃ καὶ Μαίονες καὶ Μῇονες" οὐ χρεία δὲ 
πλεονάζειν. ὑπονοεῖ δὲ καὶ ὁ Σκήψιος τὴν τοῦ 
ὀνόματος μετάπτωσιν ἐξ ᾿Αλύβων εἰς Χάλυβας, 
τὰ δ᾽ ἑξῆς καὶ τὰ συνῳδὰ οὐ νοῶν, καὶ μάλιστα 
ἐκ τίνος ᾿Αλιξώνους εἴρηκε τοὺς Χάλυβας, ἀπο- 
δοκιμάξει. τὴν “δόξαν. ἡμεῖς δ᾽ ἀντιπαραθέντες 
τῇ ἡμετέρᾳ τὴν ἐκείνου καὶ τὰς τῶν ἄλλων 
ὑπολήψεις σκοπῶμεν. 

21. Οἱ μὲν μεταγράφουσιν ᾿Αλαζώνων, οἱ δ᾽ 
᾿Αμαξώνων ποιοῦντες, TOO ΓΞ ᾿Αλύβης ἐξ᾿ Αλόπης 
ἢ 1 ἐξ ᾿Αλόβης," τοὺς μὲν ὃ Σκύθας ᾿Αλαζῶνας 19 

/ \ / 
Doe ὑπὲρ τὸν Βορυσθένη καὶ Καλλιπίδας 
» Ψ , “ € / 
Kal ἄλλα ὀνόματα, ἅπερ ᾿Ελλάνικός τε καὶ 
Ἡρόδοτος καὶ Εὔδοξος κατεφλυάρησαν ἡμῶν, 
tas δ᾽ ᾿Αμαζῶνας 153 μεταξὺ Μυσίας καὶ Καρίας 

Nn , , " ΄ , 
καὶ Λυδίας, καθάπερ "ἔφορος νομίζει, πλησίον 
Kupns τῆς πατρίδος αὐτοῦ: καὶ τοῦτο μὲν ἔχεταί 

1 ἀνείλετο, omitted by MSS. except E. ἀγάλλεται, editors 
before Kramer (cp. 10. 2. 17 where same passage is quoted). 

2 παρά, Corais for περί ; so the later editors. 

3 Σαπαῖοι, Groskurd, for Samar; so the later editors. 

4 Βρύγες, Epit., Βρέγες MSS. 

5. καὶ Μέρονες, before καὶ Μαίονες, Corais and later editors 

ὁ ᾿Αλαζώνων, Tzschucke, for ᾿Αλαζίνων ; so the later 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 20-21 

shield: “One of the Saii: robbed me of my shield, 
which, a blameless weapon, I left behind me beside 
a bush, against my will.” 1 These’ same people are 
now named Sapaei; for all these have their abode 
round Abdera and the islands round Lemnos. Like- 
wise the Brygi and Bryges and Phryges are the same 
people ; and the Mysi and Maeones and Meiones are 
the same; but there is no use of enlarging on the 
subject. The Scepsian? doubts the alteration of 
the name from “Alybes”’ to ‘Chalybes”; and, 
failing to note what follows and what accords with 
it, and especially why the poet calls the Chalybians 
Halizoni, he rejects this opinion. As for me, let me 
place his assumption and those of the other critics 
side by side with my own and consider them. 

21. Some change the text and make it read 
“ Alazones,” others ““ Amazones,” and for the words 
“from Alybé” they read “from Alopé,’” or “ from 
Alobé,” calling the Seythians beyond the Borysthenes 
River “ Alazones,” and also “ Callipidae”’ and other 
names—names which Hellanicus and Herodotus and 
Eudoxus have foisted on us—and placing the 
Amazons between Mysia and Caria and Lydia near 
Cymé, which is the opinion also of Ephorus, who was 
a native of Cymé. And this opinion might perhaps 

1 Frag. 6 (51), Bergk. Same fragment quoted in 10. 2. 17. 
5. Demetrius of Scepsis. 

7 , Corais inserts; so the later editors, 

᾿Αλύόβης, Tzschucke, for *AdAns ; so the later editors. 

9 μέν, Corais, for δέ; so the later editors. 

10 ᾿Αλαζῶνας, Tzschucke, for ᾿Αλιζῶνάς ; so the later editors. 
11 +¢s, Jones restores, instead of τούς CDw and the editors. 
12 »Αμαζῶνας C, ᾿Αμαζόνας other MSS. 




τινὸς λόγου τυχὸν ἴσως" εἴη γὰρ ἂν λέγων τὴν 
ὑπὸ τῶν Αἰολέων καὶ ᾿Ιώνων οἰκισθεῖσαν ὕ ὕστερον, 
πρότερον δ᾽ ὑπὸ ᾿Αμαζόνων' καὶ ἐπωνύμους 
πόλεις τινὰς εἶναί φασι, καὶ γὰρ "Edecov καὶ 
Σμύρναν καὶ Κύμην καὶ Μύριναν. ἡ δὲ ᾿Αλύβη 
ἤ, ὥς τινες, Adorn ἢ ᾿Αλόβη πῶς ἂν ἐν τοῖς 
τόποις τούτοις ἐξητάζετο; πῶς δὲ τηλόθεν ; πῶς 
δ᾽ ἡ τοῦ ἀργύρου γενέθλη ; ; 
22. Ταῦτα μὲν ἀπολύεται τῇ μεταγραφῇ: 
γράφει γὰρ οὕτως" 
αὐτὰρ ᾿Αμαζώνων 1 ᾿Οδίος καὶ ᾿Επίστροφος 

ἦρχον, > , vy? ? / ΄ 
ἐλθόντ᾽ ἐξ ᾿Αλόπης, ὅθ᾽ ᾿Αμαζονίδων γένος 

ταῦτα δ᾽ ἀπολυσάμενος εἰς ἄλλο ἐμπέπτωκε 
πλάσμα' οὐδαμοῦ γὰρ ἐνθάδε εὑρίσκεται ᾿Αλόπη, 
καὶ ἡ μεταγραφὴ δὲ παρὰ τὴν τῶν ἀντιγράφων 
τῶν ἀρχαίων πίστιν καινοτομουμένη ἐπὶ τοσοῦ- 
τον σχεδιασμῷ ἔοικεν. ὁ δὲ Σκήψιος οὔτεΞ τὴν 
τούτου δόξαν ἔοικεν ἀποδεξάμενος οὔτε τῶν περὶ 
τὴν Παλλήνην τοὺς ᾿Αλιζώνους ὑπολαβόντων, ὧν 
ἐμνήσθημεν ἐν τοῖς Μακεδονικοῖς" ὁμοίως διαπορεῖ 
καὶ πῶς ἐκ τῶν ὑπὲρ τὸν Βορυσθένην νομάδων 
ἀφῖχθαι συμμαχίαν τοῖς Τρωσί τις νομίσειεν" 
ἐπαινεῖ δὲ μάλιστα τὴν “Ἑκαταίου τοῦ Μιλησίου 
καὶ Μενεκράτους τοῦ ᾿Ελαΐτου, τῶν Ξενοκράτους 
γνωρίμων ἀνδρός, δόξαν καὶ τὴν Παλαιφάτου, ὧν ὁ 
μὲν ἐν γῆς περιόδῳ Φησί “ ἐπὶ δ᾽ ela πόλι 8 
ποταμὸς Οδρύσσης * ῥέων διὰ Μυγδονίης ὃ πεδίου 

1 Dhilorw read ᾿Αμαζόνων. 

2 οὔτε, Corais, for οὐδέ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 21-22 

not be unreasonable, for he may mean the country 
which was later settled by the Aeolians and the 
Ionians, but earlier by the Amazons. And there are 
certain cities, it is said, which got their names from 
the Amazons, I mean Ephesus, Smyrna, Cymeé, and 
Myrina.1 But how could Alybé, or, as some call it, 
“ Alopé” or ‘ Alobé,” be found in this region, 
and how about “tar away,” and how about ‘the 
birth-place of silver” ? 

22. These objections Ephorus solves by his change 
of the text, for he writes thus: “ But the Amazons 
were led by Odius and Epistrophus, from Alopé far 
away, where is the race of Amazons.” But in 
solving these objections he has fallen into another 
fiction; for Alopé is nowhere to be found in this 
region ; and, further, his change of the text, with 
innovations so contrary to the evidence of the early 
manuscripts, looks like rashness. But the Scepsian 
apparently accepts neither the opinion of Ephorus 
nor of those who suppose them to be the Halizoni 
near Pallené, whom 1 have mentioned in my descrip- 
tion of Macedonia.? He is also at loss to understand 
how anyone could think that an allied force came to 
help the Trojans from the nomads beyond the 
Borysthenes River; and he especially approves of 
the opinions of Hecataeus of Miletus, and of Mene- 
crates of Elaea, one of the disciples of Xenocrates, 
and also of that of Palaephatus. The first of these 
says in his Circuit of the Earth: “ Near the city 
Alazia is the River Odrysses, which flows out of 

ΤΕ 11: 5: 2: 2 Vol. III, p. 351, Prag. 27a. 

3 C reads πόλει. 
4 ᾽Οδρύσσης, Tzschucke, for ὁ ῥύμος Dhilorw, ὀδρύσιος x. 
5 Μυγδονίης, Corais, for Μυγδόνος xz, Μυγδόνης other MSS. 



C551 ἀπὸ δύσιος ἐκ τῆς λίμνης THs Δασκυλίτιδος ἐς 
ς ΄ > / 3) ” \ “ a \ 
Ρύνδακον ἐσβάλλει: ἔρημον δὲ εἶναι νῦν τὴν 
᾿Αλαζίαν λέγει, κώμας δὲ πολλὰς τῶν ᾿Αλαζώνων 1 
> - > @ ’ ΄ ena os \ s \ 
οἰκεῖσθαι, δι’ ὧν ᾿Οδρύσσης ῥεῖ, ἐν δὲ ταύταις τὸν 
᾿Απόλλωνα τιμᾶσθαι διαφερόντως, καὶ μάλιστα 

\ \ > , an Γ΄ a © \ 
κατὰ τὴν ἐφορίαν τῶν Κυζικηνῶν. ὁ δὲ Meve- 
κράτης ἐν τῇ Ελλησποντιακῇ περιόδῳ ὑπερκεῖσ- 
θαι λέγει τῶν περὶ Ξ τὴν Μύρλειαν * τόπων 
ὀρεινὴν συνεχῆ, ἣν κατῴκει τὸ τῶν ᾿Αλιζώνων 
ἔθνος" δεῖ δέ, φησί, γράφειν ἐν τοῖς δύο λάβδα, 
τὸν δὲ ποιητὴν ἐν τῷ ἑνὶ γράφειν διὰ τὸ μέτρον. 

ὁ δὲ Hadaidhatos φησιν, ἐξ ᾿Αμαζόνων τῶν ἐν τῇ 

᾿Αλόπῃ οἰκούντων, νῦν δ᾽ ἐν Zereia,* τὸν ᾿Οδίον 

καὶ τὸν ᾿Επίστροφον στρατεῦσαι. τί οὖν ἄξιον 
ἐπαινεῖν τὰς τούτων δόξας; ; χωρὶς γὰρ τοῦ τὴν 
ἀρχαίαν γραφὴν καὶ TOUTOUS κινεῖν οὔτε τὰ 
ἀργυρεῖα δεικνύουσιν, οὔτε ποῦ τῆς Μυρλεάτιδος 
᾿Αλόπη ἐστίν, οὔτε πῶς οἱ ἐνθένδε ἀφιγμένοι εἰς 

Ἴλιον τηλόθεν ἧσαν, εἰ καὶ δοθείη ᾿Αλόπην 5 τινὰ 
a A: ἐπ / \ x on a > 

γεγονέναι ἢ ᾿Αλαζίαν' πολὺ yap δὴ ταῦτα eyyu: 

f b] \ lal / x \ \owv 

τέρω ἐστὶ τῇ Τρωάδι ἢ τὰ περὶ Edecov. ἀλλ᾽ 

ὅμως τοὺς περὶ Πύγελα λέγοντας τοὺς ᾿Αμαζῶνας " 

μεταξὺ ᾿Εφέσου καὶ Μαγνησίας καὶ Τρεήνης 
φλυαρεῖν φησὶν ὁ Δημήτριος" τὸ γὰρ τηλόθεν οὐκ 
ἐφαρμόττειν τῷ τόπῳ. ὁπόσῳ οὖν μᾶλλον οὐκ 
ἐφαρμόττει τῷ περὶ ἢ Μυσίαν καὶ Τευθρανίαν ; ; 

28. Νὴ Δία, ἀλλά φησι δεῖν ἔνια καὶ ἀκύρως 
προστιθέμενα δέχεσθαι, ὡς καί: 

1 ἃ; reads ᾿Αλαζόνων, other MSS. ᾿Αμαζόνων. 

περί, Corais (from Eustathius), for ὑπέρ ; so the later editors. 

Μυρλείαν, Xylander (from Eustathius), for Μυρλίαν. 

Meineke emends 8 ἐν Ζελείᾳ to δὲ Ζηλείᾳ (cp. Ζέλειαν ὃ 33). 

5 οὔτε ποῦ, Kramer, for ὅπου; so the later editors. 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 22-23 

Lake Dascylitis from the west through the plain of 
Mygdonia and empties into the Rhyndacus.”’ But 
he goes on to say that Alazia is now deserted, and 
that many villages of the Alazones, through whose 
country the Odrysses flows, are inhabited, and that in 
these villages Apollo is accorded exceptional honour, 
and particularly on the confines of the Cyziceni. 
Menecrates in his work entitled The Circuit of the 
Hellespont says that above the region of Myrleia 
there is an adjacent mountainous tract which 15 
occupied by the tribe of the Halizones. One should 
spell the name with two /’s, he says, but on account 
of the metre the poet spells it with only one. But 
Palaephatus says that it was from the Amazons who 
then lived in Alopé, but now in Zeleia, that Odius 
and Epistrophus made their expedition. How, then, 
can the opinions of these men deserve approval ? 
For, apart from the fact that these men also disturb 
the early text, they neither show us the silver-mines, 
nor where in the territory of Myrleia Alopé is, nor 
how those who went from there to Ilium were “ from 
far away,” even if one should grant that there 
actually was an Alopé or Alazia ; for these, of course, 
are much nearer the Troad than the places round 
Ephesus. But still those who speak of the Amazons 
as living in the neighbourhood of Pygela between 
Ephesus and Magnesia and Priené talk nonsense, 
Demetrius says, for, he adds, ‘far away” cannot 
apply to that region. How much more inapplicable, 
then, is it to the region of Mysia and Teuthrania ? 

23. Yes, by Zeus, but he goes on to say that some 
things are arbitrarily inserted in the text, for 

®’Adorny, Groskurd, for λίμνη ; so later editors. 
7 ᾿Αμαζῶνας, Kramer, for ᾿Αμαζόνας ; so later editors. 



THN €& Ασκανίης" 
> -“ ᾽ Μ ’ A \ Ἁ / , 
Apvaios δ᾽ ὄνομ᾽ ἔσκε, τὸ yap θέτο πότνια 
εἵλετο δὲ κληῖδ᾽ εὐκαμπέα χειρὶ παχείῃ 

δεδόσθω δὴ καὶ τοῦτο: ἀλλ᾽ ἐκεῖνα οὐ δοτέα, οἷς 
προσέχων ὁ Δημήτριος οὐδὲ τοῖς ὑπολαβοῦσι δεῖν 
>? tL / 3 7, lal > , 
ἀκούειν τηλόθεν ἐκ Χαλύβης πιθανῶς ἀντείρηκε. 
συγχωρήσας γάρ, ὅτι, εἰ καὶ μὴ ἔστι νῦν ἐν τοῖς 
Χάλυψι τὰ ἀργυρεῖα, ὑπάρξαι γε ἐνεδέχετο, ἐκεῖνό 
γε οὐ συγχωρεῖ, ὅτι καὶ ἔνδοξα ἦν καὶ ἄξια 
μνήμης, καθάπερ τὰ σιδηρεῖα. τί δὲ κωλύει, 
φαίη τις ἄν, καὶ ἔνδοξα εἶναι, καθάπερ καὶ τὰ 
“ , / “ 
σιδηρεῖα ; ἢ σιδήρου μὲν εὐπορία τόπον ἐπιφανῆ 
a ᾿ Ν 
δύναται ποιεῖν, ἀργύρου δ᾽ ov; τί δ᾽ εἰ μὴ κατὰ 
24 a > \ » > / ᾽ al 
τοὺς ἥρωας, ἀλλὰ καθ Ὅμηρον εἰς δόξαν ἀφῖκτο 
τὰ “ἀργυρεῖα, ἄρα ᾿μέμψαιτό τις ἂν τὴν ἀπόφασιν 
τοῦ ποιητοῦ ; πῶς οὖν εἰς τὸν ποιητὴν ἡ δόξα 
ἀφίκετο ; πῶς δ᾽ ἡ τοῦ ἐν τῇ Τεμέσῃ χαλκοῦ TH 
> , A Siete an 3 n ΄ A 
Ἰταλιώτιδι ; πῶς δ᾽ ἡ τοῦ Θηβαϊκοῦ πλούτου τοῦ 
κατ᾿ Αἴγυπτον; καίτοι διπλάσιον σχεδόν τι 
,ὔ ΄-“ Σ , rn a» “ / 
διέχοντα τῶν Αἰγυπτίων Θηβῶν ἢ τῶν Χαλδαίων. 
>] “-“ ΄ ς fal 
ἀλλ᾽ οὐδ Ξ οἷς συνηγορεῖ, τούτοις ὁμολογεῖ; τὰ 
γὰρ περὶ τὴν ea aa τοποθετῶν," τὴν ἑαυτοῦ 
oe πλησίον τῆς Σκήψεως καὶ τοῦ Αἰσήπου 
Νέαν * κώμην καὶ ᾿Αργυρίαν λέγει καὶ ᾿Αλαζονίαν. 

1 τί δ᾽ εἰ μή, Corais, for οὔτι εἰ μή; so the later editors. 
* οὐδ᾽, Corais, for οὔτ᾽ ; so Meineke. 

GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 23 

example, ‘‘ from Ascania far away,’’! and ‘ Arnaeus 
was his name, for his revered mother had given him 
this name at his birth,” ? and “ Penelope took the 
bent key in her strong hand.” ? Now let this be 
granted, but those other things are not to be granted 
to which Demetrius assents without even making a 
plausible reply to those who have assumed that we 
ought to read “ from Chalybé far away ” ; for although 
he concedes that, even if the silver-mines are not 
now in the country of the Chalybians, they could 
have been there in earlier times, he does not concede 
that other point, that they were both famous and 
worthy of note, like the iron-mines. But, one might 
ask, what is there to prevent them from being 
famous like the iron-mines? Or can an abundance 
of iron make a place famous but an abundance of 
silver not doso? And if the silver-mines had reached 
fame, not in the time of the heroes, but in the time 
of Homer, could any person find fault with the 
assertion of the poet? How, pray, could their 
fame have reached the poet? How, pray, could the 
fame of the copper-mine at Temesa in Italy have 
reached him? How the fame of the wealth of 
Thebes in Egypt, although he was about twice as 
far from Thebes as from the Chaldaeans? But 
Demetrius is not even in agreement with those for 
whose opinions he pleads; for in fixing the sites 
round Scepsis, his birth-place, he speaks of Nea, a 
village, and of Argyria and Alazonia as near Scepsis 

1 Tliad 2. 863. * Odyssey 18. 5. 
3 Odyssey 21. 6. 4 Iliad 9. 381. 

3 τρποθετῶν, Casaubon, for νομοθετῶν ; so the later editors. 
4 Νέαν, Meineke, for ’Evéayv. 

VOL. V. Oo 


ταῦτα μὲν οὖν εἰ καὶ ἔστι, πρὸς ταῖς πηγαῖς av 
» le ig a 
ein τοῦ Αἰσήπου. ὁ δὲ “Ἑκαταῖος λέγει ἐπέκεινα 

fol ’ a > - ad / 2 
τῶν ἐκβολῶν αὐτοῦ, ὅ τε Παλαίφατος πρότερον 

τῇ 9 , ιν 55." ΄ A \ ΄, IO\ 
μὲν ᾿Αλόπην οἰκεῖν φήσας, νῦν δὲ Ζέλειαν, οὐδὲν 
ὅμοιον λέγει τούτοις. εἰ δ᾽ ἄρα ὁ Μενεκράτης, καὶ 

ΟΣ -- \ > / a? , aA “ Ν 
οὐδ᾽ οὗτος τὴν ᾿Αλόπην ἢ Ἀλόβην ἢ ὅπως ποτε 
βούλονται γράφειν φράξει, ἥτις ἐστίν, οὐδ᾽ 1 αὐτὸς 
ὁ Δημήτριος. 

24. Ilpos ᾿Απολλόδωρον δὲ περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν ἐν 
τῷ Τρωικῷ διακόσμῳ διαλεγόμενον πολλὰ μὲν 
εἴρηται πρότερον, καὶ νῦν δὲ λεκτέον. οὐ γὰρ 
οἴεται δεῖν δέχεσθαι τοὺς ᾿Αλιξώνους ἐκτὸς τοῦ 

“AXdvos: μηδεμίαν γὰρ συμμαχίαν ἀφῖχθαι τοῖς 
Τρωσὶν ἐκ τῆς περαίας τοῦ “AXvos. “πρῶτον 
τοίνυν ἀπαιτήσομεν αὐτόν, τίνες εἰσὶν oi? ἐντὸς 
τοῦ “Αλυος ᾿Αλίζωνοι, οἱ καὶ 

τηλόθεν ἐξ ᾿Αλύβης, ὅθεν ἀργύρου ἐστὶ γενέθλη" 

> \ “ Fie? ” \ yar ary cal > 
ov yap ἕξει λέγειν" ETELTA τὴν αἰτίαν, δι᾿ ἣν οὐ 
συγχωρεῖ καὶ ἐκ τῆς περαίας ἀφῖχθαί τινα συμ- 
μαχίαν' καὶ “γὰρ εἰ τὰς ἄλλας ἐντὸς εἶναι τοῦ 
ποταμοῦ πάσας συμβαίνει πλὴν τῶν Θρᾳκῶν, 
μίαν. ye ταύτην οὐδὲν ἐκώλυε πέραθεν ἀφῖχθαι ἐκ 
τῆς ἐπέκεινα τῶν Λευκοσύρων. ἢ πολεμήσαντας ὃ 
μὲν ἣν. δυνατὸν διαβαίνειν ἐκ τῶν τόπων τούτων 
καὶ τῶν ἐπέκεινα, καθάπερ τὰς ᾿Αμαζόνας kas 
Τρῆρας καὶ Κιμμερίους φασί, συμμαχήσαντας 4 

1 οὐδ᾽, Jones, for οὔτ᾽. 

2 oi, Corais inserts; so the later editors. 

3 πολεμήσαντας, Corais and Meineke, following z, emend to 
πολεμήσοντας ; ‘‘idque sane arridet,” says Kramer. 

4 συμμαχήσαντας, Corais and Meineke, following z, emend 
to συμμαχήσοντας. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 23-24 

and the Aesepus River. ‘These places, then, if they 
really exist, would be near the sources of the 
Aesepus ; but Hecataeus speaks of them as beyond 
the outlets of it; and Palaephatus, although 
he says that they! formerly lived in Alopé, but now 
in Zeleia, says nothing like what these men say. 
But if Menecrates does so, not even he tells us 
what kind of a place “ Alopé” is or “ Alobé,” or 
however they wish to write the name, and neither 
does Demetrius himself. 

24. As regards Apollodorus, who discusses the 
same subject in his Marshalling of the Trojan Forces, 
I have already said much in answer to him,” but I 
must now speak again; for he does not think that 
we should take the Halizoni as living outside the 
Halys River; for, he says, no allied force came to the 
Trojans frou? beyond the Halys. First, therefore, we 
shall ask of him who are the Haliveut this side the 
Halys and ‘‘ from Alybé far away, where is the birth- 
place of silver.” For he will be unable to tell us. 
And we shall next ask him the reason why he does 
not concede that an allied force came also from the 
country on the far side of the river; for, if it is the 
case that all the rest of the allied forces except the 
Thracians lived this side the river, there was nothing 
to prevent this one allied force from coming from the 
far side of the Halys, from the country beyond the 
White Syrians.* Or was it possible for peoples who 
fought the Trojans to cross over from these regions 
and from the regions beyond, as they say the 
Amazons and Treres and Cimmerians did, and yet 
impossible for people who fought as allies with them 

1 The Amazons (12. 3. 22). 
2 ¢9. 7. 3. 6. 3 7,e, Cappadocians. 



> οἷ Δ ΄ \ Φ᾽ ει» ΄ » ΄ 

δ᾽ ἀδύνατον ; αἱ μὲν οὖν ᾿Αμαζόνες οὐ συνεμάχουν, 
διὰ τὸ τὸν Πρίαμον πολεμῆσαι πρὸς αὐτὰς συμ- 
μαχοῦντα τοῖς Φρυξίν," 

οἵ pa τότ᾽ ἦλθον ᾿Αμαζόνες ἀντιάνειραι 
(φησὶν ὁ Πρίαμος), 
\ \ > \ > / > \ A A la 
καὶ yap ἐγὼν ἐπίκουρος ἐὼν μετὰ τοῖσιν ἐλέγμην. 

οἱ δ᾽ ὁμοροῦντες αὐταῖς, οὐδ᾽ οὕτως ἄπωθεν ὄντες, 
ὥστε χαλεπὴν εἶναι τὴν ἐκεῖθεν μετάπεμψιν, οὐδ᾽ 
ἔχθρας ὑποκειμένης, οὐδὲν ἐκωλύοντο, οἶμαι, συμ- 

25. ᾿Αλλ᾽ οὐδὲ δόξαν ἔχει τοιαύτην τῶν παλαιῶν 
εἰπεῖν, ὡς συμφωνούντων ἁπάντων, μηδένας ἐκ 
τῆς περαίας ToD” AXdvos κοινωνῆσαι τοῦ Τρωικοῦ 
πολέμου. πρὸς τοὐναντίον δὲ μᾶλλον εὕροι τις 
ἂν μαρτυρίας" Μαιάνδριος γοῦν ἐκ τῶν Λευκο- 
σύρων φησὶ τοὺς ᾿Ενετοὺς ὁρμηθέντας συμμαχ- 
σαι τοῖς Τρωσίν, ἐκεῖθεν δὲ μετὰ τῶν Θρᾳκῶν 
ἀπᾶραι καὶ οἰκῆσαι περὶ τὸν τοῦ ᾿Αδρίου μυχόν, 
τοὺς δὲ μὴ μετασχόντας τῆς στρατείας ᾿Ενετοὺς 

C 553 Καππάδοκας γενέσθαι. συνηγορεῖν δ᾽ ἂν δόξειε 
τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ, διότι πᾶσα ἡ πλησίον τοῦ Αλυος 
Καππαδοκία, ὅση παρατείνει τῇ Παφλαγονίᾳ, 
ταῖς δυσὶ χρῆται διαλέκτοις καὶ τοῖς ὀνόμασι 
πλεονάζει τοῖς ΠΠαφλαγονικοῖς, Bayas καὶ Βιάσας 
καὶ Αἰνιάτης καὶ Ῥατώτης καὶ Ζαρδώκης καὶ 
Τίβιος καὶ ΤΤάσυς καὶ ᾿ΟὈλίγασυς καὶ Μάνης: 
ταῦτα γὰρ ἔν τε τῇ Βαμωνίτιδι 5 καὶ τῇ Πι- 

1 Φρυξίν, Kramer (see 771. 3. 184), for Ἴωσιν oz, Τρωσίν 
other MSS.; so the later editors. 
2 Βαμωνίτιδι MSS. ; Φαζημωνίτιδι Meineke. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 24-25 

to do so? Now the Amazons would not fight on 
Priam’s side because of the fact that he had fought 
against them as an ally of the Phrygians, against the 
** Amazons, peers of men, who came at that time,’ 
as Priam says, “for I too, being their ally, was 
numbered among them”; but since the peoples 
whose countries bordered on that of the Amazons 
were not even far enough away to make difficult the 
Trojan summons for help from their countries, and 
since, too, there was no underlying cause for hatred, 
there was nothing to prevent them, I think, from 
being allies of the Trojans. 

25. Neither can Apollodorus impute such an 
opinion to the early writers, as though they, one and 
all, voiced the opinion that no peoples from the far 
side of the Halys River took part in the Trojan war. 
One might rather find evidence to the contrary ; at 
any rate, Maeandrius says that the Eneti first set 
forth from the country of the White Syrians and 
allied themselves with the Trojans, and that they 
sailed away from Troy with the Thracians and took 
up their abode round the recess of the Adrias,? but 
that the Eneti who did not have a part in the 
expedition had become Cappadocians. The following 
might seem to agree with this account, I mean the 
fact that the whole of that part of Cappadocia near 
the Halys River which extends along Paphlagonia 
uses two languages which abound in Paphlagonian 
names, as “ Bagas,” ‘ Biasas,’’ “ Aeniates,” “ Rha- 
totes,” ‘ Zardoces,” ““ Tibius,”’ “ Gasys,” ‘‘ Oligasys,” 
and “Manes,” for these names are prevalent in 

1 Iliad 3. 189; but the text of Homer reads ‘‘on that day 
when the Amazons came, the peers of men.” 
4 7.e. the Adriatic Gulf, 



μολίτιδι καὶ τῇ Γαζηλωνίτιδι 5. καὶ Vafaxnva 

\ »” , » > / A 
Kal ἄλλαις πλείσταις χώραις ἐπιπολάζει τὰ 

\ Cas a 

ὀνόματα. αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ ᾿Απολλόδωρος παρατίθησι 
τὸ τοῦ Ζηνοδότου, ὅτι γράφει" 

2 > fol ev e f , > ΄ 

ἐξ ᾿νετῆς, ὅθεν ἡμιόνων γένος ἀγροτεράων. 
ταύτην δέ φησιν “Ἑκαταῖον τὸν Μιλήσιον δέ- 

Ν > £ e δ᾽ > x » la 

χεσθαι τὴν ᾿Αμισόν' ἡ Αμιεσὸς εἴρηται, διότι 
τῶν Λευκοσύρων ἐστὶ καὶ ἐκτὸς τοῦ ” AXvos. 

26 ΕἸ δ᾽ alan ‘ 8 ΄, « \ 

. Εἴρηται δ᾽ αὐτῷ που, καὶ διότι ὁ ποιητὴς 
΄ ’ lal ΄ lal »“ 
ἱστορίαν εἶχε τῶν ἸΤαφλαγόνων τῶν ἐν τῇ μεσο- 
yaia παρὰ τῶν πεζῆ διελθόντων τὴν χώραν, τὴν 
παραλίαν δ᾽ ἠγνόει, καθάπερ καὶ τὴν ἄλλην τὴν 
΄, , 

Ποντικήν: ὠνόμαζε yap ἂν: αὐτήν. τοὐναντίον 
δ᾽ ἔστιν ἀναστρέψαντα εἰπεῖν, ἐκ τῆς περιοδείας 
΄ - ΄ ΄ 
ὁρμηθέντα τῆς ἀποδοθείσης νυνί, ὡς τὴν μὲν 
παραλίαν πᾶσαν ἐπελήλυθε καὶ οὐδὲν τῶν ὄντων 

/ τ / 5 / 4 3 ΕΣ Φ ΄ 
τότε ἀξίων ὃ μνήμης παραλέλοιπεν, εἰ ὃ Hpa- 
κλειαν καὶ Αμαστριν καὶ Σινώπην οὐ λέγει, τὰς 

΄ / -“ 
μήπω συνῳκισμένας, οὐδὲν θαυμαστόν, τῆς δὲ 
μεσογαίας ὃ οὐδὲν ἄτοπον εἰ μὴ εἴρηκε. καὶ τὸ 
μὴ ὀνομάζειν δὲ πολλὰ τῶν γνωρίμων οὐκ ἀγνοίας 
ἐστὶ σημεῖον, ὅπερ καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἔμπροσθεν ἐπεση- 
μηνάμεθα: ἀγνοεῖν γὰρ αὐτὸν πολλὰ τῶν ἐνδόξων 

1 Πιμολίτιδι MSS., except DCorzy, which read Πημολίτιδι, 
the τ being changed to 7 in D; Meineke emends to Πημολι- 
σίτιδι (see C. Miiller, 1.6. p. 1021). 

2 Γαζηλωνίτιδι, Meineke, following conj. of Groskurd, for 
Ζαγλουθίτιδι oz, Γαζαλονίτιδι w, Γαζαλουίτιδι other MSS. 

3 καθάπερ, Nylander, for καίπερ; so the later editors, 
except Kramer, who strangely proposes ὥσπερ, 

* ay, the editors insert. 

5 ἀξίων ἢ, ἄξιον other MSS. 

δ. τῆς δὲ μεσογαίας, Jones restores, for τὴν δὲ μεσόγαιαν 
(Kramer and later editors). 


GEOGRAPHY; τς. 3. 25-26 

Bamonitis,! Pimolitis,2. Gazelonitis, Gazacené and 
most of the other districts. Apollodorus himself 
quotes the Homeric verse as written by Zenodotus, 
stating that he writes it as follows: “from Eneté,? 
whence the breed of the wild mules”’ ;* and he says 
that Hecataeus of Miletus takes Eneté to be Amisus. 
But, as I have already stated,> Amisus belongs to 
the White Syrians and is outside the Halys River. 
26. Apollodorus somewhere states, also, that the 
poet got an account of those Paphlagonians who 
lived in the interior from men who had_ passed 
through the country on foot, but that he was ignorant 
of the Paphlagonian coast, just as he was ignorant of 
the rest of the Pontic coast ; for otherwise he would 
have named them. On the contrary, one can retort 
and say, on the basis of the description which I have 
now given, that Homer traverses the whole of the 
coast and omits nothing of the things that were 
then worth recording, and that it is not at all remark- 
able if he does not mention Heracleia and Amastris 
and Sinopé, cities which had not yet been founded, 
and that it is not at all strange if he has mentioned no 
part of the interior. And further, the fact that Homer 
does not name many of the known places is no sign 
of ignorance, as I have already demonstrated in the 
foregoing part of my work ;® for he says that Homer 

1 «‘Bamonitis”’ is doubtful ; Meineke emends to ‘‘ Phaze- 

2 «¢Pimolitis” is doubtful; Meineke emends to ‘‘ Pimo- 

3 je. ‘*Eneté” instead of ‘‘Heneti,” or ‘“ Eneti’’ (the 
reading accepted by Strabo and modern scholars), See Vol. 
II, p. 298, foot-note 4, and also pp. 308 and 309, 

ὁ Tliad 2. 852. Py 835.40) 

ΕΠ OL Otro 07> 5π0 8: 9: 8: 



ἔφη περὶ τὸν Πόντον, οἷον “ποταμοὺς καὶ ἔθνη: 
ὀνομάσαι γὰρ ἄν. τοῦτο δ᾽ ἐπὶ μέν τίνων σφόδρα 
σημειωδῶν δοίη τις ἄν, οἷον Σκύθας καὶ Μαιῶτιν 

i Ἴστρον. οὐ γὰρ av διὰ σημείων μὲν τοὺς 
νομάδας εἴρηκε Γαλακτοφάγους ᾿Αβίους τε δικαιο- 
τάτους T ἀνθρώπους, καὶ ἔτι ἀγανοὺς Ἵππημολ- 
γούς, Σκύθας δὲ οὐκ ἂν εἶπεν ἢ Σαυρομάτας ἢ 
Σαρμάτας, εἰ δὴ οὕτως ὠνομάξοντο ὑπὸ τῶν 
᾿Ελλήνων, οὐδ᾽ ἂν “Θρᾳκῶν τε καὶ Μυσῶν μνησ- 
θεὶς τῶν πρὸς τῷ Ἴστρῳ αὐτὸν παρεσίγησε, 
μέγιστον͵ τῶν ποταμῶν ὄντα, καὶ ἄλλως ἐπιφόρως 
ἔχων πρὸς τὸ τοῖς ποταμοῖς ἀφορίξεσθαι τοὺς 
τόπους, οὐδ᾽ ἂν Κιμμερίους λέγων παρῆκε τὸν 
Βόσπορον ἢ τὴν Μαιῶτιν. 

21. ᾿Επὶ δὲ τῶν μὴ οὕτω σημειωδῶν ἢ μὴ τότε 
ἢ μὴ πρὸς τὴν ὑπόθεσιν, τί ἄν τις μέμφοιτο; ; οἷον 
τὸν Τάναϊν, δι᾽ οὐδὲν ἄλλο γνωριξόμενον ἢ ἢ διότι 
τῆς ᾿Ασίας καὶ τῆς Εὐρώπης δριόν ἐστιν: ἀλλ᾽ 
οὔτε τὴν ᾿Ασίαν οὔτε τὴν Εὐρώπην ᾿ὠνόμαζόν πω 
οἱ τότε, οὐδὲ διήρητο οὕτως εἰς τρεῖς ἠπείρους ἡ 
οἰκουμένη" ὠνόμασε γὰρ ἄν που διὰ τὸ λίαν 
σημειῶδες, ὡς καὶ τὴν Λιβύην καὶ τὸν Λίβα τὸν 
ἀπὸ τῶν ἑσπερίων τῆς Λιβύης πνέοντα τῶν δ᾽ 
ἠπείρων μήπω διωρισμένων, οὐδὲ τοῦ Τανάϊδος 
ἔδει καὶ τῆς μνήμης αὐτοῦ. πολλὰ δὲ καὶ ἀξιο- 
μνημόνευτα μέν, οὐχ ὑπέδραμε δέ" πολὺ γὰρ δὴ 

1 ἄν, before διά, Groskurd inserts ; so Kramer and Miiller- 

1 See 7. 3. 6-7. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 26-27 

was ignorant of many of the famous things round the 
Pontus, for example, rivers and tribes, for otherwise, 
he says, Homer would have named them. This one 
might grant in the case of certain very significant 
things, for example, the Scythians and Lake Maeotis 
and the Ister River, for otherwise Homer would not 
have described the nomads by significant character- 
istics as ‘‘ Galactophagi” and “ Abii” and as “men 
most just,’ and also as “proud Hippemolgi,’! and 
yet fail to call the Scythians either Sauromatae or 
Sarmatae, if indeed they were so named by the 
Greeks, nor yet, when he mentions the Thracians 
and Mysians near the Ister, pass by the Ister in 
silence, greatest of the rivers, and especially when 
he is inclined to mark the boundaries of places by 
rivers, nor yet, when he mentions the Cimmerians, 
omit any mention of the Bosporus or Lake Maeotis. 

27. But in the case of things not so significant, 
either not at that time or for the purposes of his 
work, how could anyone find fault with Homer for 
omitting them? For example, for omitting the 
Tanais River, which is well known for no other 
reason than that it is the boundary between Asia and 
Europe. But the people of that time were not yet 
using either the name “ Asia”’ or “ Europe,” nor yet 
had the inhabited world been divided into three con- 
tinents as now, for otherwise he would have named 
them somewhere because of their very great signi- 
ficance, just as he mentions Libya and also the Lips, 
the wind that blows from the western parts of Libya. 
But since the continents had not yet been distin- 
guished, there was no need of mentioning the Tanais 
either. Many things were indeed worthy of mention, 
but they did not occur to him; for of course 



\ X > Ν . yy rf / \ 
Kal τὸ ἐπελευστικὸν εἶδος ἔν TE τοῖς λόγοις καὶ 
ἐν ταῖς πράξεσίν ἐστιν. ἐκ πάντων δὲ! τῶν 
τοιούτων δῆλόν ἐ ἐστιν, ὅτι μοχθηρῷ σημείῳ χρῆται 
πᾶς ὁ ἐκ τοῦ μὴ λέγεσθαί τι ὑπὸ τοῦ ποιητοῦ τὸ 
ἀγνοεῖσθαι ἐκεῖνο ὑπ᾽ αὐτοῦ τεκμαιρόμενος. καὶ 
δεῖ διὰ πλειόνων παραδειγμάτων ἐξελέγχειν αὐτὸ 
μοχθηρὸν ἐ ὄν, πολλῷ γὰρ αὐτῷ κέχρηνται πολλοί. 
ἀνακρουστέον οὖν αὐτοὺς προφέροντας. τὰ τοιαῦτα, 
εἰ καὶ ταυτολογήσομεν τὸν λόγον" 2 οἷον ἐπὶ τῶν 

“ » fal \ fal 
ποταμῶν εἴ Tis λέγοι, TO μὴ ὠνομάσθαι ἀγνοεῖσ- 
θαι, εὐήθη φήσομεν τὸν λόγον ὅπου γε οὐδὲ 
Μέλητα τὸν παρὰ τὴν Σμύρναν ῥέοντα ὠνόμακε 
ποταμόν, τὴν ὑπὸ τῶν πλείστων λεγομένην αὐτοῦ 

,ὔ WA x WA 5 ΄ 
πατρίδα, “Ἑρμον ποταμὸν καὶ “Ὕλλον ὀνομάζων, 
οὐδὲ ἸΠακτωλὸν τὸν εἰς ταὐτὸ τούτοις ῥεῖθρον 
᾽ 7 \ τὰ ἣν \ > \ r [4 , 
Beenie τὴν ὃ ἀργὴν ἄπο τοῦ Τμώλου 
ἔχοντα, οὗ 8 μέμνηται" οὐδ᾽ αὐτὴν Σμύρναν λέγει, 
οὐδὲ τὰς ἄλλας τῶν ᾿Ιώνων πόλεις καὶ τῶν 
Αἰολέων τὰς πλείστας, Μίλητον λέγων καὶ 
Σάμον 4 καὶ Λέσβον καὶ Τένεδον, οὐδὲ Ληθαῖον 
Ν Ἂ , ery. > \ \ / 
τὸν παρὰ Μαγνησίαν ῥέοντα, οὐδὲ δὴ Μαρσύαν, 
΄ a 
τοὺς eis τὸν Μαίανδρον ἐκδιδόντας, ἐκεῖνον 
4 Ν 
ὀνομάζων καὶ πρὸς τούτοις 
n t , 
“Ῥῆσόν θ᾽ ‘Entaropév te Κάρησόν te ‘Podiov 


κ᾿ \ ” 2 ε , 3 a ” > 
καὶ TOUS ἄλλους, WY οἱ πλείους οχετῶν οὐκ εἰσι 
μείζους. πολλάς τε χώρας ὀνομάζων καὶ πόλεις 

1 Before τῶν τοιούτων Meineke inserts τούτων kal! 

2 τὸν λόγον seems to be an interpolation ; Meineke ejects. 

3 οὗ, the editors, for ov. 
4 καὶ Σάμον, ejected by Corais and later editors on the 


GEOGRAPHYeer2:. 3:27 

adventitiousness is much in evidence both in one’s 
discourse and in one’s actions. From all these facts 
it is clear that every man who judges from the poet's 
failure to mention anything that he is ignorant of 
that thing uses faulty evidence. And it is necessary 
to set forth several examples to prove that it is 
faulty, for many use such evidence to a great extent. 
We must therefore rebuke them when they bring 
forward such evidences, even though in so doing 1 
shall be repeating previous argument. ay) BOK, example, 
in the case of rivers, if anyone should say that the 
poet is ignorant of some river because he does not 
name it, I shall say that his argument is silly, be- 
cause the poet does not even name the Meles River, 
which flows past Smyrna, the city which by most 
writers is called his birth- -place, although he names 
the Hermus and Hyllus Rivers ; neither does he 
name the Pactolus River, which flows into the same 
channel as these two rivers and rises in Tmolus, a 
mountain which he mentions;? neither does he 
mention Smyrna itself, nor the rest of the Ionian 
cities ; nor the most of the Aeolian cities, though he 
mentions Miletus and Samos and Lesbos and 'Tenedos ; 
nor yet the Lethaeus River, which flows past Mag- 
nesia, nor the Marsyas River, which rivers empty 
into the Maeander, which last he mentions by name, 
as also “ the Rhesus and Heptaporus and Caresus and 
Rhodius,’? and the rest, most of which are no more 
than small streams. And when he names both many 

L ἀν: 26, 2 Iliad 2. 866 and 21. 835. 
3 Iliad 12. 20 

ground that the Ionian Samos is nowhere — specifically 
mentioned by Homer (see 10. 2. 17). 


C 555 


τοτὲ μὲν Kal τοὺς ποταμοὺς καὶ ὄρη συγκατα- 
λέγει, τοτὲ δ᾽ οὔ" τοὺς γοῦν κατὰ τὴν Αἰτωλίαν 
καὶ τὴν ᾿Αττικὴν οὐ λέγει, οὐδ᾽ ἄλλους πλείους" 
ἔτι! καὶ τῶν πόρρω μεμνημένος τῶν ἐγγὺς 
σφόδρα οὐ μέμνηται, οὐ δήπου ἀγνοῶν αὐτούς, 
γνωρίμους τοῖς ἄλλοις ὄντας" οὐδὲ δὴ τοὺς ἐγγὺς 
ἐπίσης, ὧν τοὺς μὲν ὀνομάζει, τοὺς δὲ οὔ, οἷον 
Λυκίους μὲν καὶ Σολύμους, Μιλύας δ᾽ οὔ, οὐδὲ 
Παμφύλους οὐδὲ Πισίδας: καὶ Παφλαγόνας μὲν 
καὶ Φρύγας καὶ Μυσυύς, Μαριανδυνοὺς δ᾽ οὔ, 
οὐδὲ Θυνοὺς οὐδὲ Βιθυνοὺς οὐδὲ Βέβρυκας" 
᾿Αμαξόνων τε μέμνηται, Λευκοσύρων δ᾽ οὔ, οὐδὲ 
Σύρων οὐδὲ Καππαδόκων οὐδὲ Λυκαόνων, Φοί- 
νικας καὶ Αἰγυπτίους καὶ Δἰθίοπας θρυλῶν: καὶ 
᾽ ΄ \ v “ \ g / \ \ 
Αλήιον μὲν πεδίον λέγει καὶ ᾿Αρίμους, τὸ δὲ 
ἔθνος, ἐν ᾧ ταῦτα, σιγᾷ. ὁ μὲν δὴ τοιοῦτος 
ἔλεγχος ψευδής ἐστιν, ὁ δ᾽ ἀληθής, ὅταν δείκνυται 
ψεῦδος λεγόμενόν τι. ἀλλ᾽ οὐδ᾽ ἐν τῷ τοιούτῳ 
κατορθῶν ἐδείχθη, ὅτεΞ γε ἐθάρρησε πλάσματα 
λέγειν τοὺς ἀγαυοὺς Ἱππημολγοὺς kai? Γα- 
λακτοφάγους. τοσαῦτα καὶ πρὸς ᾿Απολλόδωρον' 
ἐπάνειμι δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν ἑξῆς περιήγησιν. 

28. Ὑπὲρ μὲν δὴ τῶν περὶ Φαρνακίαν καὶ 
Τραπεζοῦντα τόπων οἱ Τιβαρηνοὶ καὶ Χαλδαῖοι 
μέχρι τῆς μικρᾶς "A ρμενίας εἰσίν. αὕτη δ' ἐστὶν 
εὐδαίμων ἱκανῶς χώρα: δυνάσται δ᾽ αὐτὴν κα- 
τεῖχον ἀεί, καθάπερ τὴν Σωφηνήν, τοτὲ μὲν φίλοι 

1 ἔτι, the later editors, for ἐπεί MSS., except dm, which 
omit the word. 

2 ore, Groskurd, for οὔτε ; so the later editors. 

3 καί, added by 7; so the editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 27-28 

countries and cities, he sometimes names with them 
the rivers and mountains, but sometimes he does 
not. At any rate, he does not mention the rivers in 
Aetolia or Attica, nor in several other countries. 
Besides, if he mentions rivers far away and yet does 
not mention those that are very near, it is surely not 
because he was ignorant of them, since they were 
known to all others. Nor yet, surely, was he 
ignorant of peoples that were equally near, some of 
which he names and some not; for example he 
names the Lycians and the Solymi, but not the 
Milyae; nor yet the Pamphylians or Pisidians; and 
though he names the Paphlagonians, Phrygians, and 
Mysians, he does not name. Mariandynians or Thy- 
nians or Bithynians or Bebryeces; and he mentions 
the Amazons, but not the White Syrians or Syrians, 
or Cappadocians, or Lycaonians, though he repeatedly 
mentions the Phoenicians and the Egyptians and the 
Ethiopians. And although he mentions the Aléian 
plain and the Arimi,! he is silent as to the tribe to 
which both belong. Such a test of the poet, there- 
fore, is false; but the test is true only when it is 
shown that some false statement is made by him. 
But Apollodorus has not been proved correct in this 
case either, 1 mean when he was bold enough to say 
that the “proud Hippemolgi” and “ Galactophagi’”’ 
were fabrications of the poet. So much for Apollo- 
dorus. I now return to the part of my description 
that comes next in order. 

28. Above the region of Pharnacia and Trapezus 
are the Tibareni and the Chaldaei, whose country 
extends to Lesser Armenia. This country is fairly 
fertile. Lesser Armenia, like Sophené, was always 
in the possession of potentates, who at times were 



tots ἄλλοις ᾿Αρμενίοις ὄντες, τοτὲ δὲ ἰδιοπρα- 
γοῦντες" ὑπηκόους δ᾽ εἶχον καὶ τοὺς Χαλδαίους 
καὶ Τιβαρηνούς, ὥστε μέχρι Τραπεζοῦντος καὶ 
Φαρνακίας διατείνειν τὴν ἀρχὴν αὐτῶν. αὐξηθεὶς 
δὲ Μιθριδάτης ὁ Εὐπάτωρ καὶ τῆς Κολχίδος 
κατέστη κύριος καὶ τούτων ἁπάντων, ᾿Αντιπά- 
τρου τοῦ Σίσιδος παραχωρήσαντος αὐτῷ. ἐπε- 
μελήθη δὲ οὕτω τῶν τόπων τούτων, ὥστε πέντε 
καὶ ἑβδομήκοντα φρούρια ἐν αὐτοῖς κατεσκευά- 
σατο, οἷσπερ τὴν πλείστην γάξαν ἐνεχείρισε. 
τούτων δ᾽ ἣν ἀξιολογώτατα ταῦτα: “Téapa καὶ 
Βασγοιδάριξα καὶ Σινορία, ἐπιπεφυκὸς τοῖς ὁρίοις 
τ μεγάλης ᾿Αρμευί ίας χωρίον, διόπερ Θεοφάνης 
Συνορίαν παρωνόμασεν. ἡ γὰρ τοῦ “Παρυάδρου 
πᾶσα ὀρεινὴ Towa ὕτας ἐπιτηδειότητας ἔ ἔχει πολλάς, 
εὔυδρός τε οὖσα καὶ ὑλώδης καὶ ἀποτόμοις φά- 
ραγξι καὶ κρημνοῖς διειλημμένη πολλαχόθεν' 
ἐτετείχιστο γοῦν ἐνταῦθα τὰ πλεῖστα τῶν γα- 
ζοφυλακίων, καὶ δὴ καὶ τὸ τελευταῖον εἰς ταύτας 
κατέφυγε τὰς ἐσχατιὰς τῆς ἸΠοντικῆς βασιλείας 
ὁ Μιθριδάτης, ἐπιόντος ἸΤομπηίου, καὶ τῆς ᾿Ακι- 
λισηνῆς κατὰ Δάστειρα εὔυδρον ὄρος καταλα- 
βόμενος (πλησίον δ᾽ ἣν καὶ ὁ ὐφράτης ὁ διορίζων 
τὴν ᾿Ακιλισηνὴν ἀπὸ τῆς μικρᾶς ᾿Δρμενίας) 
διέτριψε 3 τέως, ἕως πολιορκούμενος nva γκάσθη 
φυγεῖν διὰ τῶν ὀρῶν εἰς Κολχίδα, κἀκεῖθεν εἰς 
Βόσπορον. Πομπήιος δὲ περὶ τὸν τόπον τοῦτον 
πόχιν ἔκτισεν ἐν τῇ μικρᾷ ᾿Αρμενίᾳ Νικόπολιν, 
ἣ 3 καὶ νῦν συμμένει καὶ οἰκεῖται καλῶς. 

1 Ακιλισηνῆς xz, ᾿Αγγολισηνῆς other MSS. 
2 +e, before τέως, omitted by x; so Corais and Meineke, 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 28 

friendly to the other Armenians and at times minded 
their own affairs. They held as subjects the Chaldaei 
and the Tibareni, and therefore their empire ex- 
tended to Trapezus and Pharnacia. But when 
Mithridates Eupator had increased in power, he 
established himself as master, not only of Colchis, 
but also of all these places, these having been ceded 
to him by Antipater, the son of Sisis. And he cared 
so much for these places that he built seventy-five 
strongholds in them and therein deposited most of 
his treasures. The most notable of these strongholds 
were these: Hydara and Basgoedariza and Sinoria ; 
Sinoria was close to the borders of Greater Armenia, 
and this is why Theophanes changed its spelling to 
Synoria.! For as a whole the mountainous range οἵ 
the Paryadres has numerous suitable places for such 
strongholds, since it is well-watered and woody, and 
is in many places marked by sheer ravines and cliffs ; 
at any rate, it was here that most of his fortified 
treasuries were built; and at last, in fact, Mithridates 
fled for refuge into these farthermost parts of the 
kingdom of Pontus, when Pompey invaded the 
country, and having seized a well-watered mountain 
near Dasteira in Acilisené (near by, also, was the 
Euphrates, which separates Acilisené from Lesser 
Armenia), he stayed there until he was besieged and 
forced to flee across the mountains into Colchis and 
from there to the Bosporus. Near this place, in 
Lesser Armenia, Pompey built a city, Nicopolis,? 
which endures even to this day and is well peopled. 

1 ἐς Synoria”’ means ‘‘ border-land.” 
2 « Victory-city.” 

3 ἡ, Kramer inserts; so the later editors. 


C 556 


29. Τὴν μὲν οὖν μικρὰν ᾿Αρμενίαν ἄλλοτ᾽ ἄλλων 
ἐχόντων, ὡς ἐβούλοντο Ῥωμαῖοι, τὸ τελευταῖον 
εἶχεν ὁ ᾿Αρχέλαος. τοὺς δὲ _TiBapnvods Kat 
Χαλδαίους μέχρι Κολχίδος καὶ Φαρνακίας καὶ 
Τραπεζοῦντος ἔχει Πυθοδωρίς, γυνὴ “σώφρων καὶ 
δυνατὴ προΐστασθαι πραγμάτων. ἔστι δὲ θυγά- 
™p Πυθοδώρου τοῦ Τραλλιανοῦ, γυνὴ δ᾽ ἐγένετο 
Πολέμωνος καὶ συνεβασίλευσεν ἐκείνῳ χρόνον 
τινώ, εἶτα διεδέξατο τὴν ἀρχήν, τελευτήσαντος 
ἐν τοῖς ᾿Ασπουργιανοῖς καλουμένοις τῶν περὶ 
τὴν Σινδικὴν βαρβάρων: δυεῖν δ᾽ ἐκ τοῦ ἸΠολέ- 
μωνος ὄντων υἱῶν καὶ θυγατρός, ἡ μὲν ἐδόθη 
Κότυϊ τῷ Σαπαίῳ, “δολοφονηθέντος δὲ ἐχήρευσε, 
παῖδας ἔ ἔχουσα ἐξ αὐτοῦ: δυναστεύει δ᾽ ὁ πρεσβύ- 
τατος αὐτῶν: τῶν δὲ τῆς Πυθοδωρίδος υἱῶν ὁ μὲν 
ἰδιώτης συνδιῴκει τῇ μητρὶ τὴν ἀρχήν, ὁ δὲ 
νεωστὶ καθέσταται τῆς μεγάλης ᾿Αρμενίας 
βασιλεύς. αὐτὴ δὲ συνῴκησεν ᾿Αρχελάῳ καὶ 
συνέμεινεν ἐκείνῳ μέχρι τέλους, νῦν δὲ χηρεύει, 
τά τε λεχθέντα ἔχουσα χωρία καὶ ἄλλα ἐκείνων 
χαριέστερα, περὶ ὧν ἐφεξῆς ἐροῦμεν. 

30. Τῇ yap Φαρνακίᾳ συνεχής ἐστιν ἡ Σιδηνὴ 
καὶ ἡ Θεμίσκυρα. τούτων δ᾽ ἡ Φανάροια ὑπέρκει- 
ται, μέρος ἔχουσα τοῦ Πόντου τὸ κράτιστον" καὶ 
γὰρ ἐλαιόφυτός ἐστι καὶ εὔοινος καὶ τὰς ἄλλας 
ἔχει πάσας ἀρετάς. ἐκ μὲν τῶν ἑῴων μερῶν 

1 ᾿Ασπουργιανοῖς, Xylander, for ᾿Απουργιανοῖς; so the later 

2 καθέσταται, Corais, for καθίσταται ; so the later editors. 

1 Cf. 14. 1. 42. * King of Odrysae (Book VII, Frag. 47). 
3 In a.p. 19 by his uncle, Rhescuporis, king of the 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 29-30 

29. Now as for Lesser Armenia, it was ruled by 
different persons at different times, according to 
the will of the Romans, and finally by Archeliius. 
But the Tibareni and Chaldaei, extending as far 
as Colchis, and Pharnacia and Trapezus are ruled 
by Pythodoris, a woman who is wise and qualified 
to preside over affairs of state. She is the daughter 
of Pythodorus of Tralles. She became the wife of 
Polemon and reigned along with him for a time, 
and then, when he died! in the country of the 
Aspurgiani, as they are called, one of the barbarian 
tribes round Sindicé, she succeeded to the rulership. 
She had two sons and a daughter by Polemon. 
Her daughter was married to Cotys the Sapaean,? 
but he was treacherously slain,? and she lived in 
widowhood, because she had children by him; and 
the eldest of these is now in power.’ As for the sons 
of Pythodoris, one of them ® as a private citizen is 
assisting his mother in the administration of her 
empire, whereas the other® has recently been es- 
tablished as king of Greater Armenia, She herself 
married Archelaiis and remained with him to the 
end;7 but she is living in widowhood now, and is 
in possession not only of the places above mentioned, 
but also of others still more charming, which I shall 
describe next. 

30. Sidené and Themiscyra are contiguous to 
Pharnacia. And above these lies Phanaroea, which 
has the best portion of Pontus, for it is planted with 
olive trees, abounds in wine, and has all the other 
goodly attributes a country can have. On its eastern 

4 The king of Thrace. 5 Polemon II. 
ὁ Zenon. 7 He died in a.p. 17. 



προβεβλημένη τὸν Παρυάδρην, παράλληλον αὐτῇ 
κατὰ μῆκος, ἐκ δὲ τῶν πρὸς δύσιν τὸν Λίθρον 
καὶ τὸν "Οφλιμον. ἔστι δ᾽ αὐλὼν καὶ μῆκος 
ἔχων ἀξιόλογον καὶ πλάτος, διαρρεῖ δ᾽ αὐτὴν ἐκ 
μὲν τῆς ᾿Αρμενίας ὁ Λύκος, ἐκ δὲ τῶν περὶ 
᾿Αμάσειαν στενῶν ο Ἶρις" συμβάλλουσι δ᾽ ἀμφό- 
τεροι κατὰ μέσον που τὸν αὐλῶνα, ἐπὶ τῇ συμβολῇ 
δ᾽ ἵδρυται πόλις, ἣν ὁ μὲν πρῶτος ὑποβεβλημένος 
Εὐπατορίαν ἀφ᾽ αὑτοῦ προσηγόρευσε, Πομπήϊος 
δ᾽ ἡμιτελῆ καταλαβών, προσθεὶς χώραν, καὶ 
οἰκήτορας, Μαγνόπολιν προσεῖπεν. αὕτη μὲν οὖν 
ἐν μέσῳ κεῖται τῷ πεδίῳ, πρὸς αὐτῇ δὲ τῇ 
παρωρείᾳ τοῦ Παρυάδρου ἱζάβειρα ἵδρυται, στα- 
δίοις ἑκατὸν] καὶ πεντήκοντά που νοτιωτέρα τῆς 
Μαγνοπόλεως, ὅσον καὶ ᾿Αμάσεια δυσμικωτέρα 
αὐτῆς ἐστίν: ἐν δὲ τοῖς Καβείροις τὰ βασίλεια 
Μιθριδάτου κατεσκεύαστο καὶ ὁ ὑδραλέτης, καὶ 
τὰ ζωγρεῖα καὶ ai πλησίον θῆραι καὶ τὰ μέ- 

᾿Ενταῦθα δὲ καὶ τὸ ἹΚαινὸν χωρίον προσα- 
Pie Ye ἐρυμνὴ καὶ ἀπότομος πέτρα, διέχουσα 
τῶν Καβείρων ἔλαττον ἢ διακοσίους σταδίους" 
ἔχει δ᾽ ἐπὶ τ κορυφῇ πηγὴν ἀναβάλλουσαν πολὺ 
ὕδωρ, περὶ 5 τε τῇ ῥίζῃ ποταμὸν καὶ φάραγγα 
βαθεῖαν. τὸ δ᾽ ὕψος ἐξαίσιον τῆς πέτρας ἐστὶ 
ἄνω" τοῦ αὐχένος, ὥστ᾽ ἀπολιόρκητός ἐστι, 
τετείχισται δὲ θαυμαστῶς, πλὴν ὅσον οἱ Ῥωμαῖοι 
κατέσπασαν: οὕτω δ᾽ ἐστὶν ἅπασα ἡ κύκλῳ 

1 For ἑκατόν (p’), C. ΜΆ] (Ind. Var. Lect., p. 1021) conj. 
σ΄ (200). 

2 περί, Meineke emends to πρός. 

3 ἄνω, Jones inserts, from proposals of Groskurd. 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 30-31 

side it is protected by the Paryadres Mountain, in 
its length lying parallel to that mountain; and on 
its western side by the Lithrus and Ophlimus 
Mountains. It forms a valley of considerable breadth 
as well as length; and it is traversed by the Lycus 
River, which flows from Armenia, and by the Iris, 
which flows from the narrow passes near Amaseia. 
The two rivers meet at about the middle of the 
valley; and at their junction is situated a city which 
the first man who subjugated it! called Eupatoria 
after his own name, but Pompey found it only half- 
finished and added to it territory and settlers, and 
called it Magnopolis. Now this city is situated in 
the middle of the plain, but Cabeira is situated close 
to the very foothills of the Paryadres Mountains 
about one hundred and fifty stadia farther south 
than Magnopolis, the same distance that Amaseia 
is farther west than Magnopolis. It was at Cabeira 
that the palace of Mithridates was built, and also 
the water-mill; and here were the zoological gardens, 
and, near by, the hunting grounds, and the mines. 
31. Here, also, is Kainon Chorion,? as it is called, 
a rock that is sheer and fortified by nature, being 
less than two hundred stadia distant from Cabeira. 
It has on its summit a spring that sends forth much 
water, and at its foot a river and a deep ravine. 
The height of the rock above the neck 9. is immense, 
so that it is impregnable; and it is enclosed by 
remarkable walls, except the part where they have 
been pulled down by the Romans. And the whole 
country around is so overgrown with forests, and so 

1 i.e. Mithridates Eupator. 2 ““New Place.” 
3 i.e. the ‘‘neck,” or ridge, which forms the approach to 
rock (ep. the use of the word in § 39 following). 



κατάδρυμος καὶ ὀρεινὴ καὶ ἄνυδρος, ὥστ᾽ ἐντὸς 
ἑκατὸν καὶ εἴκοσι σταδίων μὴ εἶναι δυνατὸν στρα- 
τοπεδεύσασθαι. ἐνταῦθα μὲν ἣν τῷ Μιθριδάτῃ 
τὰ τιμιώτατα τῶν κειμηλίων, ἃ νῦν ἐν τῷ Καπι- 
τωλίῳ κεῖται, Πομπηίου ἀναθέντος. ταύτην δὴ 
τὴν χώραν ἔχει πᾶσαν ἡ Πυθοδωρίς, προσεχῆ 
οὖσαν τῇ βαρβάρῳ τῇ ὑπ᾿ αὐτῆς κατεχομένῃ, 
καὶ τὴν Ζηλῖτιν καὶ Μεγαλοπολῖτιν. τὰ δὲ 
Κάβειρα, Πομπηίου σκευάσαντος εἰς πόλιν καὶ 
καλέσαντος Διόσπολιν,Ϊ ἐκείνη προσκατεσκεύασε 
καὶ Σεβαστὴν μετωνόμασε, βασιλείῳ τε τῇ πόλει 
χρῆται. ἔχει δὲ καὶ τὸ ἱερὸν Μηνὸς Φαρνάκου 
καλούμενον, τὴν ᾿Αμερίαν κωμόπολιν πολλοὺς 
iepodovnous | ἔχουσαν καὶ χώραν ἱεράν, ἣν ὁ 
ἱερώμενος ἀεὶ καρποῦται. ἐτίμησαν δ᾽ οἱ βασιλεῖς 
τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦτο οὕτως εἰς ὑπερβολήν, ὥστε τὸν 
βασιλικὸν καλούμενον ὅρκον τοῦτον 3 ἀπέφηναν 
Τύχην βασιλέως καὶ Miva Φαρνάκου' ἔστι δὲ 
καὶ τοῦτο τῆς Σελήνης τὸ ἱερόν, καθάπερ τὸ ἐν 
᾿Αλβανοῖς καὶ τὰ ἐν Φρυγίᾳ, τό τε τοῦ Μηνὸς 
ἐν τῷ ὁμωνύμῳ τόπῳ καὶ τὸ τοῦ ᾿Ασκαίου τὸ 

1 Διόσπολιν i, Διόπολιν other MSS. 
2 γχ and Corais insert καί before τὴν ᾿Αμερίαν. 
3 © and Corais read roito instead of τοῦτον. 

1 «* City of Zeus.” 2 In Latin, ““ Augusta.” 

3 2,6. established by Pharnaces. 

4 Professor David M. Robinson says (in a private com- 
munication): “1 think that Μὴν Φαρνάκου equals Τύχη 
βασιλέως, since Μήν equals Τύχη on coins of Antioch.” 

* Goddess of the ‘‘ Moon.” 6 See 11.4. 7 and 12. 8. 20. 

7 Sir William Ramsay (Journal of Hellenic Studies 1918, 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 31 

mountainous and waterless, that it is impossible for 
an enemy to encamp within one hundred and twenty 
stadia. Here it was that the most precious of the 
treasures of Mithridates were kept, which are now 
stored in the Capitolium, where they were dedicated 
by Pompey. Pythodoris possesses the whole of this 
country, which is adjacent to the barbarian country 
occupied by her, and also Zelitis and Megalopolitis. 
As for Cabeira, which by Pompey had been built 
into a city and called Diospolis,! Pythodoris further 
adorned it and changed its name to Sebasté ;? and 
she uses the city as a royal residence. It has also 
the temple of Mén of Pharnaces,? as it is called,— 
the village-city Ameria, which has many temple- 
servants, and also a sacred territory, the fruit of 
which is always reaped by the ordained priest. And 
the kings revered this temple so exceedingly that 
they proclaimed the “royal” oath as follows: “ By 
the Fortune of the king and by Mén of Pharnaces.”’ 4 
And this is also the temple of Selené,® like that 
among the Albanians and those in Phrygia,® 1 mean 
that of Mén in the place of the same name and that 
of Mén? Ascaeus® near the Antiocheia that is near 

vol. 38, pp. 148 ff.) argues that ‘‘Mén” is a grecized form 
for the Anatolian ‘‘ Manes,” the native god of the land of 
Ouramma; and ‘‘Manes Ourammoas was Hellenized as 
Zeus Ouruda-menos or Euruda-menos.” See also M. 
Rostovtzetf, Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, 
p- 238, and Daremberg et Saglio, Dict. Antiq., s.v. ‘‘ Lunus.” 

8 **Ascaénus” (Ασκαηνός) is the regular spelling of the 
word, the spelling found in hundreds of inscriptions, whereas 
Ascaeus (’Acxaios) has been found in only two inscriptions, 
according to Professor David M. Robinson. On this temple, 
see Sir W. M. Ramsay’s ‘‘ Excavations at Pisidian Antioch 
in 1912,” The Athenaeum, London, March 8, Aug. 31, and 
Sept. 7, 1913. 



πρὸς ᾿Αντιοχείᾳ τῇ πρὸς ἸΠισιδίᾳ καὶ τὸ ἐν τῇ 
χώρᾳ τῶν ᾿Αντιοχέων. 

32. Ὑπὲρ δὲ τῆς Φαναροίας ἐστὶ τὰ Κόμανα 
τὰ ἐν τῷ Πόντῳ, ὁμώνυμα τοῖς ἐν τῇ μεγάλῃ 
Καππαδοκίᾳ καὶ τῇ αὐτῇ θεῷ καθιερωμένα, ἀφι- 
δρυθέντα ἐκεῖθεν, σχεδὸν δέ τι καὶ τῇ ἀγωγῇ 
παραπλησίᾳ κεχρημένα τῶν ve "ἱερουργιῶν καὶ 
τῶν θεοφοριῶν καὶ τῆς περὶ τοὺς ἱερέας τιμῆς, καὶ 
μάλιστα ἐπὶ τῶν “πρὸ τοῦ βασιλέων' ἡνίκα dis 
τοῦ ἔτους κατὰ τὰς ἐξόδους λεγομένας τῆς θεοῦ 
διάδημα φορῶν ἐτύγχανεν ὁ ἱερεύς, καὶ ἣν δεύτερος 
κατὰ τιμὴν μετὰ τὸν βασιλέα. 

99. ᾿Βμνήσθημεν δὲ πρότερον Δορυλάου : τε τοῦ 
τακτικοῦ, ὃς ἣν πρόπαππος τῆς μητρὸς ἡμῶν, καὶ 
ἄλλου Δορυλάου, ὃς ἣν ἐκείνου ἀδελφιδοῦς, υἱὸς 
δὲ Φιλεταίρου, καὶ διότι ἐκεῖνος τῶν ἄλλων τιμῶν 
παρὰ τοῦ Εὐπάτορος τῶν μεγίστων τυχὼν 
καὶ δὴ καὶ τῆς ἐν Κομάνοις ἱερωσύνης ἐφω- 
ράθη τὴν βασιλείαν ἀφιστὰς “Ῥωμαίοις: κατα- 
λυθέντος δ᾽ ἐκείνου, συνδιεβχήθη καὶ τὸ γένος. 
ὀψὲ δὲ Μοαφέρνης, ὁ θεῖος τῆς μητρὸς ἡμῶν, εἰς 
ἐπιφάνειαν ἦλθεν ἤδη πρὸς καταλύσει τῆς βασι- 

1 Πισιδίᾳ (as in 12. 8. 14) ὦ, instead of Πισιδίαν ; so Corais 
z τ 3 
and Meineke. 


* re after τά, omitted by x and later editors. 

1 Note that Strabo, both here and in 12. 8. 14, refers to 
this Antioch as ‘‘the Antioch near Pisidia,’ not as 
‘*Pisidian Antioch,” the appellation now in common use. 
Neither does Artemidorus (lived about 100 B.c.), as quoted 
by Strabo (12. 7. 2), name Antioch in his list of Pisidian 

2 2,6. in the territory of which Antiocheia was capital. 
At this ‘‘remote old Anatolian Sanctuary” (not to be con- 


GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 31-33 

Pisidia! and that of Mén in the country of the 

32. Above Phanaroea is the Pontic Comana, which 
bears the same name as the city in Greater Cappa- 
docia, having been consecrated to the same goddess 
and copied after that city; and I might almost say 
that the courses which they have followed in their 
sacrifices, in their divine obsessions, and in their 
reverence for their priests, are about the same, and 
particularly in the times of the kings who reigned 
before this, I mean in the times when twice a year, 
during the “ exoduses”’ 3 of the goddess, as they are 
called, the priest wore a diadem 4 and ranked second 
in honour after the king. 

33. Heretofore® I have mentioned Dorylatis the 
tactician, who was my mother’s great grandfather, 
and also a second Dorylaiis, who was the nephew of 
the former and the son of Philetaerus, saying that, 
although he had received all the greatest honours 
from Eupator and in particular the priesthood of 
Comana, he was caught trying to cause the kingdom 
to revolt to the Romans; and when he was over- 
thrown, the family was cast into disrepute along 
with him. But long afterwards Moaphernes, my 
mother’s uncle, came into distinction just before 

fused with that of Mén Ascaeus near Antiocheia), ‘‘ Strabo 
does not say what epithet Mén bore” (Ramsay in first 
article above cited). That of Mén Ascaeus on Mt. Kara 
Kuyu has been excavated by Ramsay and Calder (J. 7.8. 
1912, pp. 111-150, British School Annual 1911-12, XVIII, 
37 ff., J.R.S. 1918, pp. 107-145). The other, not yet 
found, ‘‘may have been,” according to Professor Robinson, 
“at Saghir.” 

5.2 e. ‘*solemn processions.” 

‘ As a symbol of regal dignity. 510 4. 10; 

C 558 


λείας, καὶ πάλιν τῷ βασιλεῖ συνητύχησαν καὶ 
αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ ἐκείνου φίλοι, πλὴν εἴ τινες ἔφθησαν 
προαποστάντες αὐτοῦ, καθάπερ ὁ ὁ πάππος ἡμῶν 0 
πρὸς 1 αὐτῆς, ὃς ἰδὼν τὰ τοῦ βασιλέως κακῶς 
φερόμενα ἐν τῷ πρὸς Λεύκολλον πολέμῳ, καὶ ἅμα 
ἠλλοτριωμένος αὐτοῦ δι’ ὀργήν, ὅτι ἀνεψιὸν 
αὐτοῦ Τίβιον καὶ υἱὸν ἐκείνου Θεύφιλον ἐτύγχα.- 
νεν ἀπεκτονὼς νεωστί, ὥρμησε σπιμωρεῖν ἐκείνοις 
τε καὶ ἑαυτῷ, καὶ λαβὼν παρὰ τοῦ Λευκόλλου 
πίστεις ἀφίστησιν αὐτῷ πεντεκαίδεκα φρούρια, 
καὶ ἐπαγγελίαι μὲν ἐγένοντο ἀντὶ τούτων μεγάλαι, 
ἐπελθὼν δὲ Πομπήιος ὁ ὁ διαδεξάμενος τὸν πόλεμον 
πάντας τοὺς ἐκείνῳ τι χαρισαμένους ἐχθροὺς 
ὑπέλαβε διὰ τὴν γενομένην αὐτῷ “πρὸς ἐκεῖνον 
ἀπέχθειαν, διαπολεμήσας δὲ καὶ ἐπανελθὼν 
οἴκαδε ἐξενίκησεν, ὥστε τὰς τιμάς, ἃς ὑπέσχετο ὁ 
Λεύκολλος τῶν Ποντικῶν τισί, μὴ κυρῶσαι τὴν 
σύγκλητον: ἄδικον γὰρ εἶναι, κατορθώσαντος 
ἑτέρου τὸν πόλεμον, τὰ βραβεῖα ἐπ᾽ ἄλλῳ γενέσθαι 
καὶ τὴν τῶν ἀριστείων διανομήν. 

94. "Emi μὲν οὖν τῶν βασιλέων " οὕτω τὰ Kopava 
διφκεῖτο, ὡς εἴρηται, παραλαβὼν δὲ Hopmyeos 
τὴν ἐξουσίαν ᾿Αρχέλαον ἐπέστησεν ἱερέα καὶ 
προσώρισεν αὐτῷ χώραν δίσχοινον